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JANUARY 1992 



COMPUTER FLEA MARKETS 
•TIPS FOR BARGAIN HUNTERS 



NORTON DESKTOP 
SONY LASER UBRARY 




'71A66''02,7J' 




Food for the senses 
at a price that makes sense: 

$749* 

Introducing CD Gallery: The Interactive CD-ROM System from NEC. 

Is this the offer you've been hungr>' for? Cash in big on the sensational world of CD-ROM with seven exciting software titles for the 
IBM PC and 100% compatibles, with all the necessan' hardware including the amazing NEC CDR-36 CD-ROM reader, KOSS" 
SA/30 amplified stereo speakers and even stereo headphones, all for just $749f There's also a CD Galierv' version available for the 
Macintosh at just S699fOr, if you want to upgrade to the NEC CDR-73, one of the fastest readers on the market, it's just $1,050* for 
the IBM XT/ AT. And it's all incredibly easy to set up and use. But don't chew on this offer too long because supplies are limited. 
Call 1-800-NEC-INFO for the nearest authorized NEC dealer to find out where you can pick up the ultimate feast for your mind. 




CsC 



Because 'W is the way you want to go. 



Compute/3 and Communications 



NEC 



Circle Reader Service Mumber 133 




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VOLUME 14, NO. 1. ISSUE 137 



JANUARY 1992 



6 

EDITORIAL LICENSE 

By Clifton Karnes 

What's the home 

computer market like 

today, and 

what will it look like 

tomorrow? 

8 

NEWS & NOTES 

Sierra refurbishing its 

classics, 
softening laser printers' 

impact on the 
environment, and more. 

12 

FEEDBACK 

Learn the subtleties 
of program in- 
stallation, publish from your 
desktop, count 
scientifically in Latin, 
and more. 

16 

READERSHIP SURVEY 

Tell us about 

yourself and what you 

like and 

don't like about COMPUTE. 

18 

SHAREPAK 

By Richard C. Leinecker 
January offers a 

mix of programs sure to 
delight everyone. 

20 

THE COMPUTE CHOICE AWARDS 

What were the best 

software and hardware 

products of 1991? 

Find out what the winners 

are in this issue. 

And the envelope please . . . 



X 






^^^ 



J\ 




Peie Turner's dynamic cover photo shouts Happy New Year and 

Congratulations to all the COMPUTE Choice 

award winners. Featured is a Tandy MFC. the multimedia machine 

that's this year's winner for best personal computer. 



36 

TEST LAB: HAND-HELD 
SCANNERS 

We hit the pages 
running with ten hand- 
held scanners that 
bring a world of images 
to your desktop. 



58 

DISK UPDATE 

By Richard C. Leinecker 

With COMPUTE/NET, 
it's easier than ever to get 

technical help on 

GEnie, America Online, and, 

soon, CompuServe. 



60 

PROGRAMMING POWER 

By Tom Campbell 

Before you 

start programming in 

Windows, take 

a deep breath and get 

yourself ready. 

62 

TIPS & TOOLS 

Access a tool 

chest of tiny ML programs, 

take the delay 

out of formatting disks, 

and more. 

66 

INTRODOS 

By Tony Roberts 

Using a few 

file-naming tricks, 

you can create 

a simple file-retrieval 

system, 

68 

HARDWARE CLINIC 

By Mark Minasi 
Now that laser printers 

are affordable, 
it's time to learn what 

can go wrong. 

72 

COMPUTE/NET 

By Richard C, Leinecker 
A game and two utilities 

that are 
absolutely free to you. 

74 

POINT & CLICK 

By Clifton Karnes 

Give Wir7dows a 

drag-and-drop facelift 

with Norton's 

new Desktop for Windows. 



COMPUTE [iSSN 0I94.357XJ is publlsheO monlhly in Ihe Untied Slates and Canada by COMPUTE Publications Iniemational Lid 1965 
Bradway, New York, NY 10023-5965 Volume 1^, Number 1. Issue 137 Copyrighi f 1991 by COMPUTE Publicaiions Internalional Lid 
AH rights reserved. Tel, (212) 496-6100 COMPUTE is a regisiered tfademark of COMPUTE Publications Internalional Ltd Printed in tne 
USA and distributed worldwide by Curtis Circulation Company PO Box 9102, Pennsauken, NJ 08ID9 Second-class poslaqe paid at New 
York, MY. and at additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes lo COMPUTE Magajine, P.O Box 3245 Harlan lA 
51537.3041. lel (800) 727-6937 Entire conleois t;onyrigtiied All rights rese'veci r^othing .t.-,, i . • : ■ ^ ,zed m whole or m part wittioul 
wrilien permission frmi Iris publ.sher Subscriptions- US, AFO - S19.9J one year: Canada ard cI.-j.m «:. -S25 94 one year angle copies 
iui 95 in Ub Ihe publisher disclaims all responsibility lo return unsolicited matter, and all ngnis in portions publisiied thereo' remain the 
sole property of COMPUTE Publications International Ltd Letters sent to COMPUTE or its editors become the property ol the magazine 
Editor al offices are located al 324 w Wendover Ave. Ste 200, Greensboro, NC 27406 Tel (9191 275-9809 



CO,MPUTE JANUARY 1992 



'}J0^l^-^ 



You must have heard how SOUND BLASTER 
took the PC market by storm... 



Now the HURRICANE... 









"It's the next-generation sound card 
and it is loaded! The operative word is 
•twice." it has twice the sound 
channels (22) of the original Sound 
Blaster with twice the quality of sound 
in stereo, as well as stereo DACs for 
digitized speech and sound effects." 

Computer Gaming World 

August 1991 



[ SlBreoyMusicA/Dics.''Spt}ecn^MIQUfiffiyMiB|^^flCe/G^rne Port | 

Th-: MiiiinirtiM Sound Standard 



^rmMnMIMmP!^' 




"With its associated software, it has 
quietly (no pun intended, but what the 
heck) become the standard sound system 
for advanced PCs." 
Jerry Pournelle, BYTE June 1991 



COMPUTE August 1991 

" ...Creative Labs is now turning 
up the volume with the Sound Blaster 
Pro. It's basically two Sound Blaslefs 
on a single card with additional 
multimedia features thrown in. It has 
twin FM chips capable of creating 22 
individuai voices, two DACs for stereo 
voice and sound-effects playback, a 
stereo microphone jack, and a built-in 
stereo mixer that can adjust the 
volume of all your Sound Blaster audio 
sources (stereo DAC, stereo FM, 
microphone, stereo line-in, CD-Audio 
and PC internal speaker). 

The built-in mixer makes the 
Spund Blaster Pro fully compliant with 
Microsoft's Multimedia Level 1 
Extension? to Windows . Multimedia 
software will be able to fade-in, fade- 
out and pan the various audio sources 
to create elaborate sound montages. 

The Sound Biaster Pro includes 
a CD- ROM interface for either an 
internal orexternal CD-ROM player. 
There's also an internal connector for 
CD- Audio. The MIDI interface is 
compatible with the original Sound 
Blaster's MIDI interface but adds the 
MIDI lime-slamp that's pari of 
Microsoft's new multimedia standard. 

All in all, the Sound Blaster Pro 
is f^hnnk-full of new features, vet it's 
fyjly compatible with its younger 
brother." 

Reprinted b^ pemission ol COMPUTE ©1891 . 
COMPUTE Publicalions Inlernalional Lid 



MicroMll and Windows a»e (egislered traOemaths o( Microsoh 
Cofp and Ad Lib is a regJsteced irademark ol Ad Lib Inc. 
Sound Blaster is a lrad< 



At a devastating price of $299.95 
and you get a "chock-full of features": 

* Stereo DAC for digitized sound output 

* Stereo voice recording from mic, CD or Line-in 

* Sampling rate 4KHz to 44KHZ 

* Stereo 22-voice FM music synthesizer 

* Stereo mixer with dig ilal volume controls 

* MIDI interface with adaptor and cables 

* Built-in CO-ROM interface 

* Joystick Port 

* MicrophoneAGCamplifier ^ ^^ 

* Power amplifier (4W per channel) f JSk 
and loads of FREE bundled software: ;l|| 

* MIDI Sequencer I ^^ 

* Pro-Intelligent Organ 

* VEDIT2 - Voice Editor & Utilities 
" SBTALKER-texl-to-speech 

synthesizer with OR SBAITS02 

* Talking Parrot - voice in/out 
application. 

* fiAMPLAY Multimedia Presentation 

* CD music player 

* Windows 3.0 DLL and 
sound applications 




6c.S^i-.v^ 


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StUlili 


^^^....-.,-j 



"The big question is, at a list price of 
$249.95, is the Sound Blaster worth the 
investment? Yes, yes, a thousand times 
yes!!!" PC HOME JOURNAL 

How many "yesi!!" would you give now 
that the Sound Blaster list price is reduced 
to $169.95! And you get: 
' DAC for digitized voice output 
' ADC for voice recording 

* 1 1 -voice Ad Lib FM synthesizer 
' Fullduptex MIDI interface 

* Joystick Port 

' Microphone amplifier 

* Power amplifier (4W per channel) 

" Bundled software: • Intelligent Organ 

• Talking Parrot • Voice Toolkit 

• SBTALKER ■ DR SBAITSO 

• Jukebox for Windows 3.0 

Sound Blaster Micro Channel Version 
is also available. 



North America master distributor: 
Brown-Wagh Publishing 

130D Knowles Drive Los Gatos CA 95030 
For your nearest dealer, call 1-800-451 0900 

Tel (408) 378 3838 Fax (408) 378 3577 



LlCREflTIVE LflBS, INC.K 



2050 Duane Avenue Santa Clara CA 95054 , 
Tel (408) 986 1 461 Fax (408) 986 1 777 

Outside North America, contact: 



ICREfrnVE TECHNOLOGY PTE. LTD. 



75 Ayer Rajah Crescent #02-04 Singapore 051 3 
Tel (65) 773 0233 ' Fax (65) 773 0353 



Laraest support Of Multimedia. Music, Education, Entertainment & Productivity software under DOS and Windows 3.0. 

" ^'"^ .--^ ■-.—,._-.- — circle Reader Seivlw Number 125 



r'-l'^-.-j^ir 



connpuTE 



76 

SONY LASER LIBRARY 

By Peter Scisco 

All you need to enter 

the world of 

CD-ROM from your PC 

78 

WORKPLACE 

By Daniel Janal 

Find out how one manager 

reaches out 

to touch home base. 



COMPUTER FLEA MARKETS 

By Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols 
Finding the best bargains 

means you have 
to look in the right places. 

84 

ARTS & LETTERS 

By Robert Bixby 
Is the computer a creative 

artist or 
simply a clever artifact? 

86 

SID MEIER'S CIVILIZATION 

By Keith Ferrell 

Find out 

what it takes to create, 

rule, and 
manage a civilization. 

88 

PATHWAYS 

By Steven Anzovin 

Using fractals, 

we can re-create natural 

scenes and explore 
unknown landscapes, but 

we can also 
compress images m a way 

that actually 

adds detail to the original 

artwork. 




144 

CONVERSATIONS 

By Darren P. IVlckeeman 

The human side 
of the Strategic Defense 

spy buster. 
What did it take to crack 

the German spy 
ring? Clifford Stoll tells all. 



90 

MULTIMEDIA PC 

By David English 

Something unusual 

was born in the Hall of 

Meteorites 

on October 8, 1991. 

93 

WORLD OF ELECTRONIC 
GAMES 

Games Gone Global, 
Principles of Good Game 

Design, Computer 

Game Etiiics. The Ultimate 

Game Machine 

110 

GAMEPLAY 

By Howard Millman 
What are the psychological 

payoffs for playing 
computer games, and what 

are the drawbacks? 

113 

REVIEWS 

We check out The 

Terminator, 

the hard-hitting game from 

Bethesda Softworks, 

as well as an inexpensive 

notebook computer, 

Leading Technology's 

9800NB. We also 
look at today's leading 

computer software 

and hardware, including 

FastLynx LapPack, 

Teenage Mutant Ninja 

Turtles World 
Tour — Electric Crayon 

Deluxe. NEC 

Graphics CDs, Mace 

Express Recovery, 

ThunderStrike. Flow 

Charting 3, 

and Dvorak on Typing. 



COMPUTE GOES ONLINE 

Join COMPUTE'S editors 

and contributors 

on America Online or GEnie. 

Get wired with 

our expert online guide 

following page 72. 



COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 




Bhistmion creawd woh Mlmninlix Dcsgncr'", and piiincdby ihe Cilizai CSX-I* PLUS jitmler mtiIi optioniJ Color On Comimtid 



The GSX-140 PLUS. 
NOT All Dot Matrix printers Are For The Birds. 



Creating color this brilliant tvill ruffle the feathers of most 
printers. It demands 360x360 dot-per-inch resolution. Plus 
the ability to control both color density and saturation. 
Now you can have both. Affordably. Even when running 
Microsoft'" Windows'". Alt you need is Citizen's new 24- 
wire GSX-140 PLUS printer and its exclusive, user- 
installed option. Color on Command"". With vivid bursts of 
color, your spreadsheets can be easier to read, your 
graphics easier to understand, and your presen 
tations all the more brilliant. 

The GSX-140 PLUS is fully compatible 
with software applications run by MS-DOS'^. 
Available at no extra cost, a special printer L 
driver assures optimum performance with 





Windows. Using the latest color saturation control technology, 
the GSX-140 PLUS prints true, bright, accurate WYSIWYG 
colors at high resolutions. 

Whether printing in monochrome or color, the GSX-140 
PLUS is easy to use, too, thanks to Citizen's Command-Yue"' 
control panel with plain English prompts. A quick menu 
offers instant access to the printer settings you change most 
often. And it even remembers your four favorite appli- 
cations, setting them up the way you want whenever 
you use them. 

So take a look at Citizen's GSX-140 PLUS 
today. For the name of your nearest dealer, 
call 1-800-4-PlUNTERS. 




a CITIZEN" 



© 1991 CillimAmBiaConx»-Jlkm.Gt«tn.CijtoOTCommMCotnmandA\ltandlhcCiQ2e^ Li|iiiaa-irillc-nuiiuof llKCittien«'jKll&> UJ. 
Microsofl anJ « indiAl^ aiE mdi-martu of Miin«ofT 0«TXjratlnn Mi.™p^f« u J n-jaMnrd iredtraui. and MicroRrjlii O^sna is. 1 tradww* of Mirnigtafx. Inf. 

Circle Reader Service Number 166 



EDITORIAL LICENSE 



Clifton Karnes 



A look at this 

year's COMPUTE 

CliQices will 

convince you that 

home computer 

users are a varied and 

exciting group. 



At COMDEX/Fall, held this 
past October in Las Ve- 
, gas, Nevada, printer man- 
i ufacturer Star Micron- 
ics hosted a breakfast press 
conference to present the re- 
suits of a Galiup survey it had 
commissioned on the home 
computer marl<et. 

Some of the results were 
startling, some were what we 
expected to hear, but all point- 
ed to a growing, healthy 
home computer market. Here 
are some highlights. 




According to the survey, 
about 25 percent of all Ameri- 
can households have home 
computers. That's no sur- 
prise. The news is that 23 per- 
cent of all households plan to 
buy a computer in the next 
two years, That's 21 million 
households. 

Of this 21 million, roughly 
one-quarter are upgrading; 
the majority, however, are first- 
time buyers. This means that 
the installed base of home 
computers is going to nearly 
doutsle in the next two years. 

Why are all these Ameri- 
cans buying PCs? The three 
E's: earnings, entertainment, 
and education. 

Of those planning to buy a 
machine, nearly half say 



they're going to use their new 
computer to earn money. 
This was a surprise, as was 
the fact that nearly a third of 
all home machines are current- 
ly being used to earn income. 
A large number — 76 per- 
cent — say they want to use 
their PCs to bring work 
home. More than half of this 
group think that the comput- 
er will increase their chance 
of a promotion (or increase 
their chance of keeping their 
present job if their company 
downsizes). 

About 80 per- 
cent of those plan- 
ning to buy a PC 
say they're inter- 
ested in the ma- 
chines as educa- 
tional toois— both 
for their children 
and themselves. 

Of those plan- 
ning to buy for 
the first time, 59 
percent state that 
they want a com- 
puter to play 
games. For those 
upgrading, this 
number is slightly 
higher — about 62 
percent. 

Obviously, 
there's a lot of overlap in 
these figures. It's clear that 
most people planning to buy 
a PC are interested in all 
three areas — home office, ed- 
ucation, and entertainment. 

What does all this boil 
down to? In short, a phenom- 
enal growth in home comput- 
ing that's being fueled by a 
combination of interests in 
home office, education, and 
entertainment. 

At COMPUTE, we have 
more than a passing interest in 
the home computer market. 
For 13 years, it's been our man- 
date as a magazine to serve 
this exciting and constantly 
evolving group. We're dedicat- 
ed to the home computer as a 
tool for the entire family. 



COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



And as Star's Gallup sur- 
vey shows, the home market 
is anything but one-dimension- 
al. In fact, home users place 
demands on their machines 
that far exceed the responsi- 
bilities given to the home PC's 
corporate cousins. 

Nothing demonstrates this 
multifaceted nature of home 
computing or shows the 
range of COMPUTE's cover- 
age better than our annual 
COMPUTE Choice Awards, 
where we choose the best soft- 
ware and hardware products 
for the year. 

In this issue, you'll find our 
choices of the best products 
for 1991 in the categories of 
home office, entertainment, dis- 
covery (education), and tech- 
nology. 

A look at this year's Choic- 
es will convince you that 
home computer users are a 
varied and exciting group. 
The awards show that home 
users are interested in every- 
thing from the best operating 
systems to the tops in educa- 
tion for their children, from the 
most demanding fantasy/role- 
playing game to the best utili- 
ty, from the hottest arcade ac- 
tion to the most feature-rich 
programming language. 

Star's Gallup survey and 
our own COMPUTE Choice 
awards give a clear idea of 
home computer users in 
broad strokes, but we're inter- 
ested in our readers as individ- 
uals, too. That's why, every 
few months, we inciude a read- 
ership survey in our pages. In 
this issue, you'll find such a 
survey, and we hope you'll 
take the time to fill it out. This 
survey will provide us with spe- 
cific information about you, 
your equipment, what you 
like about COMPUTE, and 
what you'd like to see 
changed. We use the results 
from these surveys to fine- 
tune COMPUTE so it's the 
magazine you want. Talk to 
us. We're listening. 3 



Before GeoWorks Writer. 





After GeoWorks Writer. 



^w 



II. 




1 can't believe how easy it was 
to create a newsletter tluit looks this good. 
E\eii printed it on my doggy old dot matrbi 
primer no less! You see, before GeoWorks 
Writer'" my documents were weak. Ikit 
now it's a new me. I'm pumped up! My 

iiuiiiiiitiiMtiiiiiiiri 



^^"^r 




Writer 



documents are daz/ling! And 1 did it all 
myself in a few minutes on my first day with 
GeoWorks Writer 

Hard to heiie^e? Well, GeoVi'orks Writer 
is tlie complete word processor that comes 
witli o\'er ^S lemplales for everytliing from 
business forms to resumes to neusletlers. 
Just customize one of lliem ior your busi- 
ness, that's all / did. I dropped in the 
words, and bingo. Beaulifui. It was even 
WYSIWYG so there w;ls no time•^^asting 
surprises. What I saw on my screen was 
what came out in laser-qualitv; on my 
little primer. 

Yup. GeoWorks Writer has cventhing I 
ueeti to look great including desktop i)ub- 



lisliing features like nuilli-column layouts, 
easy importing of gra])hics (it comes with 
clip art!) . . .even its own award-winning 
graphical environment* that makes using 
it as easy as clicking a nionse. .\nd if you 
think it's amazing alone, just wait until you 
see it working with the rest of the Personal 
Office Series team. 

So if you're tired of wimpy writing, make 
a change. Go for GeoWorks.'" If il can make 
me look this good, imagine what it can do 
for you." 

See Your Dealer Or Order Now, 
30-t)ay Mone\'-Back Guarantee! 

1-800-772-0001 Ext. lOW 

i-Hsm-m-i2.il lixi^ iiiwiii Oiiiiiiiii 



*PC Computing's Most N'aliiable Produci. InfoWorld's Product Of The Year, Compute's Editor's Choice, Soft\\are Piiblis]ier's,\.s.sociation: Critics Choice; 
Best Creativity/Produciiviiy: Best Consumer Produci; Best New Use of a Computer, PC Magazine Technical Excellence Award Finalisl. 

^GEOWOKKS Berkelm. CA «eo\(brks. IVrM.iial Offia' .Scriw and (,m1,i<tks DrsiiimT .m- tnulciiiiirks i>f (it..4iirks- Inc. t mi 

CIrcl* Reader Service Number 15S 



NEWS & NOTES 



Space Quest I fans 

can expect 

lifelike characters, 

stereo sound, 

and some spacey new 

twists In 

the classic game's 

redesign. 



Redesigning the Classics 

Some of Sierra On-Line's clas- 
sic role-playing games are 
getting dramatic facelifts. The 
"new" classics feature the 
same characters and stories, 
but animation, background, 
musical scores, and sound ef- 
fects have been greatly en- 
hanced to take full advantage 
of high-resolution VGA color, 
stereo sound capabilities, 
and Sierra's new point-and- 
click interface, which means 
no more type-in commands 
and lots of character action. 
Space Quest I now joins 
King's Quest I. Mixed-Up Motli- 
er Goose, and Leisure Suit Lar- 




8 COMPUTE JAhJUARY 1992 



fyand becomes the newest Si- 
erra original to be released in 
VGA. The game has been re- 
designed to emulate a 1950s 
sci-fi flick — campy space crea- 
tures and all — without chang- 
ing the story's essence. 

However, along with the ar- 
rival of a new-and-improved life- 
like Roger Wilco, a dynamic 
soundtrack based on the origi- 
nal Space Quest theme, and 
dramatic new background illus- 
trations, Sierra warns experi- 
enced players who tfiink they 
know the game that creators 



Scott Murphy and f\/lark Crowe 
have whipped up some brand 
new space magic. 

Space Quest I VGA is avail- 
able now for a suggested re- 
tail price of $59.95. Look for 
VGA versions of Police Quest 
I and Quest for Glory I to 
come soon. For more informa- 
tion, contact Sierra On-Line, 
RO, Box 485, Coarsegold, Cal- 
ifornia 93614; (209) 683-4468. 

JILL CHAMPION 

Politically Correct 
Laser Printing 

If you work for a politically cor- 
rect, environmentally aware 
"green" office, you've already 
begun recycling alu- 
minum soft drink 
cans and used pa- 
per, and you've 
stopped using Styro- 
foam coffee cups. 

You can help re- 
duce the load on 
overflowing landfills 
even more by recy- 
cling the toner car- 
tridges used in la- 
ser printers, thanks 
to a free cartridge- 
recycling program 
from Lexmark, a 
worldwide manufac- 
turer and marketer 
of desktop and per- 
sonal printers, type- 
writers, keyboards, 
and supplies. 

By providing spe- 
cial prepaid return 
postage mailers, Operation Re- 
source, as the new program is 
known, encourages IBIVl Las- 
erPrinter customers in the U.S. 
to return used cartridges to 
Lexmark. The cartridges are 
then disassembled and sent to 
various recycling centers. 

IBM LaserPrinter customers 
with questions about Opera- 
tion Resource can call (800) 
848-9894 for additional details. 

Helpful Mouse Pads 

The ivlicroref SmartPad from 
Educational Systems is a full- 



size mouse pad that comes 
equipped with a transparent 
plastic cover into which a va- 
riety of template sheets can be 
inserted for at-a-g lance key- 
board and mouse operating 
commands. 

Templates, available for Win- 
dows 3.0. WDrdPerfect 5.^ , Ex- 
cel for Windows 3.0, Lotus 1- 
2-3 release 3.1, PC/fvlS-DOS 
2.1-4.1, and Word for Win- 
dows (and there's one you 
can customize yourself), sell 
for S9.95 to S14.95 each. Sug- 
gested retail price for the pad 
alone is $12.95. A special 
mouse pad kit, including the 
mouse pad. one template, 
and an eight-page booklet on 
mouse use and care is avail- 
able for S19.95. 

Educational Systems says 
the SmartPad is actually one 
of the best pads going and 
would be even v^fithout tem- 
plates. Its hardtop surface pro- 
vides a blend of low friction 
for high-speed mouse control 
and texture to ensure traction. 
The SmartPad could only be 
better if the mouse could 
read the temiplate! 

For more information, con- 
tact Educational Systems. 706 
Landwehr Road. Northbrook, Il- 
linois 60062; (708) 498-3780. 

AiAN BECHTOLO 

GeoWorks in Progress 

The folks at GeoWorks were 
busy in 1991. Last summer, 
they released a much-im- 
proved GeoWorl<s Ensemble 
version 1.2 package. The new 
release builds on Ensemble's 
high performance and ease of 
use by providing a range of ad- 
ditional features, including a 
spelling checker for GeoWrite, 
support for more than 300 ad- 
ditional printers, the popular 
game Tetris, numerous tem- 
plates, and more. Version 1.2 
is sent free to all registered 
owners of version 1.0. 

Early in the fall, GeoWorks re- 
leased three new add-on, easy- 
to-install font libraries— Fun 



Before 

GeoWorks 

Designer. 



After 

GeoWorks 

Designer. 




iff 

' ■ I can't belie\c how easy it was 

!(t liiok [liis j^(H)(i. Vim si'i.'. Iifibre I dis- 
CDVi'i'eti GeoWdrks DL'SisiiuT,' ' my poslers 
were p:itht'tic, IkH now, wow! l-ventliini^ 
[ do looks i^ori^eoiis. It li;is .siylel Lnup^y! 
It's red liot. a wliole nc«' me. And I did it 



it}^-'i' 




:ill riiysc'lf i)[i my first day with GeoWorks 
Desis'iier. 

Skeptical? Well, (ieoWorks Designer 
comes with over "^0 templates for eM'ry- 
thiiii^ from Iwimers to (lyers. j^reetint; curds 
to newslcltei's. And it includes scads of clip 
art! lielieve me, I'm no artist. All I did was 
pop my words into a teiiijilate. Then, voila. 
C'est tres cliic!! 1( was even W^l'SIViTG so 
tliere was no time-wasting surprises, What 
I saw on my screen was what came out 
looking laser printed on my little dot 
matrix printer. With no ugly jaggies! 

Yes, GeoWorks Designer is the graphics 
])rogram for people who want more than 
a I'rint Shop." It makes fast work of small 



projects, bill has all the Ceaiiires you need 
to get fancy. ..even its own award-wiiming* 
graphical eiiviixtnmenl that makes using 
it as easy as clicking a mouse. And if you 
think it's super alone, just wail until you 
sec it working with the rest of the Personal 
Office Series team. 

So if you're tired of anemic artwork, 
make a change. Go for GeoWorks." If it can 
luake me look this good, imagine what it 
will do for you," 

See Your Dealer Or Order Now, 
.iO-l)a\- .\lonev-Back Giianiiitee! 

1-800-772-0001 Ext. lOD 

l-m)-465-i234 Ext. lOD in QmeiiUt 



*K. (lompiiling's Most Valuahle Product, InfoWorld's Product Of Tiie Year, Compute's Kditor's Choice, Software Puhlisher's Association: Critics Choice; 
Best Creativity/ Productivity; Best Consumer Product; Best New Lso of a Conijiuter. PC .Magii/ine Technical E.xcelleiice .\uard Finalist. 

^> C EOVCORKS Ik-rkdej. CV liciiWurlis. PiTsiin;il Oflice Scrk's ijij Gt'ottiirlis Dt-siBiicr- are irudi'marks of CcDWirks, Inc. C 19i)l 



NEWS & NOTES 



Fonts, Newsletter Fonts, and Business 
Fonts. Art Library, released at the 
same time, contains a great collection 
of clip art, The font libraries and the art 
library retail for $49.95 each but can 
be purchased directly from GeoWorks 
for S39.95 each or $99.95 for ali four 
libraries. 

GeoWorks had even more surprises 
in store with the October release of 
stand-alone versions of GeoWrite. Geo- 
Draw, and GeoManagen Those wanting 
WYSIWYG applications without purchas- 
ing Geo\Abrl<s Ensembie can now buy 
GeoWorks Writer, GeoWorks Designer, 
or GeoWorks Desktop for around $69.95 
each. 

As if one new GeoWorks product wer- 
en't enough, GeoWorks Pro is now 
available for $199.99. GeoWorks Pro 
adds Borland's Quattro Pro SE spread- 
sheet to Ensembie's GeoWrite, Geo- 
Draw, GeoComm. and GeoManager. 
Using the GeoWorks Pro Viewer, you 
can remain inside the GeoWorks Pro 
environment while working with spread- 
stieet files and charts created in Quat- 
tro Pro SE. 

GeoWorks Pro users can navigate 
through a spreadsheet or cut, paste, 
drag, and drop any portion of a Quattro 
Pro spreadsheet or chart directly into 
GeoWrite or GeoDraw. 

If you purchased GeoWorks Ensem- 
ble after September 22, 1991, you'll re- 
ceive a free upgrade. Other registered 
owners will receive a special upgrade 
offer. 

For more information, contact 
GeoWorks. 2150 Shattuck Avenue, 
Berkeley, California 94704; (415) 644- 

0883. STEPHEN LEVY 

Brother's PowerNote 

Brother International's new PowerNote 
shouldn't be confused with a laptop PC 
or word processor. It's not a mere data 
manager, either. In fact, it's a notebook- 
sized replacement for the average busi- 
nessperson's calculator, address and 
telephone directory, calendar, and port- 
able fax machine — all rolled into one. It's 
like an electronic notebook loaded with 
paper and a lot more. 

Weighing just five pounds, the Power- 
Note displays a menu screen that allows 
easy access to all of its fully inte- grat- 
ed features. It can be used to create 
spreadsheets, perform math functions, 

10 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



arrange schedules, and store address- 
es and phone numbers. With an option- 
al fax/modem, it can also exchange AS- 
CII files with PCs and send and receive 
fax transmissions. 

The electronic notebook features 32K 
of built-in text memory and comes with 
a built-in 3y2-inch 240K disk drive for da- 
ta storage. Its two-way switchable 14- 
line X 80-character LCD screen pro- 
vides optimal viewing in any type of 
lighting situation, and it can be used 
with virtually any PC-compatible printer — 
from dot-matrix to laser, The PowerNote 
operates with an included AC adapter 
and also can run up to eight hours by us- 
ing an optional rechargeable battery, ft 
even comes with a version of the hit ar- 
cade game Tefr/s for the busy executive 
wfio needs an occasional break. 

For more Information, contact Brother, 
200 Cottontail Lane, Somerset, New Jer- 
sey 08875; (908) 356-8880. 

ALAN BECHTOLD 

Desktop Laptop 

Until now, laptop users have had to sac- 
rifice something for convenience. 
While size and portability of laptop and 
notebook PCs have always fDeen ap- 
pealing, the best black-and-white VGA 
displays and fastest microprocessors 
usually available for these machines 
have always compromised their 
computing power. NEC's newest lap- 
top could signal the turning point. 

The new NEC ProSpeed 486SX/C col- 
or laptop PC offers more power than a 
386 33-l\/IHz computer and includes a 
Super VGA thin film transistor (TFT) ac- 
tive matrix color screen and an EISA 
expansion slot. NEC says it's the light- 
est laptop on the market with those 
specifications. 

The ProSpeed 486SX/C laptop sup- 
ports 256 colors in 640 x 480 resolu- 
tion and has a built-in 32-bit EISA slot 
that provides optima! expansion for 
networking, imaging, and engineering 
applications. Other features include 
2MB of memory expandable to 20fvlB, 
a 120fvlB hard disk drive, an 8K-cache 
memory, and Windows and DOS 5.0 in- 
stalled. Suggested retail price is 
$8,999. 

For more information, contact NEC 
Technologies, 1255 f^ichael Drive, Wood 
Dale, Illinois 60191; (800) 366-3632. 

ALAN BECHTOLD O 



PERSONAL OFFICE SERIES'" 



GcoWoi-ks Writer;" Desktop; 

and Designer" are available at 

these fine software retailers: 



Babbage's 

America's Software Headquarters 



COMPIM 



THE COMPUTER SUPERSTORE^. 



Lechmere 



-p/saou 



nt 



America's Softwiie Eegspcru^j 






aOF I vvmRc^K^ / 



^GeoWorks 

ilid Sli;illui.k AvfiuiL' 
BerkL-k-v, CA 9-i"() i 



Before GeoWorks 
Desktop^ 



After GeoWoi 




! can't believe how easy it was to 
^ti my luii'd disk, my plioiic miiiiluTS, my 
business .. .yes. my wlwle life oiganized. 
You see, before GeoWorks Desklop ' 1 
was a mess. Now, life is jireat! I'voiylliing's 
organized and in my computer. .Appoint- 




ments, addresses, the works. (ieoWorks 
Desktop makes using a conipulcr so easy 
e\en / can do it. So of course, my wife and 
kids liave no trouble at all. 

Impossible? Well, (GeoWorks Desktop 
replaces lliat cryptic DOS O prompt with 
an award-winning* graphical environment 
of menus and buttons that you just poiiU at 
with a mouse to get things done. For exam- 
ple, one click launches Lotus or any DOS 
program. .\m\ becau.se it turns DOS direc- 
ttnies into pictures of lile foklers, Geo- 
Works Desktop can organize your hard 
disk in a Hash. Just delete liles you don't 
need by placing them in a "wa,sleb;isket." 
and organize ihe rest in neat, easy-to-see 
-folders. 



Yes, now I can lind addresses, trotes, 
appoinlmenls, and plione numbers fast. 
Because GeoWorks Desktop comes with a 
computerized calendar, notepad, address 
book and more. .■Ml of which are easier, 
faster, and smarter tlian my old paper ver- 
sions. /\nd if you think it's ea.sy alone, just 
wait until yoti see it working with the rest 
of the Personal Office Series team. 

So don't waste time with chaos, make a 
change. Go for GeoWorks."' If it can organ- 
ize me. imagine what it can do for you." 

See Your Dealer Or Order Now, 
30-Dav Monev-Back (Uiarautee! 

1-800-772-0001 Ext. lOT 

1-800-165-1234 E\l. lOihi Cmuida 



*PC Comixiiinsis Most Valuable Froduct, InfoVtbrlds Product Of The'iear, Compute's Editor's Choice, Software Publisher's -teociation: Critics Choice; 
Best Creutivin/Productivit); Best Consuiiier Product; Best NeNvLVofaComputer,PC Magazine Technical LxceUenceAwardFmalisl. 

C> GeoWorks ll«ki.ln. <^.S (leoW^rks. WnmA OfliCL. Scfii-s and GroW.ii ks lk■^isnL.r arc i r j(kiiiarks uf (IcoWorks, Inc. © I'WI 

Circle Reader Semite Number 157 



FEEDBACK 



--^'~ ■-^- 



Better Installation 

Allow me to comment on your 
review of our product Strate- 
gic Video Poker (COMPUTE. 
June 1991), in which you re- 
fer to our installation, stating, 
"An unfriendly installation pro- 
cedure may cause problems 
for novices." 

The program will install 
even if you don't specify a sub- 
directory. However, we decid- 
ed not to have the installation 
program create its own subdi- 
rectory to avoid conflicts on 
the user's hard disk. 

The user has the option of 
copying the information verba- 
tim from page 15 of the man- 
ual or substituting a subdirec- 
tory name after typing IN- 
STALL at the A: prompt. The 
installation program detects 
the graphics adapter, installs 
the appropriate graphics 
files, and creates a directory. 

Thank you for your feed- 
back. Every day we obtain 
more users who are COM- 
PUTE readers, many of 
whom mention reading your re- 
view. We are continuously en- 
hancing our support for differ- 
ent video modes. 

WENDY WEINEH. PRESIDENT 
LWS SOFTWARE 
HAVERTOWN, PA 

Stop the Presses 

We have a small weekly news- 
paper that's in need of being 
brought into the computer 
age. We're cutting and past- 
ing by hand to generate the 
newspaper. 

The newspaper is 11 x 16 
inches in size and has a total 
of 16 pages. We do have pho- 
tos and advertising in the 
paper. 

Can you recommend a com- 
plete computer system— print- 
er, software, and peripherals — 
that would allow this paper to 
enter the modern age of com- 
puters? The people who put 
the newspaper together aren't 
very computer literate. 

RAYMOND ^EPIfsl 
FITCHBURG. MA 
12 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



Learn the subtleties 

of program 

Installation, pubtisti 

from your 

desldop, count 

scientifically 

in Latin, and more. 



That's a pretty tall order, per- 
haps better filled by a local 
computer retailer or consult- 
ant, since the person who 
puts the system together will 
also have to train your staff in 
its use. 

Probably the minimum con- 
figuration would require a 286 
or 386 PC for each of your 
staff members (these are fair- 
ly standard, so go for low 
price), a flatbed scanner 
(Hewlett-Packard is one of 
many reputable manufactur- 
ers), a laser printer capable 
of printing typeset-quality out- 
put on large format paper (Las- 
erMaster is the only manufac- 
turer that springs to mind), 
and word processing and 
desktop publishing software. 

We'd recommend Xy Write 
or Microsoft Word as the 
word processor (though 
there are dozens of good 
ones) and Ventura Publisher 
as the desktop publishing soft- 
ware (but take a look at Page- 
f\/laker, too). You'll also want a 
graphics package, perhaps 
Aldus Photostyler or Image- 
In, for dealing with scanned 
photographic images. 

Total cash outlay? Since 
you didn't mention your cost re- 
quirement, we'll assume that 
the sky's the limit. Depending 
on the number of people who 
require PCs. you could outfit 
the office for around $12. 000- 
$20,000. 

These figures assume that 
you'll use only monochrome 
equipment The rule of thumb 
in desktop publishing is that 
you can spend as much mon- 
ey as you have — and more — 
and still find yourself lusting af- 
ter unattainable equipment 
and software. 

Besides sticking to mono- 
chrome, you might save mon- 
ey by Investigating resellers 
of discontinued equipment, 
dealers in used equipment, 
and advertising-for-equip- 
ment exchanges with local 
dealers and consultants. 



Since "Feedback" is al- 
ways under attack for infre- 
quently mentioning minority 
computers, we can also rec- 
ommend that you consider 
the Macintosh, the Amiga, 
and the Atari as desktop pub- 
lishing machines. Microsoft 
Word, '^/entura Publisher, and 
PageMaker are all available 
for the Macintosh, as is the 
highly regarded Quark- 
XPress. Adobe PhotoShop 
and ColorStudio are powerful 
Mac graphics packages. 
ProWrite and WordPerfect are 
two top-of-the-line word proc- 
essors for the Amiga. Pag- 
eStream is a leading Amiga 
desktop publishing package. 
Good graphics packages for 
the Amiga are too numerous 
to mention, since it's primarily 
a graphics machine. Atah of- 
fers a desktop publishing 
package. 

As hardware, each of 
these computers is excellent. 
The problem is in dealer avail- 
ability If you have questions 
of a technical nature (and as 
a beginner, you will surely 
have lots of them), PC and 
Mac expertise is far more read- 
ily available than Amiga or 
Atari expertise. 

Handbook Redux 

As author of The Computer 
Buyer's hiandbook, I was very 
pleased with Mike Hubbartt's 
review of my book {COM- 
PUTE, July 1991). However, I 
want to respond to two small 
points he raised. 

The most difficult thing 
about a book of this sort is 
keeping it current in a fast- 
changing market. Mr. Hubbartt 
is correct in stating that pricing 
information (which appeared 
for comparative purposes on a 
single page) was out of date 
six months after printing. (How- 
ever, this kind of detailed infor- 
mation (which is better ob- 
tained from periodicals, any- 
way) plays little part in my nar- 
rative and, in any event, will 



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Clrcb Rmdar Service Number 134 




Now you can explore CHAOS in 
a hands-on, visual wayl Best- 
selling science writer James 
Gleick, and Autodesk, Inc.. a lead- 
ing software company, have collabo- 
rated to bring the fascinating new 
worlds of CHAOS to your IBM* 
personal computer, 

■ Discover your favorite Mandelbrot 
regions. ■ Explore strange attrac- 
tore. ■ Alter tfie chaotic dance of 
magnets and pendulums. ■ Make 
your own fractal landscapes. 

■ Generate never-before-seen 
chaos patterns in color and sound. 

James Gleick's CHAOS: The 
Software" will enable you to create 
stunning images for graphics, learn- 
ing, or just for fun! $59.95 




1-800-688-2344 

AutodGsk, Inc. 
2320 Marinship Way • Sausallto, CA 94965 



Circle Reader Service Number 123 



contiriue to be upcdated witfi every print- 
ing of the book. 

Because of deadlines, thie first edi- 
tion of thie bool<. was released witfiout 
an index. Aithioughi the logical arrange- 
ment of the book yvould seem to make 
an index unnecessary, one will be in- 
cluded in the second edition, sched- 
uled for release in early 1992. 

R. WAYNE PARKER 
SEATTLE. WA 

By the Numbers 

In computers we i-se binary, octal, dec- 
imal, hexadecimal, and now base 32 
number systems. I know the names of 
the systems from 2 to 20, but I don't 
know the names of the systems above 
20. I especially would like to know the 
name of the base 32 system. 

Here are the ones I already know: Bi- 
nary is base 2, Octal is base 8, Deci- 
mal is base 10, Duodecimal is base 
12, Hexadecimal is base 16, and Bideci- 
mal is base 20. 

E. 0. ZEAGLER 
BAYTOWN. TX 

A call to a university matli department 
yielded this response from a gentleman 
purporting to be a professor: "A number 
system based on 32? I'd call it a base 
32 number system. " 

Realizing that this answer was far 

14 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



too simple, we came up with this re- 
sponse: Base 21 would be unibideci- 
mal; base 32 would be duotrideclmal. 
Base 40 would logically be called quad- 
radecimal. Incidentally, the Latin for iour- 
teen is quattuordecim; for forty, quad- 
raginta; for twenty, viginti; and forlwen- 
ty-one, viginti unus. 

Our thanks to Betty Blxby, who is flu- 
ent in Latin, for her help with this reply. 

New Math 

One of the sentences in the October 
Test Lab sidebar "Choosing an Inter- 
face" (page 38) should have read, 
"SCSI interfaces [rather than proprie- 
tary interfaces} are commonly sold sep- 
arately adding to the cost of the drive 
(typically S100-S150 more). " 

Readers whose letters appear in "Feed- 
back" will receive a free COI^PUTE's 
PC clock radio while supplies last. Do 
you have a question about hardware or 
software? Or have you discovered 
something that could help other PC us- 
ers? If so, we want to hear from you. 
Write to COMPUTE'S Feedback. 324 
West Wendover Avenue, Suite 200, 
Greensboro, North Carolina 27408. We 
regret that we cannot provide person- 
al replies to technical questions. n 



Editor 

Art Director 

Senior Editor Emeritus 

Managing Editor 

Features Editor 

Editor, Gazelle 

Editor, Amiga Reaource 

Reviews Editor 

Assistant Editor 

Copy Editors 

Etjitoriai Assistarrt 
Contributing Editors 



Clifton Karnes 

Boijin C Case 

Keilh Ferred 

Davicl Englisti 

Ftoberl Bi«by 

Tom Neisel 

Denny Alkin 

Mike HudnaJi 

Jill Champion 

Karen HuElman 

Susan Thompson 

Dana Sloll 

Gregg Keizer. Tony Roberis 



ART 
Aulltant Art Director Kenneth A. Harciy 
Deslgrier jq SoyRrn 
Copy Producllan Manager Terry Casn 

PRODUCTION 

Production Manager De Potter 

Traffic Manager Barbara A Williams 

PROGRAMMING 
Manager, Programming H'criard C. Leinecker 
& Online Services 
Senior Programmef 
Programmers 



Troy Tucker 
Bruce M BoMlen 
Sieve Draper 



ADIMINISTRAT10N 



President 

Executive Vice President, 

Operations 

Operations Manager 

OHIce Manager 

Sr. Administrative Assistant, 

Cualomer Service 

Administrative Assistant 

Receptionist 



H;a!hy Keelon 
William Tynan 

Oavid Hensiey Jr. 
Sybil Agee 
Jiilia Fleming 

Ellreda Chavis 
Polly CJlfpam 



ADVERTiSINQ 
Vice President, Peier T Johrsmeyer 
Associate Publisher (2t2| J%.6100 

Vice President, James B. Martise 
Sales Development 

ADVERTISING SALES OFFICES 

East Coasl: f^jliPage and Slandard Display Ads— Peief T Jolins- 
msyer, Ctlfis Coeino, COMPUTE Publlcaliors Internalional Ltd,. 
1965 Broadway, New York, NY 10023; (212) 496-6100- New Eng- 
ianc— Jack Garland. Garland Associates, rnc , 1D Industnat 
Park Rd.. Hmgham, MA 02043; (617) 749-5852, Soulheaslern 
Aoots, Mgr.- Full-Page. Standard Display, and Mail-OrdEr Ads— 
Harriei Rogats, 503 A Si , SE, Wastlinglon, D C 20O03; (202) 
546-5926- Florida— J, M- Remer Associates. 3300 NE 192nd 
Si, Suite 192, Avenlura, PL 33180. (305) 933-1467. (305) 933- 
6302 (FAX), Midwest Full-Page and Standard Display Ads— 
Siarr Lane, National Accounis Manager; in East Wacker Dr., 
Suite 506, Chicago, IL 60601, (312) B19.09CO (312) 819-0813 
(FAX). Northwest— Jerry Thornpson. Jules E Thompson Co,, 
1290 Howard Ave., Suite 3D3, Burlingame. CA 94010. (415) 34B- 
8222, Lucille Dennis. (707) 451-8209 Southwest— Ian Ling- 
wood. 6728 Eton Ave., Canoga Park, CA 91303; (818) 992- 
4777 Product Mart AtJs— Lucille Dennis. Jules E, Thompson 
Co . 1290 Howard Ave , Suite 303, Burlingame, CA 94010; (707) 
451. B20!) U K a Europe— Beyeiiy Wardale. 14 Lisgar Terr . Lon- 
don W14, England; 01 1-441-6023298- Japan— Intergroup Conv 
municalions, Litf . Jiro Semba, President, 3F Tiger BIdg. 5-22 Shi- 
ba-koeh. 3 Ciiome. Mnato ku. Toi^yo 105. Japan, 03-434- 
2607 Ctassilied Ads— Maria Manaserl. i lAbods Ct . Huntington, 
WY 11743: (TEUWX) (516) 757-9562 

THE CORPORATION 

Bob Guccione (chairman) 

Kathy Keelon (vice-charrrman) 

David J Mye'son (chief operating officer) 

Anthony J Guccione [secretary-treasurer) 

William F Marlieb (orestdent. marketing, sa'es & Circulation) 

John Evans (presidenl. foreign eflilions) 
Patrick J, Gavjn (seh'Oi vice president, chief linanciai officer) 

ADVERTISING AND MARKETING 

Sr. VP/Corp Dir,, New Business Development Beverly 
Wardale; VP/Dir , Group Advertising Sa'es Nancy Kestenbaum; 
Sr VP/Soulhern and Midwest Advertising Dir Peter Goldsmith 
Oflices: New York 1965 Broadway. New York. NY 10023-5965, 
Tel (212) 496-6100. Telex 237128, Midwest 11! EasI Wacker 
Or.. Suite 508, Chicago IL 60601. (312) 819-0900 (312) B19- 
0813 (FAX)- South 1726 K St NW. Suite 903. Washington, tx; 
20006. Tel (202) 728-0320 West Coasl 6728 Eton Ave , Can- 
oga Park. CA 91303. Te! (618) 992-4777. U-; and Europe: 14 
Lisgar Terrace. London W14. England, Tel 01-823-3336. Japan: 
Inlergroup JIro Semoa, "ele* J25469iGLPr'0. Faj: 434-5970 Ko- 
rea: Kaya Advtsng , Inc , Rm 402 Kunshin Annex BID 251-1. 
Dohwa Dong. Mapo-Ku. Seoul Korea (121), Tel 719-6906. Tel- 
ex K32144Kayaad 

ADMINISTRATION 
Sr. VP, CFO- Patrick J Gavin; Sr VPWdministraliva Services 
Jen Winston: Sr VP/Arl & Graphics: Frank Devmo. VP/ News- 
stand Ciiculairon: Marcia Orovit2; VP/Director of New Magazine 
Devetopmeni Rona Cherry; VP Director Sales Promotions: Bev- 
erly Grerper; VP ProcfuCtion: Hal Halpner: Dir Newssland Cir- 
eolation Paul Rolniok: Dir Newssland Circulation DistriteutiOh: 
Charles Anderson, Jr. Dir Subscription Circulation: Marcia 
Schullz. Director ol Research: Robert Rattner, Advertising Pro- 
duction Director Charlene Smith, Adveiltsing Production Trai- 
lic Mgr Mark Williams, Traffic Dir: William Harbult. EPS f^gr,: 
Lisa R Siiigit, Produclicn f^gr,, Tom Stinson, Asst. Production 
Mgr Nancy Rice; Foreign Editions Mgr Michael Sievens; Ex- 
ec Assl. to Bob Guccione: Diane O'Connell: Exec- Asst. lo 
David J. Myerson: Teri Pisani: Special Assl. lo Bob Guccione; 
Jane Homlish. 




IhuNDER Board. PC games like 

YOU'VE NEVER HEARD THEM BEFORE. 



Lend us your car. And we'll stuff it with a calibre of 
sound that's cars ahead of the competition. 

Introducintj Thunder Board" from Media Vision. No 
otlier .sound card out there today can soar to such incredible 
heights. Or plunge to such awesome lows. .And 
Thunder Board's dvnamic filtering means dyna- 
mite soimd. Higher fidelity. Bigger ka-booms. 
And more bang for the buck. 

Our guarantee is that we put the quality where 
your ears are. And the money where our mouth is. 
in fact, we'll refund your money if you don't agree 
Thunder Board is the best sound board for your • 
PC games. 

In addition, with Thunder Board you get three 
free PC action game samplers: Nova 97 Lemmings'" 
and Lcvi-Crossr Plus, free Thunder .\laster~ software 
that lets \ou record and edit sound files with a Wave 
Form Editor. 

And Thunder Board is fully compatible with all the 




newest PC games. Plus 100% compatible with AdLib"" 
and Sound Blaster" applications-to support the largest 
library of games possible. What's more, Thimdcr Board 
has breakthrough features to let \ou break all the sound 

barriers. Like twice the Digitized .Audio Playback 
and Recording Capabilin,- at an explosive 11 kHz — 
compared to the competition s puny 11 kHz. 

Also, \ou get a squadron of powerful extras. 
Like a Joystick Port. Headphone Jack. An II 
Voice FiVi Music Synthesizer that lets you score 
music as well as score points. .And a Power Ampli- 
fier with built-in Volume Control, so you can 
h;ne voursclf a real blast— without blasting 
tlie neighbors. 

So take off— for a dealer near you. And go from 
static to ecstatic. 
Because, with 
Thunder Board, 
hearing is believing. 



Wl^ 




Thunder Board!" The Sound of Adventure. 

For tht name of a Thunder Board dealer or simply some good sound advice, call MediaVision. 1-8D0-84S-S870. 

.MediaVision, 47221 Fremont Boulevard. Fremont, C,^ 945JR. 510-77()-Sfi«l, FAX: i]i}-"a-Wn 
Media Vision, Thunder Bn.ird and Thunder Msslcr arc traderriarks of Media Virion. Inc., ^Ilolhcrcriiicrnarks arid rcjjislcredtrackrnarks arc owned hv their rc.spectivemmpam 

Circle Reader Service Number 214 



READERSHIP SURVEY 



\Ne want COMPUTE to be as useful 
and interesting as possible and to pro- 
vide you with the coverage you want. 
Please help us by taking a moment to 
fill out and send us this questionnaire. 
You can mail the completed question- 
naire to us (photocopies are fine), fax 
it, or use COMPUTE/NET to respond. 

Mail: COMPUTE Readership Survey, 
324 West Wendover Avenue, Suite 200, 
Greensboro, Nortli Carolina 27408. 
Fax: (919) 275-9837 
COMPUTE/NET: COMPUTE on GEnie 
or America Online 

What computer(s) do you own or use? 

D 8088/8086 (IBM PC, XT, or compati- 
ble), brand 

n 80286 (IBM AT or compatible), 
brand 

D 80386, brand 



a Notebook/laptop, brand. 
D Macintosh 



D Game system, brand, 
n Other 



D I don't own a computer. 

Which video display system(s) do you 

use? 

D Monochrome 

n Hercules 

D CGA 

D EGA 

D VGA 

a Super VGA 




Which peripheral(s) do you own or use 
with your computer? 

□ 5V4-inch disk drive 
D 3V2-inch disk drive 
D CD-ROM drive 

□ Dot-matrix printer 
Qi Hard disk 

n Joystick 

n Laser printer 

n Letter quality printer 

D MIDI device 

n Modem 

n Mouse 

n PostScript printer 

D Sound card 

How much memory does your comput- 
er have? 
D 512K or less 
n 640K 

D Extended memory 

D Expanded memory 



Which language do you prefer for pro- 
gramming? 
D BASIC 
D C 

D Pascal 

□ Assembly language 
n Other 
D I don't program on the PC. 

Which DOS do you use? 

D MS-DOS version 

D DR DOS version 

Which graphical user interface do you 

use? 

D Microsoft Windows 

o GeoWorks Ensemble 

D Tandy DeskMate 

D Other 

D I don't use a graphical user interface. 

Which columns do you lil<e the most? 

D Arts & Letters 

D COMPUTE/NET 

D Disk Update 

D Editorial License 

D Feedback 

D GamePlay 

D Hardware Clinic 

D IntroDOS 



□ Multimedia PC 
n News & Notes 

□ On Disk 
O Pathways 

□ Point & Click 

n Programming Power 
D SharePak 
a Tips & Tools 
O Workplace 

Which of the following computer-related 

topics do you like to read about? 

Q Databases 

n Desktop publishing 

D Disk management and MS-DOS 

n Education 

D Games and entertainment 

D Graphics (paint, draw, or CAD) 

D How to upgrade your PC 

D Integrated software 

D Money management 

n Multimedia 

D Local area networks 

n New computer technologies 

D New hardware 

D Pen computing 

D Programming 

D Spreadsheets 

D Telecommunications 

D Windows 

O Word processing 

Where do you use your PC? 
D Home 
D Work 
n School 

Where did you get this copy of 

COMPUTE? 

D Subscription 

n Newsstand 

a Other 

Which COMPUTE disk(s) do you sub- 
scribe to? 

D Amiga Resource Disk 
D COMPUTE'S PC Disk 
O Gazette Disk 
a SharePak 

Have you used COMPUTE/NET? 

D Yes 

n No □ 



16 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



CompuServe puts the whole world 

at your fingertips. 




When you connect your computer to 
CompuServe, you join the world's largest 
international network of people with per- 
sonal computers. You have access to 
more than a thousand services that offer 
a source of support, information, enter- 
tainment, communications, and benefits 
of all kinds. 



5 A world of advantages. 

CompuServe lets you take advantage of 
your personal computer in a thousand 
different ways. 

; For instance: communication. You'll 

i 

get invaluable personal computer soft- 
ware and hardware support from other 
I CompuServe members, as well as 



product manufacturers, all over the 
world. Meet in special interest forums 
to discuss everything from science 
fiction to sharing software. And keep in 
touch through electronic mail and faxes, 
as well as by "talking'* over 72 CB 
Simulator channels. 

CompuServe also lets you shop coast- 
to-coast at hundreds of nationally known 
stores and take advantage of a world- 
class reference database. It gives you 
access tn ihe latest national and interna- 
tional news. And our special financial 
files offer complete statistics on over 
10,000 NYSE, AMEX, and OTC securi- 
ties. You can even trade online with 
local discount brokers. 

Global travel 
and world-class fun. 

CompuServe also offers airline sched- 
ules, so you can check out the bargains 
and book your own (lights on almost 
any airline worldwide. You can get 
travel news, frequent flier information, 
and couiitry and travel facts. As well as 
listings from over 30,000 hotels, 

I'lus, Uicrr are games. Sports, trivia, 
educational, space fantasy... you can go 
it alone or compete against players from 
all over the world, Only on CompuServe 
can you test your wits in the only online 
TV-style game show with real prizes, 
or leave the earth entirely in one of our 
interactive space adventures. 

Just give us a call. 

To become a CompuServe member, you 
need a computer and a modem. We'll 
send you everything else, including a 
$2r).0O usage credit with your Member- 
ship Kit. In most places, you'll be able 
to go online with a local phone call. 

To buy a CompuServe Membership 
Kit, see your nearest computer dealer. 
To receive our informative brochure 
or to order direct, call us today. 

And put the whole world at your 



fingertips. 



CompuServe 

800 848-8199 

circle Reader Service Number 103 



SHAREPAK 



Richard C. Leinecker 



January 

offers a mix of 

games and 

utilifies sure lo 

deligtit just 

about everyone. 



FOUR PROGRAMS 
TO PLEASE 

The four programs packed on 
this month's SharePak disk 
are sure lo delight just about 
everyone. There's Hi-Lo Joker 
Poker, an old game with a new 
twist; LINEWARS, an arcade- 
style game that lets you blast 
away, zapping aliens as you 
go: ZipZap 7.0, a useful disk 
utility for editing files: and 
FormGen. a formatting utility 
for creating text-based forms 
and files ready to fill out. 




In Hi-Lo Joker Poker you need a 
winning hand to stay alive. 




siaitSEBQ!! 



18 



View and modify files and sectors 
in ASCII or liex witti ZipZap. 

We spend many man-hours 
putting our SharePak disks 
together. We download hun- 
dreds of files from the online 
services. We select programs 
with reader appeal, then test 
them, and pick only the very 
best. If there's an important fea- 
ture that should be added or 
a bug, we contact the authors 
and get things worked out. Fi- 
nally we check for viruses and 
assemble the programs on a 
disk with documentation and 
a menu program for the easi- 
est possible installation. 

COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



If you're a shareware au- 
thor, now's your chance to sub- 
mit programs for 1992. You 
can send submissions 
through the mail to COM- 
PUTE'S SharePak Submis- 
sions. 324 West Wendover Av- 
enue. Suite 200, Greensboro, 
North Carolina 27408. But 
there's an even better way: 
Upload files to COrvl- 
PUTE/NET on GEnie or Ameri- 
ca Online. 

And if you enjoy SharePak. 
now's a good time to send sug- 
gestions and your 1992 wish 
lists. With your input, we can 
better serve you by collecting 
the kinds of programs you 
want. Just write to me at the 
above address, or send E- 
mail to RLEINECKER on GE- 
nie, Rick CL on America On- 
line, or user 75300,2104 on 
CompuServe, 

Hi-Lo Joker Poker 

This takes the game of draw 
poker in a new direction. You 
start off with ten credits, and 
each time you don't get a win- 
ning hand, you lose one. But 
for every winning hand, you 
get credits. The better the 
hand, the more credits. With 
skillful play you can amass a 
pile of credits. And if you're 
lucky enough to get a joker, 
it's wild. 

The CGA graphics are de- 
tailed and tastefully done. 
You don't have to read a doc- 
umentation file; all of the in- 
structions can be read while 
you're playing. You might not 
need them, though, since the 
screen has all of the keypress- 
es displayed. But for the ulti- 
mate in easy play, use your 
mouse and just click on the 
buttons to play the game, 

LINEWARS 

Jump into your Cobra Mark IV 
multipurpose general contract 
vehicle and blast off into inter- 
galactic space in LINEWARS. 
Once in the deep dark void, 
you'll have to clear out the ali- 



en ships in your vicinity. If you 
don't, it might cost you your 
life. Your mighty arsenal con- 
tains missiles, beam lasers, 
and an energy shield. 

This game is fun — and 
even more fun if you connect 
with another player via mo- 
dems, Then the action really 
heats up because you're fight- 
ing a living person while zap- 
ping the unknowns. The game 
runs in CGA, EGA, and VGA. 

ZipZap 7.0 

ZipZap lets you view and mod- 
ify files and disk sectors. The 
data is displayed as ASCII or 
hex. That's good because 
straight hex looks like Greek 
to most people. Why would 
you want to modify a file or 
disk sector? One of the most 
common uses is to change 
the volume labels of disks. 
I've also had to change text 
within programs when the 
source code is unavailable. 

Sometimes, though, I just 
want to look through a disk 
file to see what's there. You 
can often see what language 
the program was written in. 
And you can even see text 
strings that indicate features 
that you're not aware of. This 
handy utility has helped me in 
a variety of situations, and I 
wouldn't be without it. 

FormGen 

Dressing up batch files is a 
good idea, especially if you're 
preparing a file for use by 
someone who is new to com- 
puting. This utility lets you cre- 
ate text files that can be dis- 
played from a batch file or 
your program. It's easy to 
use, too. Some simple 
keypresses let you draw 
lines, boxes, and lots more. 

You II learn the keypresses 
quickly using the clear, con- 
cise documentation file includ- 
ed with the program. It's full 
of charts and explanations 
that'll have you creating mas- 
terpieces in no time. D 



With COnilPUTE's SharePak, You'll 



SHARE IN THE SAVINGS! 



SAVE TIME 

We carefully select and test all programs for you 

SAVE MONEY 

Each disk includes two to five programs for one low price 

SAVE KEYSTROKES 

Our free DOS shell lets you bypass the DOS command line 



November's 

SharePak 

disk 

$1.19 

per program! 



Back Issues Available 

DEC 89: Hearts, play your computer in hearts; Bass Tour, su- 
per fishing simulation: MahJongg, match and stack colorful 
tiles; £ds Chess, full-featured chess game. (#CDSK1289) 

JAN 90: Directory Master, customize with this DOS sheil; 
Quick Type, improve your typing skills; Skullduggery, tricky 
game of mystery; MathMagic. four educational games. 
(#CDSK0190) 

MAY 90: QHELP and QHCOMPIL, create TSRs to give online 
help: Levy Adventure Development System, create your own 
adventure games; GEEWHIZ. TSR BASIC manual; Sounds 
Good, make sounds for programs. (#CDSK0590) 
OCT 90: Amado, match scrambled blocks to the computer pat- 
tern; Captain Comic, great EGA graphic adventure game; Fun- 
ny Face, Mr, Potato Head-type animation faces; Fusion, great 
game similar to Tetris; Power Poker, create poker hands in two 
dimensions. (#CDSK1090) 

MAR 91; Cash Control, simplify financial recordkeeping; Per- 
sona/ Inventory 2.11, maintain a record of household items. 
(#CDSK0391) 

APR 91 : Schedule' Master, manage your daily schedule; Meal- 
Master, menu-driven database system for managing recipes; 
The Monuments of Mars.', great graphic arcade/adventure 
game. (#CDSK0491) 

AUG 91: TurboPaint 1.5. full-featured paint program; Math 
Voyager, guide starship by answering math problems; EARTH- 
WATCH, graphically displays 24-hour day-and-night cycles. 
(#CDSK0891) 



COMPUTE'S SharePalt disk contains the best 
of sharew/are — handpicked and tested by our staff — to 
complementthis month's focus. You'll sample entertainment, 
learning, and home office software at a great savings. Eacfi 
SharePak disk includes two to five programs plus complete 
documentation for one low price: 

$5.95 for 5V4-inch disk 

$6.95 for SVHnch disk 

For even more savings, 
Subscribe to SharePak and receive 
COMPUTE'S SuperShellFREEl 

For a limited time, you can subscribe to COMPUTE's 
SharePak and save more ttian 37% off the regular cost 
of the disks— plus get COMPUTE's SuperShell FREE. 
With a one-year paid subscription, you'll get 

• A new 3V^- or 5%-inch disk delivered to your fiome 
every month 

• Savings of over 37% off the regular disk prices 

• Advance notices of COMPUTE special offers 

• COMPUTE's SuperShell at no additional cost! 

Subscribe for a year at the special rates of $59.95 for 
5'/4-inchi disks and $64,95 for SVs-inch disks— and get 
COMPUTE's SuperShell FREE! 

COMPUTES SuperShell requires DOS 3.0 or higher. 

Disks available only lor IBM PC and compatibles. Olier good while supplies last. 



For Single Disks 

Please Indicate how many disks of each format you wouid ilite; 
S'A-inch at S5.95 3V2-lncii al S6.95 

This month's disk 

#CDSK1289 

#CDSK0190 

#CDSK0590 
#CDSK1090 
#CDSK0391 
#CDSK0491 
#CDSK0891 



Subtotal 

Sales Tax (Residents of NC and NY, please add appro- 
priate sales tax for your area, Canadian orders, add 7% 
goods and services tax.) 

Shipping and Handling ($2.00 U.S. and Canada, $3.00 sur- 
face mail, $5.00 airmail per disk) 
Total Enclosed 



Subscriptions 

I want to save even more! Start my one-year subscription to COM- 
PUTEs SharePak right away. With my paid subscription, I'll get a 
FREE copy of COMPUTE's SuperShell plus all the savings listed above. 

please indicate the disk size desired: 

5Vi-inch at S59.95 per year a'A-inch at SBJ.SS per year 

For delivery outside the U.S. or Canada, add $10.00 for postage and handling. 



Name . 



Address . 



Oily. 



State/Province . 
Total Enclosed . 



ZIP/Postal Code_ 



Check OF Money Order 

Credit Card No 



MasterCard VISA 

Eip- Date 



Srgnature . 



(Requiredl 



Daytime Telephone No. _ 

Send your order to COHAPUTE's SharePak, 324 West Wendover Avenue. 
Suite 200. Greensboro. North Carolina 27408. 

All orders must be paid in U,S, lunds by check drawn on a U.S. bank or by money order. 
MasteiCard or VISA accepted lor orders over S20. This otter will be filled only at the above 
address and is not made in conjunction with any other magazine or disk subscription of- 
fer. Please allow 4-6 weeks lor delivery o( single issues or for subscription lo begin. Sor- 
ry, but telephone orders cannot be accepted. 

Important Notice; COMPUTE's SharePak is not associated vwith COMPUTE's 
PC Disk. Please order SharePak separately. 




THE 

COMPUTE 

CHOICE 



^0 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 




A TOAST 

TO THE BEST SOFTWARE 

OF 1991 



This is tlie fourth year COMPUTE has 
presented awards for the best hardware and the best 

home office, discovery, and entertainment 

software. There were more contenders than ever in 

this year's competition — all with more 

to offer as the standards (and staltes) rise ever 

higher. Many of the products listed here 
were reviewed in COMPUTE. These reviews can 

kbe accessed through COMPUTE/NET on 
GEnie and America Online. 



JANUARY 1992 COMPUTE 21 



HOME OFFICE 



Small Business 

Excel 3.0 

Right off the bat you'll notice tliat Excel 
3.0 looks different. Its most impressive 
new feature is the Toolbar, a horizontal 
bar underneath the menu bar that con- 
tains groups of push buttons that are 
shortcuts for commonly used com- 
mands. An example of how the Toolbar 
can save you work is the Autosum but- 
ton. Research showed that adding up 
rows and columns of figures was the 
most repetitive task in a spreadsheet, so 
an Autosum button was created to re- 
place all the clicking, dragging, and 
menu access. ExcelS.O gives you unlim- 
ited access to your installed fonts. Excel 
also has outlining that allows you to col- 
lapse long columns of figures into a sin- 
gle cell, redisplaying them on com- 
mand, but normally keeping them hid- 
den and out of the way. Excel has su- 
perior graphics, including presentation- 
quality charts that can be enhanced 
with on-board drawing tools. 

CLIFTON KARNES 

Word Processing 

Ami Pro 2.0 

The company that showed the world 
how Windows word processing should 
be done, Samna (now part of Lotus De- 
velopment) brings out the next gener- 
ation of its much-vaunted Ami Pro be- 
fore WordPerfect can even get its first 
product to market. The Smartlcons are 
smarter, the text and image handling 
are more adept, and the power fea- 
tures — macros, power fields, notes, 
and more— put Ami Pro 2.0 at the tech- 
nological forefront. 

ROBERT BIXBy 

Finance 

Quicken 5.0 

Worry no more about where your mon- 
ey is hiding. With Quicken 5.0, you'll 
know exactly where every penny is be- 
ing spent and invested. With its pull- 
down menus and hot-key calculator. 
Quicken is a re- 
al timesaver. 
Practically any- 
one can set 
up the soft- 
ware and use 
it. Quicken's 
checking and 
budgeting fea- 
tures are so 
well integrated 
that you can 

JANUARY 1992 




HB '^■' " ll'''«'*'»"l'1- Microiod Excel -PnOFOHMAJ<L3 QB 


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Microsoft Excel 3.0 




22 COMPUTE 



Ami Pro 2.0 

easily generate reports indicating wheth- 
er your cash flow is in balance. Quick- 
en can even remind you when it's time 
to pay your bills. If you need account- 
ing software, Quicken can handle 
that, too. With Quicken, you'll also be 
able to complete your tax accounting 
chores with ease. Even your account- 
ant will be impressed with the precise 
expenditure reports you'll be able to pro- 
vide at the end of the year. 

PAM PLAUT 

Desktop Presentation/Video 

DCTV 

Digital Creations' DCTV adds a lot of 
power to any Amiga. It's a graphics en- 
hancer, paintbox, image processor, 
and full-color digitizer all in one pack- 
age. Imagine realtime— not frame-by- 
frame — animation in 4 million colors. 
DCTV displays to a composite monitor, 
so the signal can be taped directly by 
a VCR. You can create images using 
the bundled paint software or use the 
built-in still-frame digitizer to digitize im- 
ages from a color video source. Imag- 
es can be fine-tuned using the includ- 



Quicken 5.0 

ed image-processing program or 
saved in 24-bit IFF format fo^ use with 
other software. DCTV's street price is 
less than $400, and it can be used 
with any Amiga from the 500 to the 
3000T bringing desktop video power 
to folks who cant afford a full-blown Vid- 
eo Toaster system. 

DEf-JNY ATKIN 

Desktop Publishing/Graphics 

Micrografx Picture Publisher 

A PC darkroom for photo editing or any 
kind of raster graphics work. Micro- 
grafx Picture Publisiier puis the empha- 
sis on friendliness and ease of use. but 
not at the expense of speed. Available 
in both gray-scale and color versions, 
the package is designed for high-end 
desktop publishing and presentation 
work but priced so that most serious 
PC graphics users can afford it. It al- 
lows masking, transparent effects, pos- 
tenzatlon, airbrush and smearing, tex- 
tures, and smart features that recog- 
nize ranges of colors for editing in- 
stead of just a single color. 

ROBERT BIXBY 



25 Miles of Terror! 




Underwortd 

"Che 5)tgsian At?gss'" 
lilie Rrst confinoous-movemenf, 3D-cfungeon, adion fantasy'. 

You never have to stop walk- Every wall, precipice, bridge, Lookdown,straight ahead or YoU WOtl't believe 
ing, swimming, jumping or object and character in the up tofind clues, solve puzzles, 



fighting in this continuous- dungeon is painstakingly avoid traps, and battle fear- 
motion, virtual-reality epic' modeled in 3D space! some monsters! 






mr:!.^^:^.^ 



r"^-^.;;^S*J 






You won't believe 
your eyes. 

Some games can't be 
showcased with a few 
screen shots and some 
descriptive text. Ultima 
Underworld: The Shjginu 
Abyss -a game of action, 
motion and movement - 
is one of them. We hope 
this attempt to capture 
the excitement of the Un- 
derworld sends you rim- 
ning to a software store 
for a look at our demo. 
Because only there can 
you truly experience this 
incredible journey. 





Full screen view 







WMMaMW-t'lf 'iMH 1 



1 -800-999-4939 



If your favorite retailer doesn't have an Ultima Underworld demo yet, 
ask them to call ORIGIN. We'll send one out right away. 



circle Reader Service Number 104 



EHTERTAINMENT 



Arcade 

Lemmings 

Psygnosis has tapped into the instinct 
for survival in formulating Lemmings, a 
perfect blend of puzzle, strategy, and 
action. 

As the primary controller for all the 
characters in Lemmings, you must not 
only plan a mass exodus from each per- 
ilous level but also learn the personali- 
ty traits of your charges, who possess 
the brain power of common hamsters. 
Though not the most graphically de- 
tailed creatures, the lemmings are 
flawlessly animated, and when they 
combust, explode, drown, or grind 
themselves into hamburger, you'll be 
quite aware of what they go through. 
With a sound card. Lemmings supplies 
a satisfactory array of thuds and 
chirps and— while not traditional 
Psygnosis disco by any stretch — a 
charming soundtrack. 

Lemmings provides a number of 
metaphors ideal for conversation 
among the sociologically minded. 
When you draw comparisons betv/een 
Lemmings and the me-first, me-now 
generation, your friends wiil marvei at 
your insight and follow you blindly into 
the world of video gaming. 

DAVID SEARS 




Red Baron 

Simulation 

Red Baron 

Red Baron, from Dynamix, lets you 
climb into the sky on wings of fabric 
and bamboo to soar with the early leg- 
ends of aviation warfare. It strives for re- 
alism successfully, overlooking no op- 
portunity to re-create the actual flying 
conditions eariy pilots encountered, ex- 
tending even to midair collisions, black- 
outs from oxygen deprivation, and di- 
minishing consciousness from bleed- 
ing wounds, In addition to the giant hy- 
drogen-filled Zeppelin gasbags (used 
as floating observation towers and guar- 
anteed deathtraps), Red Baron offers 
you your choice of 18 historic planes to 
pilot, including Germany's Foi^ker and 
Albatross models and Britain's 
Sopwiths and Spads. Overall, Dynamix 
deserves high praise for a superb job 
of researching and documenting anti- 



quated aircraft, tactics, and tales. 

HOWARD MILLMAN 

War/Sfrategy 

The Perfect General 

ft you need to get work done with your 
computer, lock this game away in a 
safe place. From the fiendish minds of 
Mark Baldwin and Bob Rakosky crea- 
tors of the highly addictive classic Em- 
pire, comes the war game for the rest 
of us. Splendid graphics, digitized 
sound, and a delightfully simple user in- 
terface keep away the drudgery often 
associated with older hex-based war 
games. Twelve built-in scenarios 
range from small battles to full-fledged 
ground wars. If you beat the other play- 
er, you can switch sides and try the bat- 
tle from his or her perspective. You can 
play against another player on the 
same computer or over a modem con- 
nection, or you can play against com- 
puter players of varying intelligence. 
It's available for MS-DOS and Amiga, 
and Amiga players can battle MS-DOS 
users over the modem— perhaps the ul- 
timate computer war. 

DENNY ATKIN 

Fantasy Role-playing/Adventure 

Uliima Vii: Ttie Blacl< Gate 

The latest in the venerable Ultima se- 
ries, Ultima VII: The Black Gate takes 
you and your 386 PC right to the edge 




Lemmings 



The Black Gate 



24 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



CRITICS 
CHOICE 

The Best PC 
Games You 
Can Buy 

hardballii 




THE PASSION 




Rating: 10.0 "The most 
exciting and realistic automo- 
bile road racing simulation 
available. As mucti fun for 
adults as it is for kids." — 
Chicago Sun Times 



SrAR(priTROL 



B^BQQn 




ESBHDSBII ■ 



"Best Computer Science- 
Fiction Game"— Video 
Games & Computer 
Entertainment 

"This is not just anotiier 
space game. . . it's a space 
game with everything done 
right."— Compute Magazine 




"Until recently there have 
been few baseball simulations 
worth $50. I've changed my 
mind after playing HardBall II 
...It hits a grand slam. " — 
Boston Herald 




-f^ \aU^ ff^^cry^^e-^ 





"Adventure of the Year"— 
Enchanted Realms Magazine 

"If you're looking for an 
intriguing introduction to 
the world of role-playing 
gaming, you won't go wrong 
with Elvira."— CompuServe 



Visit your favorite software retailer. 



The best in entertainment software." 

Tesl Drive 111: The Passion, HardBall II. and Slar Conlrol are tratiemarks ot Accolade Inc. Elvira and 
Mistress ot Ihe Dark are trademarks o( Queen "B' Productions. Sega and Genesis are registered 
trademarks of Sega Enterprises Ltd. Accolade. Inc. is not associated vdlh Sega Enterprises Ltd. 
All other product and corporate names are properties of their respective owners. 
© 1991 Accolade, Inc. 



T 1 T^lll 1 


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SPECUb 
OFFER 



Named one of the 1991 
Games 100. "A stimulating 
mental challenge of rare 
beauty and quality." — 
Games Magazine 

"Five stars, magnetic... 
well worth the money." — 
Boston Herald 




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Save $25! 



Want to see for yourself how good an Accolade game 
can be? Buy Ishido direct from Accolade for S29* 
(Retail S54.95). 30-day money back guarantee. 

To order Ishido direct, call us toll free: 

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*For PC, Mac, and Amiga. (Sega^ Genesis^ version - S20.) 



Circle Reader Service Number 144 




4-D Boxing 

of role-playing. Forget the tile-based 
graphics of earlier Ultimas: this 
smooth scroller brings gorgeous Bri- 
tannia to vivid, nearly three-dimension- 
al VGA life. As always, the soundtrack 
is topnotch, and this version even fea- 
tures sampled speech. 

Don't expect an easy time, avatar. 
You've been away for centuries. Protec- 
tor of Britannia you may be, but 
there's new evil afoot that might just be 
your match. At any rate, the involving 
and ominous plot will enthrall both Ul- 
tima veterans and newcomers to fanta- 
sy role-playing. Adeptly crafted nonplay- 
er characters and a superb interface 
ensure that this visit to Britannia is des- 
tined to be the most epic yet. 

DAVID SEARS 



Sports 

4-D Boxing 

Almost every element of professional 
boxing is captured in 4-D Boxing for 
you to experience at your PC (except 
for the lacerations and brain swelling). 
The boxers themselves are shaped 
like some kind of weird cyborg fighters, 
not the smooth bitmapped figures adopt- 
ed by most sport games, But once you 
see them in motion, ail negative assump- 
tions about the figures vanish. These 
guys move like real fighters, bobbing 
and weaving, throwing the jabs, upper- 
cuts, rabbit punches, and roundhouses 
that wreak havoc on the head and body 
of the opponent. This is the most realis- 
tic boxing game — and one of the most 
realistic sports games, period — to 
come along in some time, 

PETER SCI3C0 

26 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



The TreehousG 



DISCOVERY 



Children 

Tlie Treehouse 

Once your child encounters Ttie Tree- 
house, the fun and learning start right 
away. An interactive chalkboard 
boasts six-color click-and-drag draw- 
ing capability, A small clock tells time. 
Treeliouse's music synthesizer screen 
displays an orchestra pit with illustra- 
tions and simple descriptions of the 
instruments. The program also plays a 
sample note from each instrument. 

Treehouse includes a very clever mu- 
sic maze game that plays simple mu- 
sical phrases (two or three notes) and 
then requires you to pick the correct 
one out of four options. A correct 
choice earns a note, and completion of 
the maze is rewarded with a song. An- 
other Treehouse game teaches count- 
ing, with chips or cash as options. An 
animal guessing game teaches deduc- 
tive reasoning, and an animated pup- 
pet theater encourages storytelling, all 
with excellent graphics and sound. 

BETH ANN MURRAY 

Young Adult 

PC Globe 4.0 

Better than a geography book or atlas 
for its instant visual representations 
and detailed library of information for 
190 countries and dependencies, PC 
Globe will turn any apprentice into a 
budding world geography expert. 

The program starts by quickly draw- 
ing a flat map of the world. To begin 



your cerebral exploration of countries, 
you hunt through any of five pull-down 
menus and choose a continent, region, 
country, city, or even grouping of coun- 
tries, such as NATO. Online help is eas- 
ily accessed with a pull-down menu. 
Once you've made a choice, the area 
is highlighted on the map. Choosing it 
again will bring a closeup view of the 
region. 

The real gem of this program is 
what comes next. Make a choice in the 
Database menu, and you'll find every- 
thing you ever wanted to know about a 
place— and more. What's the per cap- 
ita income, the growth rate, the nation's 
major product? Learn a country's pop- 
ulation breakdown by age, language, 
ethnic group, religion, and even litera- 
cy rate. Find out physical features 
such as elevations, major city loca- 
tions, climate, latitude and longitude, 
and time zones. Get detailed health sta- 
tistics — life expectancy infant mortali- 
ty rate, birth rate, and death rate. Is it 
a developing country? Industrialized? 
Part of OPEC? Learn the most current 
national leaders and the area's political 
parties. You'll find the major tourist at- 
tractions, water potability, visa and 
health conditions, telex and ham radio 
prefixes, currency exchange rate, inter- 
national telephone codes, point-to- 
point distances and bearings, and 
much, much more. You can even see 
a country's flag and hear its anthem. 

Maps can be imported to PC Paint- 
brush, WordPerfect, Ventura Publisher 
Lotus 1-2-3, and PageMaker for print- 
ing. Data can be output to ASCII or Lo- 
tus 1-2-3 files for printing. Annual up- 
dates are available. 

JILL CHAMPION 



r 





The Creativity Kit 
tliat Writes, Paints 
and l^lks! 



magine a program that allows children to 
create and hear their ver/ own illustrated 
stories. Davidson's Kid Works uniquely combines a 
word processor, paint prosram, and text-to-speech 
all in one! With the abilit/ to convert text to pictures 
and pictures to text, children iearn to express their 
thoughts both visually and in writing. And children 
will enjoy hearing their stories read aloud by the Story 
Player. Delightful sound effects and a paint program fully 
equipped with tools, picture stamps, and color back- 
grounds provide children with endless hours of creative fun. 

To order, call our 
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(800)556-6141 

Suggested Retail Price: 

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from Davidson. 



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Available at Babbases', CompUSA, Egghead Discount 
Software, Electronics Boutique, Software Etc., and other fine retailers 





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' Circle Reader Service Number 206 




^C 




Davidson. 

Teaching Tools from Teachers 




Adult 

James Gleick's CHAOS: 
The Software 

If you're curious about how things 
work, you'll love James Gleick's CHA- 
OS: The Software. With it, you can ex- 
plore the strange new science of cha- 
os. Create your own fractal graphics: 
explore the fascinating world of 
strange atfractors; experiment with the 
complex motions of magnets and pen- 
dulums; witness the evolution of order 
and disorder as you set up your own 
toy universes; fabricate artificial moun- 
tains, clouds, and planets: and more. 
In short, you can play with the mysteri- 
ous new phenomena you read about in 
Gleick's best-selling book, CHAOS: Mak- 
ing a New Science. Even without the 
book, the software program can bring 
hours of fun to any amateur scientist. 

DAVID ENGLISH 



Reference 

CDTV 

bundled with The New Groller 

Electronic Encyclopedia 

Thinking of plunking down $1,000 for a 
nice set of encyclopedias? With the cur- 
rent pace of world events, they're like- 
ly to be outdated in two or three years, 
and your shelf full of bulky books will 
be a nostalgic curiosity instead of a use- 
ful reference source, For the same 
amount of money, you can pick up 
Commodore's CDTV multimedia play- 
er, which comes bundled with The 
Nev/ Groller Electronic Encyclopedia 
on a CD-ROM disc, The Grolier CD- 
ROIVI contains the same information as 
the printed version and adds digitized 
quotations, musical samples, and ani- 
mated sequences. The encyclopedia's 
sophisticated search engine will help 
your kids find cross references they 




would never have located if they'd had 
to page through multiple volumes of a 
paper encyclopedia. And if the informa- 
tion on the disc becomes outdated, 
you can simply upgrade to the latest 
version of the encyclopedia disc. 

The CDT'V player is designed for av- 
erage consumers, rather than comput- 
erphiles, so It can be used by the 
whole family Unlike Philips' competing 
CD-I unit, CDTV can be expanded in- 
to a full-blown computer that has thou- 
sands of compatible software titles 
readily available — with the addition of 
a keyboard and floppy disk drive, 
CDTV can run Amiga software. Along 
with the electronic encyclopedia, the 
unit also ships with a tutorial disc and 
the CDTV version of Lemmings. Approxi- 
mately 100 discs are already available 
for the unit, and about half of these are 
reference and educational titles. 

DENNY ATKIN 





The New Grolier Electronic Encyclopedia 







r- 





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I 







MS-DOS 5.0 



Visual Basic 



TECHNOLOGY 



Operating System/ 
Operating Environment 



MS-DOS 5.0 

Microsoft's release last June of MS- 
DOS 5.0 isn't just important news for 
connmand line addicts; it's significant 
for GUI aficionados, too. Just a few min- 
utes with 5.0 will convince you it's tine 
wave of the future. It has impressive 
memory management facilities that al- 
low you to load DOS itself into high 
memory on 286 and 386 machines 
and load device drivers and TSRs into 
high memory on 386 computers. 
When you're running a DOS applica- 
tion from Windows or GeoWorks Ensem- 
ble, you'll have more room for your 
programs. Programmers will be glad to 
find that an interpreter-only version of 
Microsoft QuickBASIC has replaced 
GW-BASIC. EDLIN is superceded by 
EDIT, an excellent text editor with pull- 
down menus and full mouse support. 
MS-DOS 5.0's Dlf^ command comes 
with an array of switches that allow you 
to display directory information in al- 
most any shape or form, DOSKEY, a 
new command line retriever, stores 
your most recently used commands in 
a buffer for quick recall. This kind of pro- 
gram is necessary for extensive com- 
mand line work, and it's great that 
DOS finally has it. MS-DOS 5.0 
is very impressive. No 
matter which 
GUI you're 
running, 5.0 
will give it 
more elbow 
room and make 
the time you 
spend at the com 
mand line more pro- 

30 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



ductive and enjoyable. 

CLIFTON KARNES 

Utility 

Stacker 

Until recently, a larger hard disk was 
the only way to garner more magnetic 
real estate. But Stacker, a hardware- 
software combo from Stac Electronics, 
changes all that. With it, you can liter- 
ally double the capacity of your hard 
disk without paying a performance pen- 
alty. When you want to write something 
to disk. Stacker compresses the data 
before it's written. When you need to ac- 
cess the data again, Stacker decom- 
presses the information and sends if to 
you. Stacker works flawlessly and near- 
ly transparently, On a 60MB disk, Stack- 
er took about 25 minutes to compress 
50MB of files. When the installation 



STACKER 
SOnWARE 

DOUBLES 
YOUR DISK 

CAPACITY. 




was finished, I had a 120MB hard disk 
with about 70MB free. Not bad. I ran a 
large number of benchmarks compar- 
ing my Stacker and non-Stacker vol- 
umes and found some surprising re- 
sults. Using a set of database bench- 
marks that read and write sequential 
and random records, I found overall per- 
formance of Stacker and non-Stacker 
volumes using the coprocessor to be 
nearly identical. When reading and writ- 
ing sequential information. Stacker is 
faster than my native hard disk. When 
reading and writing random informa- 
tion, it is slower. 

CLIFTON KARNES 

Programming Language 

visual Basic 

Until now writing software for Windows 
was difficult, to say the least. With the 
introduction of Visual Basic. Microsoft 
has made it easy for anyone with BA- 
SIC programming experience to create 
software for Windows 3.0. An interac- 
tive tutorial takes you through the first 
phases of programming, and lots of ex- 
amples make learning quick and sim- 
ple. Visual Basic can create EXE files, 
unlike ToolBook or other comparable 
authoring systems. Since any Visual Ba- 
sic program uses all the Windows 3.0 
facilities, you don't have to worry 
about printer or display availability You 
can also use the Windows Dynamic Da- 
ta Exchange (DDE) functions to 
form links with other programs 
or call 
on Cllp- 
board 
for cut- 
and-paste 
operations. 
Although tech- 
nically Visual 
Sas/c isn't an ob- 
ect-oriented Ian- 





HSifS 



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A spellbinding 

blend of 

arcade and 

adventure 



gaming 



v^ 



BEHOLD THE VIRTUAL WORLP OF OBITUS! 

Obitus brings adventure role-playing to your computer like you've never seen it before! 

Waking up lost and alone, you are trapped in the medieval world of Middlemere until you solve 
the ancient mystery of the Tower. It will be a perilous quest. Breathtaking graphics scroll 
smoothly by as you explore this rich adventure tableau creating an eerie feeling of "being 
there". You'll encounter 400 diverse, intriguing characters and you'll have to equip yourself witii 
hundreds of weapons, talismans and magic spells necessary for the completion of your trek. 

Three entirely different player interface perspectives combine to make Obitus a uniquely 
engaging gaming environment. Obitus takes full advantage of your system's capabilities, utilising 
state-of-the-art graphics and sound support to create the complete fantasy experience as only 
Psygnosis can. 

SEEING Ts BELIEVING! 



Available for IBM Compatibles, Amiga & ST Computer. 

Psygnosis: 29 Saint Mary's Court, Brookline MA 0214fi. Telephone: (617) 731-3553. Fax: (6171 731-8379 

Circle Reader Service Number 1G3 



THE WINNER'S CIRCLE 



James Gleick's CHAOS: 

The Software 

$59.95 

AUTODESK 

2320 Marinship Way 

Sausalito, CA 94965 

(800) 688-2344 

The Treehouse 

$59.95 

BR0DERBUND SOFTWARE 

500 Redwood BIvq. 

Novato, CA 94948-6121 

(800)521-6263 

PN48 Pfofessional 

(portable printer) 

$549.00 

CITIZEN AMERICA 

2450 Broadway. #600 

Santa Monica. CA 90404 

(213) 453-0614 

CDTV 

(bundled with The New Grolier 

Electronic Encyclopedia] 

S999.00 

COMMODORE INTERNATIONAL 

1200 Wilson Dr. 

Wes! Chester, PA 19380 

(215)431-9100 

DCTV 

$495.00 

DIGITAL CREATIONS 

2865 Sunrise Blvd., Ste. 103 

Rancho Cordova, CA 95742 

(916) 344-4825 



Red Baron 
S59.95 
DYNAMIX 
Distributed by 
Sierra On-Line 
P.O. Box 485 
Coarsegold, CA 93614 
(800) 326-6654 

4-D Boxing 
$49.95 

ELECTRONIC ARTS 
1450 Fashion Island Blvd. 
San Mateo, CA 94404 
(415) 571-7171 

Quicken 5.0 $69.95 

INTUIT 

RO. Box 3014 

Menlo Park, CA 94026 

(415) 322-0573 

Ami Pro 2.0 

S495.00 

LOTUS DEVELOPMENT 

5600 Glenridge Dr. 

Altanta. GA 30342 

(404)851-0007 

Micrografx Picture Publisher 

$695.00 (color) 

S595.00 (gray-scale) 

MICROGRAFX 

1303 E. Arapahoe Rd. 

Richardson, TX 75081 

(214) 234-1769 



Excel 3.0 

$495.00 

MS-DOS 5.0 

$99.95 

Visual Basic 1 .0 

S199.00 

MICROSOFT 

One Microsoft Way 

Redmond, WA 98052 

(800) 436-9400 

Ultima VII: 
The Black Gate 
$79.95 

ORIGIN SYSTEMS 
RO. Box 161750 
Austin, TX 78716 
(800) 999-4939 

PC Globe 4.0 

$69.95 

PC GLOBE 

4700 S. McClintock 

Tempe, A2 85282 

(602) 730-9000 

Lemmings 
$49.99 
PSYGhJOStS 
29 St. Mary's Ct. 
Brooklme, MA 02146 
(617) 731-3553 

The Perfect General 

$59.95 

QUANTUM QUALITY 

PRODUCTS 

1046 River Ave. 

Flemington, NJ 08822 

(908) 788-2799 



Sony Laser Library CD-ROM 

System 

$699.00 

SONY CORPORATION 

OF AMERICA 

Computer Peripheral 

Products 

655 River Oaks Pkwy. 

San Jose, CA 95134 

(800) 222-0878 

(408) 432-0190 

Stacker MC/16 

{for MCA bus computers) 

$299,00 

Stacker AT/1 6 

(for 16-bit ISA bus computers) 

$249.00 

Stacker XT/a 

(for a-bit ISA bus computers) 

SI 99.00 

Stacker 

(software only) 

$149.00 

STAC ELECTRONICS 

5993 Avenida Encinas 

Carlsbad, CA 92008 

(619)431-7474 

Tandy MPC 

$2,799.00 

TANDY 

1800 One Tandy Ctr. 

Fort Worth, TX 76102 

(817) 878-6875 



guage, it does deal with objects. For 
example, tlie familiar old PRINT com- 
mand must be preceded by tfie name 
of the object. To print to the printer, the 
command Printer. Print is used. To 
print to a text box object, the com- 
mand would be Text1 Print, It's easy to 
get used to this new syntax, however. 

GEORGE CAMPBELL 

Best Personal Computer 

Tandy MPC 

First off the starting block to move PC- 
compatible multimedia into the home is 
Tandy, which introduced its exciting 
Tandy MPC (for fyjultimedia Personal 
Computer) at the end of September 
1991. The computer meets all of the 
requirements of the multimedia stan- 
dards. The lowest priced MPC, offering 
a 16-MHz 386SX processor. 2IVIB of 
RAM, and a 40MB hard disk, is only 
$2,799, MPC is more than a single ma- 
chine, however. Besides this attractive 
entry-level product, Tandy's nev; MPC 
computers range all the way up to a 33- 
MHz 386DX with 4MB of RAM and a 

32 COt^PUTE JANUARY 1992 



105MB hard disi< for $5,499. 
Each of the machines is 
shipped with MS-DOS 5.0, Win- 
dows with Multimedia, Tandy 
CDR-1000 CD-ROM, an ad- 
vanced sound board, and ei- 
ther VGA or Super VGA graph- 
ics. Tandy is also offering up- 
grade kits with either internal 
or externa! CD-ROM drives 
that will allow basic PCs to 
become multimedia PCs, if 
multimedia is the wave of 
the future, Tandy has a 
loci< on it as a founding 
member of the Muitimedia 
PC Marketing Council. 
With its broad support 
and marketing savvy, 
Tandy is perfectly 
positioned to 
make its MPC- '~~ 

computer 
the multi- - ' ' 
media plat- 
form of 
choice. 

ROBERT BIXBY 




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Best Peripheral 

Laser Library 

The year 1992 might well be the year 
of the CD-ROM, as consumer electron- 
ics companies and computer manufac- 
turers rush to embrace the latest 
means of information and entertain- 
ment presentation — the five-inch CD. 
There is no better sign that CD-ROIVI 
has arrived than the introduction of a 
CD-ROlvl system — the Sony Laser Li- 
brary — designed for consumers by the 
consumer electronics giant Sony. 

This system has everything you'll 
need to enter the world of CD-ROM 
from your PC. And if you do move on 
to Windows-based multimedia prod- 
ucts in the future, it's quite capable of 
meeting the basic specifications. At 
the heart of the Laser Library is an ex- 
ternal Sony CD-ROfvl drive, a solid per- 
former that meets all current demands 
for CD-R0fv1 use. If you're contemplat- 
ing adding a CD-ROM drive to your 
home computer system, you'll have 
plenty of models and types to choose 
from this year. The Sony Laser Library 
isn't the least expensive, but its supe- 
rior design and engineering, menu in- 
terface, easy installation, and high-quali- 
ty CD-ROM applications provide solid 
value for your investment. 
PETER scisco 




Citizen PN48 Notebook Printer 

Best Printer 

Citizen PN48 Notebook Printer 

For printing on the go. Citizen's tiny 
PN48 Professional notebook printer 
vi'ill do the job and do it well. Touted as 
the world's smallest laser quality print- 
er. It's small enough and light enough 
(only 2V? pounds, including the battery 
pack) to carry in a briefcase with a lap- 
top PC. It will quietly print just about any- 



thing — envelopes, stationery, labels, 
transparencies. 

There's no compromise on features, 
either. The PN48 uses thermal fusion 
printing for laser quality at a speed of 
80 cps, or about a page per minute. It 
has a friction-feed lever for automatic 
or manual paper loadinrj, and the bot- 
tom feed allows straight-through paper 
handling for envelopes, labels, and 
transparencies. The control panel in- 
cludes an LED display of the print stat- 
us and a menu selection button for 
choosing customized print settings. 
These settings include Roman and Cou- 
rier fonts; from 2.8 to ?0 characters per 
inch (cpi) or proportional spacing: and 
a vahety of typestyles (bold, italic, out- 
line, shadow, underline, emphasized, 
superscript, and subscnpt, in any com- 
bination). 

You can choose between form-feed 
or line-space paper adjustment to be- 
gin printing anywhere on a page, and 
darkness and contrast can be adjust 
ed for printing on different paper 
widths. A rechargeable ni-cad battery 
pack gives about 25 pages of printing 
per charge and can take as little as 
three hours to recharge, When 
plugged into a power source, the 
PN48 Notebook Printer will recharge 
the battery while you print. 

JILL CHAMPION 




34 COtv^PUTE JAtslUARY 1992 




ntltedleual GerfiTalii^realitep B 
more horrifying tiian fantasy. 



■i^iSMi^ 



'.^'- 

1/.S 



/'■m 






^^ 






I 



r^ " 



^ 




r 



^^/tep Laclc to IStk Century Germany 
—a feudal society in whick the Emperor 
is powerless. Private wars among nomes 
are rampant. Ajid men call on alcnemy 
ana. saintly intercession to snield, tnem- 
selves from plague, witchcraft, and tne 
swords or their enemies. 

DarManas" sets computer role- 
playing Lack 500 years, as it plunges you 
into this authentic and sinister setting. 

To survive, and hecome the stutt or 
legend, you'll ha^'e to lead your heroic 
hand against blood-thirsty robber 
knights, witches, dragons, and thieves. 

Each quest comtines the other- 
worldly excitement and intense realism 
you can only get irom MicroProse — the 
leader in simulation software. 

So look for Darhlanas where you 
buy computer games. Because this 
March, the Middle Ages return. 




PROSE 

SOFTWARE 



ENTERTAlNMEhiT 



For IBM-PC/Tandy compatibles. For Ihe latesl information on the rate 
dates and availabilities, call MicroProse Customer ServiST"'^ 
(410) 771-1151 ..M991 MicroProse. Inc. 
lao LaKalront Drive. 
HumValley.MD 21030. . 



\ 



Heroic Adventures in Medieval Germany 



circle Reader Service Number 113 



TEST LAB 



Scanners have won their right- 
ful place on the desktop. Pub- 
lishers no longer have to 
make do v/ith clip art from 
third parties, artistsareableto trans- 
fer their work instantly to electronic 
formats, and writers can import 
text from printed sources almost 
as easily as cutting and pasting it 
from another application. 

The strong demand for low- 
cost scanning alternatives has re- 
sulted in a crowded field of man- 
ufacturers and marketers, each 
trying to outdo the rest by offering 
convenience and high-powered 
applications as premiums with the 
purchase of a hand scanner. 

This months Test Lab covers 
hand scanners with a focus on 
graphics. Today's scanner man- 
ufacturers offer a wide variety of 
prices, capabilities, and bundles. 
Some might include low-cost 
DOS software: others take advan- 
tage of the Windov/s environ- 
ment. Some scanners even work 
with OCR (Optical Character Rec- 
ognition) software, If you see a 
package here that looks attrac- 
tive, check with the manufacturer 
for additional options. 

Few peripheral devices place 
such heavy processing demands 
on a personal computer as scan- 
ners do, and you may discover 
that installation is not as simple as 
slipping in a card. Editors found 
themselves reading installation 
manuals carefully (for some it was 
the first time they'd ever had to 
read one), trying Windows in dif- 
ferent modes, editing PIF files, 
and in one case, trying different 
computers to make their scan- 
ners operate properly. Although 
scanners are. m the main, user- 
friendly after installation, more 
work needs to be done to make 
them easier to install. Fortunate- 
ly, most scanners come with free 
technical support and friendly, 
helpful support personnel. 

Whether you're a teacher, an 
artist, a writer, or a desktop pub- 
lisher, if you're in the market for 
a hand scanner, you've never 
had more choices or lower costs. 

36 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 




THE COMPLETE PC 
1963 Concourse Dr. 
San Jose, CA 95131 
(8001 229-1753 
List price: $349 
Warranty: 2 years, repiace 
or repair 



THE COMPLETE HALF- 
PAGE SCANNER/GS 

Steady-handed I'm definitely not. 
as the family photo album will 
clearly show. However, I found 
that the Complete Half-Page Scan- 
ner/GS offers smooth, dependa- 
ble scanning — and up to 256 
shades of gray. 

I approached this product eval- 
uation with a combination of ea- 
ger anticipation and trepidation. 
On the one hand, I was eager to 
see how this unimposing device 
could scan line art for a newslet- 
ter or photos for a family history. 
On the other, I had struggled 
enough with interrupt and ad- 
dress conflicts to know that I 
could be letting myself in for 
some tedious tinkering with DIP 
switches, jumpers, and software 
settings. The installation proved 
to be reasonably easy — default 
settings worked on one comput- 
er but not on another. 

This scanner comes with its 
own special version of Image-In. 
a Windows program used for 
both image scanning and image 
enhancement. Unfortunately, my 
first attempts at scanning with 
this product left members of my 
family looking like the Cone- 
heads, owing to an intermittent 
blurring effect. Line art I scanned 
also came out with odd intermit- 
tent blurs or "garbage." Some ex- 
perimenting with Windows set- 
tings revealed that this odd effect 
occurred on my computer only 
with Windows operating in Stan- 
dard and Enhanced modes. Run- 
ning the program in Real mode 
solved the problem, and my fam- 
ily looked as normal as possible — 



at least without any appearance 
of cranial abnormalities 

In combination with the Image- 
In software, this scanner gives 
you a number of attractive fea- 
tures. You can scan images with 
resolutions up to 400 dots per 
inch or with up to 256 shades of 
gray, adjust brightness, and ma- 
nipulate the scanned image in a 
number of ways. Edit the gray- 
map; enhance edges; and sharp- 
en, blur, rotate, or flip the image. 
You can save your scanned im- 
ages in a number of popular for- 
mats, including PCX, TIFF BMR 
and PostSchpt EPS. 

The scanner itself performed 
well. I found the design comfort- 
able and the controls workable. 
In addition to the button that initi- 
ates the scan, the scanner in- 
cludes a brightness control, a 
gray-levels switch, and a resolu- 
tion switch. For optimal scanning, 
the resolution and gray levels 
must be set in concert: To scan 
at 256 gray scales required that 
the scanner be set for 100 dpi; to 
scan at 16 gray scales, 200 dpi; 
and to scan in monochrome, 300 
or 400 dpi. 

I found the documentation 
very good for the most part, offer- 
ing helpful illustrations, tips, cov- 
erage of the available features, 
and even a short course. Particu- 
larly useful to me were the exam- 
ples of images modified with the 
program's various features. A sec- 
tion devoted to troubleshooting 



would be a welcome addition to 
the next version of the program. 

As I managed to use the scan- 
ner only in Real mode with my 
PC, I found it a disadvantage to 
move from Image-In to a program 
like WinRlx. which requires En- 
hanced mode. However, I can 
live with this limitation, and the 
folks at The Complete PC assure 
me that this package is designed 
to to work in Enhanced mode. 

The smooth operation, numer- 
ous software features, and relia- 
bility of The Complete Half-Page 
Scanner/GS make up for the limi- 
tations I experienced, And as I'm 
not involved in heavy-duty desk- 
top publishing, the price and fea- 
tures suit me well and make this 
an attractive package. 

MIKE HUDrJALL 

Circle Reader Service Number 301 



DFI CHS-4000 
COLOR HANDY 
SCANNER 

Are you an aspiring desktop pub- 
lisher looking for color scanning 
capabilities, but you don't want to 
shell out a pile of money for a col- 
or flatbed scanner? Take heart. 
The CHS-4000 Color Handy Scan- 
ner from DFI offers full-color desk- 
top scanning capabilities as well 
as superb black-and-white scan- 
ning. It's easy to use and flexible 
in its operation. 

Installation of this scanner is 
reasonably uncomplicated. The 
Handy Scanner's bus board 
plugs into an empty T6-bit slot in 
your PC. Attach the scanner to 
the board, and then use the scan- 
ner's Exerciser software to scan 
images and save them in PCX for- 
mat. The Exerciser program is 
bare-bones — a simple menu with 
options for setting the scan 
mode, vertical and horizontal res- 
olutions, brightness, hue, con- 
trast, dither pattern, gamma cor- 
rection, and display mode (mon- 
ochrome, EGA, or '\/GA). You can 



also save and load PCX files 
from the menu, as well as start 
your scan. 

Although very simple com- 
pared with fuil-blown imaging soft- 
ware, the Exerciser software will 
let you get started with your 
Handy Scanner right away. And 
because you can save your files 
as PCX files, you can import 
them later into most desktop pub- 
lishing and illustration programs 
or convert them to different file for- 
mats like TIFF or EPS. 

In addition, the Handy Scan- 
ner package includes a copy of 
PC Paintbrush IV Plus, which you 
can use instead of the scanner's 
Exercise program; however, you 
should be aware that PC Paint- 
brush IV Plus requires an expand- 
ed memory driver to work prop- 
erly. If you're running extended 
memory in a 386-class PC, you 
can create expanded memory 
support by using the 
EMM386. SYS driver from your 
DOS directory 

Other system requirements in- 
clude one megabyte of memory 
and four megabytes of available 
hard disk space. You should al- 
so have a VGA display capable 
of 256 colors at 640 x 400 reso- 
lution to view the results. 

With practice and patience, 
you'll soon be producing high- 
quality color scans with the 
Handy Scanner. The unit itself pro- 
vides plenty of constructive feed- 
back during operation through its 
use of LED indicators. And 
though the software is without 
frills, it's suitable for grabbing im- 
ages that can later be enhanced. 
PETER scisco 
Circle Reader Service Number 302 



DFI 

2544 Port SL 

West Sacramento, CA 95691 

(916) 568-1234 

List price: $695 

Warranty: 1 year, repiace or repair 



NASA PHOTOS 

ONLINE 

NASA has supplied COMPUTE 
with some pretty spectacular pho- 
tos, which have been scanned so 
that you can see them online and 
download them if you like. Simply 
log on to COIvlPUTE/NET on Amer- 
ica Online or GEnie. You'll see 
|USt how well a scanner can per- 
form. We've uploaded tons of Su- 
per VGA NASA pictures. There's 
also a shareware viewing program 
called VPIC. When you download 
these files to take a look, you'll be 
surprised at their quality, and you 
might decide to go ahead and gel 
a scanner after all. To find COM- 
PUTE/r^ET ]usv log on to America 
Online or GEnie and use the key- 
word COMPUTE. 

To capture the pictures and con- 
vert them to GIF files, we used a 
Howtek color flatbed scanner. It's 
a terrific piece of hardware that 
helped us gel professional results. 



KYE GENISCAN 
GS-B105GPLUS 

Take a quick image-grabbing sa- 
fari with the GS-B105G, stalking 
new Windows waWpaper or news- 
paper articles for the family news- 
letter. You'll see the merits of a mul- 
tipurpose scanner, 

The GS-B105G scanner will 
scan in resolutions from 100 to 
400 dpi. and in the self-explana- 
tory modes of black-and-white, 
low dither, high dither, and VGA- 




JANUARY 1992 COMPUTE 37 1 



TEST LAB 




true 256 gray scale. You adjust 
these settings via switclies on ei- 
ther side of the scanner. A thumb 
wheel coritrols conirast. and an as- 
tutely placed start button rounds 
out the physical controls. 

Manipulating innages couldn't 
be simpler, using the included 
/Ptoo software. This l/l//ndoi/vs ap- 
plication concentrates on process- 
ing your raw data through a num- 
ber of filters. Although color or 
black-and-white photographs al- 
ready scan with remarkable clar- 
ity and speed thanks to the hard- 
ware when set for 256 gray scale, 
you reserve the right to enhance, 
average, sharpen, or blur your 
scanned image. These effects 
turn your PC into a photo-process- 
ing lab. 

Most people don't run Windows 
under true 256-color mode for the 
sake of speed. To see fair repro- 
ductions of your stunning full-gray 
images, convert them to 16-color 
Bf^P files with Photo. A nifty /P/io- 
to option makes the step down in 
quality less noticeable with choic- 
es of gray, pseudo color, and fire- 
light (red and yellow scale) remap- 
ped palettes. Toy with the Hue and 
Saturation sliders to tweak the col- 
ors into acceptability. 

You'll find a second scanning 
program — a gray-scale version of 
Color Maestro — bundled with the 
GS-B105G. This software offers 
more features common to paint 
programs and doesn't require Win- 
dows{o run. I found Color Maes- 
tro less satisfactory, though, be- 
cause of its extreme slowness 
and constant disk accessing. 

How many times have you 
found yourself with only hardcop- 

38 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



KVE INTERNATIONAL 
2605 E. Cedar SI. 
OnlariD, CA 91761 
(714) 923-3510 
List price: $399 
Warranty : 1 year, pans and labor 



ies of a document after a terrible 
hard drive crash? Install the includ- 
ed optical character reader 
(OCR) software, CAT OCR. and 
replace your files with a few pass- 
es of the GS-B105G. Output your 
OCR work in WordStar. WordPer^ 
feet, and ASCII formats. If CAT 
OCR's reasonably effective refer- 
ence font doesn't meet your stan- 
dards for speed or accuracy, you 
can build your own specialized 
font-recognition library. This proc- 
ess takes only minutes. 

Windows veterans will need 
the concise manuals only for ad- 
vanced work: neophytes will be 
scanning everything in sight just 
moments after a cursory reading. 
A marvel of simplicity and win- 
ning design, the speedy GS- 
B105G software and hardware 
bundle makes scanning as effort- 
less as using a mouse. 

DAVID SEARS 

Circle Reader Service Number 3D3 

KYE GENISCAN 
GS-C105PLUS 

Does anyone really need a color 
hand scanner? A year or two ago, 
I would've said that you should 
consider one only if you're look- 
ing to dabble in high-end color 
desktop publishing. But now with 



KYE INTERNATIONAL 
2605 E. Cedar St. 
Ontario, CA 91761 
(714) 923-3510 
List price: $699 
Warranty: 1 year, parts 



Windows and multimedia playing 
a larger part in our software lives 
and high-resolution monitors mul- 
tiplying like rabbits, we have 
more ways than ever to use 
scanned color images. 

KYE International offers two in- 
expensive color-hand scanner 
packages that let you enter the 
age of color without having to 
take out a second mortgage on 
your house. The $649 GS-C105 
package includes a 256-color 
hand scanner, the DOS-based 
Color Maestro program, and an 
interface card. The GS-C105 
Plus package costs just $50 
more and adds two programs: 
CAT OCR ior OCR text scanning 
and the l4//nc/ows-based IPhoto 
for sophisticated gray-scale and 
color image manipulation (includ- 
ing support for 24-bit display 
adapters). While only a maso- 
chist would want to do a lot of 
OCR work with a graphics-based 
hand scanner, IPtioto adds extra 
file formats, editing tools, and im- 
age-processing capabilities that 
you might want to take advan- 
tage of. 

But be warned — you must 
have expanded memory (also 
known as EMS or LIM memory) in 
order to perform 256-color 
scans. If you don't have expand- 
ed memory but you do have DOS 
5.0, you can use DOS's built-in ex- 
panded memory manager. 
EMM386, to convert your extend- 
ed memory to expanded memory. 
(Put a RAM switch after DE- 
VICE=C:\DOS\EMM386.EXE in 
your CONFIG.SYS file; check your 
DOS 5.0 manual for details.) If you 





KICK BACK 

and relax, you've got a CH Products Controller! 



\ 











Flightslick" Machfand Machll'ancl GameCar^ III Automatic" RoSerMouse" 

Mach I Plus " Mach III " GameCard III Automatic/MCA " 

Circle Reader Service Number 207 



970 Pafk Csnter Dnve 
Ksla, Calilomia 92083 

(SJ9) 598-2518 ' 

To order. (800) $24-5804 ^^gjiiiii^^ 

Made in USA 

Availat^e tor Apple. Mac, IBM PC/PS2 
and compatible computers. 



TEST LAB 



don't have DOS 5.0, you can use 
OEMM-386. 386Max. BlueMax. Tur- 
bo EMS, or another expanded 
memory manager to corivert your 
extended memory to expanded. 
Without expanded memory, you'll 
only be able to capture 2- and 16- 
color images. In addition, Color 
Maesfra supports many of the high- 
er-resolution modes of the popu- 
lar Super VGA cards, and iPhoto 
supports any resolution that's sup- 
ported fay Windows. 

Despite uneven documenta- 
tion and the occasional software 
glitch, the GeniScan GS-C105 
Plus will reward the patient user 
with excellent-quality color imag- 
es. For frequent use, consider a 
SI ,200-52,000 flatbed color scan- 
ner. But for occasional use and a 
relatively inexpensive introduc- 
tion to color scanning, take a 
good look at either of KYE's coior- 
scanner bundles. 

DAVID ENGLISH 

Circle Reader Service Number 304 

LOGITECH SCANMAN 
MODEL 256 

Plug a scanner into your comput- 
er, and you plug into a whole new 
level of versatility. I've had no 
regrets since hooking up a 




lOGITECH 

6505 Kaiser Dr. 

Fremont, CA 94555 

(SIS) 795-8500 

Ust price: $449 

Warraniy: limited lifetime hardware 

warranty 



Logitech ScanMan Model 256 
gray-scale scanner as part of a 
desktop publishing setup. 

Scanning materials for publica- 
tion is not easy, but Logitech's 
scanner sports excellent controls 
and includes Arisel, an outstand- 
ing image editor. 

ScanMan installs easily, with 
the only stumbling block being 
possible conflicts with I/O base ad- 
dresses and IRQs. The ScanMan 
adapter board fits in either an 8- 
bit or a 16-blt slot, but using the 
latter is preferred because It per- 
mits the ScanMan to use IRQ 11 
or 12. This ensures you'll avoid 
conflicts with mouse and COiVl 
ports, but if trouble arises, you'll 
find plenty of help in the manual. 

Once you have installed the sys- 
tem, fire up Windows, run Ansel, 
calibrate your scanner, and start 
scanning. 

Scanner controls include a res- 
olution switch, to select resolu- 



A HAND-HELD SCANNER FOR TEXT 



Typist is the hand scanner irom Cae- 
re, the OCR peopie. It's designed for 
entering short sections of text from 
printed sources. When I used It, Typ- 
ist was somewhat slower than Cae- 
re's claim ol 250 words per minute 
on a 386SX- based PC but still much 
faster than typing. Typist can scan 
line art and 256 gray scales as well 
as read text in any of tour directions. 
You can set the direction for it to 
read, or you can leave it to Typist to 
determine which direction is best. In 
column text you can set the OCR to 
pay attention to only the first, middle, 
or last column of text. Typist can 
scan a wide page of text in a series 
of horizontal bands, detect the over- 
lap, and zip the text together. 



Typist requires 4IV1B of memory be- 
cause OCR work is incredibly diffi- 
cult. Typist, like almost every other 
OCR system, stumbles when it runs 
across italic text {or any other unu- 
sual type style). It can't make out 
one Italic letter in ten, which is not 
intended as a knock against Typist- 
it's practically an industry standard. 
Likewise, a contrast setting that Is 
too dark or too light will result in a 
bad reading. There's little chance of 
experiencing problems from a 
crooked scan because Typist's 
head is outfitted with wide rubber roll- 
ers that keep your scans straight. 

—ROBERT aiXBY 
Circle Reader Service Number 31 1 



40 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



tions ranging from 100 
to 400 dpi; an image mode 
switch, to choose either 
black-and-white mode or 16- 
64- or 256-gray-scaie modes; 
and a contrast dial, :o minimize 
problems in your original, Scan- 
Man also includes a scan speed 
indicator to help you avoid losing 
data by scanning too fast. 

Working with black-and-white 
line art is less difficult than work- 
ing with gray-scale images, but 
the image-editing software pro- 
vides excellent tools for both. 

Once an image is scanned, 
Ansel permits you to enlarge the 
image and modify it pixel by pix- 
el. A black-and-v/hite logo 
scanned for use in a newsletter or 
brochure cleans up nicely with 
Ansel. 

Ansel a\so allows you to rotate, 
flip, and crop images; and the 
software includes a "deskew" 
option that helps you straighten 
an imperfectly scanned image. 
Gray-scale images can be light- 
ened, darkened, sharpened, 
smoothed, or equalized. By work- 
ing with a combination of these 
tools, you can produce images 
that look beautiful — on your com- 
puter monitor. Transferring these 
images to the printed page with 
satisfactory contrast and clarity 
takes experimentation. 

Printing controls are extensive. 
If your printer allows it, you can 
print the gray scales, or you have 
the option of using dithering or er- 
ror diffusion to simulate gray 
shades. You have full control over 
output size, and you can select 
from a series of borders if you'd 
like your artwork framed. 



EXPANSION BOARDS 



Orchid Technologj 

Hiinii|iiist l(vi<^ 

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BOCA Research 

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VIDEO GRAPHICS CARDS 



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PRINTER UPGRADES 



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Panasonic 4420 & 44501 

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145(11 MB SI 79 4455 2MBS2fiH 

Epson EPL6000&EPL 7000 

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IBM401»&4019E 

IMB5;i2(l2MH$15ri:i5MB$21!) 



There's 

More To Know 

About 

Upgrades 

Than Just 

Their Name. 



m 



ihm you wanl lo 
(ipsradp your compdler. 
calliiifi ;i conitwny Ihatjiist 
knows brands aiiri order 
lUinilicrs wim'l g(!t you very far. 
Tlial'vS why Universal offers yon 
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Not only does Universal offer 
llic widest sel(Ytionof hranii 
names ovailalile liiil we're also 
knowledj^i'aiile aliout tiow tliey 
work. And !iow they're inslaik'd. 
So we'll lie aide to fielp yon fig- 
ure out what you need, .^iitl 
we'll do it in a way that'll \v 
very nnderstandatile. 
Universal also offers a vaiieiy 

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MEMORY CHIPS & MODULES 



DR\M 

l\1-70\8 S5.25 256X4-flO\f; S5.15 
IXl-WJNS 54.95 25CX4-1(«NSS4.95 
1 X I- tUONS S4.75 25fiX4- I20NS S4.75 
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25f)Xl-l(K)\SSI.H52.56\l-l50NSSl.:tf) 
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fim-IUlNS S2.75 ihix;-i2nvs Sl.tW 
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TEST LAB 




Exporting to other applications 
is easily accomplished. Files can 
be saved in TIFF, EPS, PCX, and 
BMP formats. In saving your files, 
you can control the resulting doc- 
ument's dpi and image size. 

Although ScanMan's scanning 
window is only four inches wide, 
larger documents can be accom- 
modated using Ansel's stitch fea- 
ture, which permits you to scan 
items in segments and match the 
segments up onscreen. It's not 
easy, but with a steady hand and 
some practice, you can put togeth- 
er seamless images. 

The ScanMan 256 gray-scale 
scanner hardware/software com- 
bination is a solid value and a wor- 
thy desktop publishing tool. 

TONY ROBERTS 

Circle Reader Service Number 305 

MARSTEK M-800W 

For black-and-white scanning, 
this Marstek model provides ad- 
equate, if not exceptional, capa- 
bilities. It boasts several good fea- 
tures, such as easy installation 
and sound software support. But 
those features must be balanced 
against weak documentation and 
unimpressive use of the Windows 
environment. 

The fu1-800W will scan at 800- 
dpi resolution, an impressive ca- 
pability for desktop publishers 
and others looking for high-quali- 
ty images to enhance their docu- 
ments and publications, The size 

42 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



MARSTEK 

17795 Skyoark Blvd., #F 

Irvine, CA 92714 

Um 833-7740 

List price: $299 

Warranty: 1 year, parts and labor 



of the image to be scanned is lim- 
ited by your computer's memo- 
ry — I recommend at least four 
megabytes of system memory. If 
you run an expanded memory driv- 
er, the size of the images can be 
somewhat larger than if you're run- 
ning extended memory 

Other system requirements in- 
clude Windows, but here, too, 
there are limits. You can run the 
scanner software only in Real or 
Standard mode, which defeats 
the purpose of a multitasking en- 
vironment {unless you limit your- 
self to running only Windows ap- 
plications — perhaps a possibility 
for desktop publishers who 
might live exclusively in the Win- 
dows environment). 

Although the installation proc- 
ess is rather straightforward (in- 
sert a bus card into your comput- 
er, plug the scanner into the card, 
and then install the /mage-/n soft- 
ware), the overall documentation 
isn't nearly clear or complete 
enough. 

The manual covering the hard- 
ware runs a brief seven pages. 
There is no troubleshooting sec- 
tion, nor is there any clear indica- 
tion of how interrupts or DMA con- 
flicts are to be resolved, I experi- 
enced parity errors on my system 
until I managed to reconfigure the 
hardware by trial and error — not 
exactly the way you want to ap- 



MIGRAPH 

200 S. 333 St., Ste. 220 

Federal Way, WA 98003 

(206) 838-4677 

List price: $895 

Warranty: 6 monlhs, repair or 

replace (hardware) 



proach a problem involving high- 
tech hardware such as a hand 
scanner. The Image-In software 
documentation is little better, ap- 
parently having been either trans- 
lated or written outside of the 
United States, 

As for performance, the M- 
8Q0W produces well-defined 
black-and-white halftones from col- 
or originals and produces very 
good images of line art. The scan- 
ner also can import text, provided 
you have software like Perceive Per- 
sonal, available from Marstek for 
$695 (a coupon included with the 
M-800W allows you to purchase 
the OCR software for $129). 

If you don't require a top-of-the- 
line scanner for your black-and- 
white images or line art or if your 
budget excludes the top-end scan- 
ners from your system, the 
IVIarstek M-800W may suit your 
needs. You'll have to live within 
some limitations, but if you can ac- 
cept the boundaries, this scanner 
will expand your graphic horizons. 

PETER SCISCO 

Circle Reader Service Number 306 



MIGRAPH CS-4096 

Are you looking for great color ca- 
pabilities In a hand-held scanner? 
Migraph's color scanner goes so 
far above and beyond what most 
hand scanner users would want 
or need, delivenng a 4096-color 
scan at 200 dpi (fixed), that it's a 




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TEST LAB 



little disapDOinting to discover 
that the second-best scan is 8 col- 
ors at 400 dpi (you can set the 
scanner to any multiple of TO dpi 
between 100 and 400 for all scan 
levels but the 4096-co[or scan). 

This 8-color scan is called col- 
or line art. The scanner is capa- 
ble of scanning monochrome 
line art, also. There are settings 
for color and monochrome dith- 
ered graphics as well, but these 
didn't work properly on my ma- 
chine, and technical support was 
at a loss to speculate as to why. 
The 4096-color images can be 
saved as 256-color images to 
save some space. 

The software that accepts and 
displays the scanned image is a 
very simple Windows program 
that does little more than give you 
access to the necessary software 
settings for the different levels of 
scanning. You can set resolution 
and adjust your color settings to 
make the scanned image more 
realistic. 

The scanner is shipped with Pic- 
ture Publisher, which used to be 
published by Astral but iS now a 
Micrografx program. Unfortunate- 
ly, drivers are not available that 
would allow the scanner to scan 
directly into Picture Publisfier In 
order to transfer the image be- 
tween the two programs, you 



SCANNING FORMATS 

fvlany of the file formats used to 
store scanned information are ras- 
ter formats. These include PCX 
(used in PC Paintbrusli), BMP 
(used in Windows waWpaper), and 
TIFF (Tagged Information File For- 
mat). A raster format maps out. or 
codes, tlie dots of an image. Some- 
times It's also called a bitmap for- 
mat. A vector format, on tfie other 
fiand, describes an image not in 
terms of dots but in terms of math- 
emiatical-stiape descripiions. 
Some of the vector formats are 
CGM (t-larvard Graphics, Lotus 
Freelance, Pixie), PostScript (actu- 
ally a language), and WPG 
(WordPerfecr— these files can be 
either raster or vector). 



44 COI\/tPUTE JAhiUARY1992 



MOUSE SYSTEMS 
47505 Seabridge Dr. 
Fremont, CA 94538 
(5t0) 65G-1117 
List price: $795 
Warranty: 2 years (liietlme 
tech support) 



must store it on disk or transfer it 
via the Clipboard [Picture Publisli- 
eris also a Windows program). I 
found this to be a terrific bother 
and was often presented with in- 
sufficient memory and insufficient 
disk space messages while try- 
ing to effect the transfer, The CS- 
4096 aiso ships with ImagePrep, 
a screen-capture, file-conversion 
and -compression, and image- 
processing program. 

The CS-4096 blinks its lights if 
you scan too rapidly. This is one 
enhancement I'd like to see add- 
ed to all hand scanners. Most 
give so little feedback that hand 
scanning is pure trial and error. 
The installation is simple and 
straightforward, and (though this 
experience may be unique to me) 
for once I didn't have to change 
jumpers to make a board work. 
Somehow Migraph had set the 
jumpers to work perfectly with the 
IRQs and DMAs in even my fully 
packed computer. 

The principal use of this scan- 
ner (particularly its 4096-color 
scan) would be preparing imag- 
es and backgrounds for presen- 
tations on the computer screen. 
The lesser levels are useful and 
provided ctear images, but the 
software used to capture these im- 
ages can be cumbersome, and 
you must use more than one soft- 
v^are package to create things 
like 256 gray scales. By the time 
you read this, the product will prob- 
ably be shipping with the new, 
award-winning version of Picture 
Publisher. I hope that a driver will 
also be available that will capture 
images into that program so that 
they will be immediately useful, 

ROBERT aiXBY 

Circle Reader Service Number 307 




MOUSE SYSTEMS 
PAGEBRUSH/COLOR 

The PageBrush/Color hand scan- 
ner puts full-cotor desktop scan- 
ning within reach of PC publishers 
and desktop graphic artists. 
Supporting both 24-bit color scan- 
ning and 8-bil blacl<-and-white 
scanning, this unit proves itself 
both versatile and easy to operate. 

Installation consists of plug- 
ging a bus board into an empty 
16-bit slot in your PC, Attach the 
scanner to the board; then install 
the ImageQuest scanner soft- 
ware. Using the PageBrush/Col- 
or requires Windows 3.0, which 
simplifies the installation process. 
Other system requirements in- 
clude one megabyte of memory, 
a VGA display capable of 256 col- 
ors at 640 X 400 resolution (for 
best results, your video board 
should have a Windows driver, 
and Windows should be set to 
256-color mode), and a hard 
disk with a minimum of four meg- 
abytes of free space. 

An LED indicating [he scanner's 
resolution flashes when the scan- 
ner is activated. It stops flashing 
when the scanner is warmed up. 

Welcome feedback is supplied 
as you operate this device. If you 
happen to move the scanner too 
quickly, the top Mode light 
blinks. The light will go off if you 
have lost any part of the image da- 
ta because of unsure or too- 
quick movements. If this hap- 
pens, you'li have to begin the 
scanning process again. 



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Sturli 'tupts 



Circle Reader Service 
Number 193 



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iri:i\ tall our nriU-r cli-sk loll-frfi- 1 1 IWHirs u t!iiy 
tr(>ni;in> nf the ftillowin^ oninrrlcs vi;5 AT&T 
Inter nationat SOO .Ser%-icc." 



BELGIUM t1-6533 

DENMARK 8001-0578 

FHANCE,- 05-S0-1368 

SERMAHY O130-S1-1139 

rtALV 1678-711-179 

JAPAN 003M1-19D7 



NETHERLAHD m-mi-HK 

SINGAPORE SD0-1E:5 

SPAIN 9110-98-1120 

SWEDEN 010-793-626 

SWITZ 046-05-9632 

UK IISOO-89-7452 



a FRENCH S265.00 

a SPAWISH $265.00 

n GERMAN $265.00 

D ITALIAN $265.00 

n PORTUGUESE (Brazilian) $265.00 

n JAPANESE S235.00 

a RUSSIAN S28S.00 

D CHINESE (Mandarin) $285.00 



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Or Write To; 

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Please add Si 1 .00 shipping & handling 

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I All Funds Payable in U.S. Dollars | 



iTambien tenemos cursos paxa aprender ingles 



TEST LAB 



If you create a black-and- 
white scan, you can select from 
five levels of resolution — from 
pure black-and-white and four 
modes of dithered grayscales. Ex- 
perimenting with the setting will 
let you translate color images in- 
to clear black-and-white images 
for simple desktop publishing 
chores. Color images are 
scanned in 12-bit color, which 
can be saved as 24- or 12-bit col- 
or TIFF files or as MAC files. 

Effective image capture and 
processing requires not just a 
good scanner and softv/are but 
also flexibility in processing the 
scanned images. To that end. 
Mouse Systems includes a copy 
of ImagePrepUom Computer Pres- 
entations with the PageBrush/Col- 
or scanner. This software pack- 
age allows you to process your 
mages professionally, Using 
ImagePrep in conjunction with 
the scanning software allows you 
to enhance and fine-tune 
scanned images and save those 
images in a variety of formats — 
including EPS, PCX, CPI, TIFF, 
and others. 

The PageBrush/Color scanner 
produces adequate scanned im- 
ages for use in a variety of appli- 
cations. Its ease-of-use is en- 
hanced by soiid image-process- 
ing software. With practice, you 
can soon be creating full-color im- 
ages for business presentations, 
desktop publishing, graphic illus- 
tration, or multimedia applications. 

PETER SCISCO 

Circle Reader Service Number 306 

NISCA NISCAN/GS 

I had the good fortune to be as- 
signed the NISCAN/GS gray- 
scale hand scanner for this re- 
view. A very workmanlike prod- 
uct, this scanner was comfortable 
in the hand and generated imag- 
es of high quality at up to 256 
gray scales. 

The NISCAN/GS ships with /m- 
age-In, a software product with 
which I have had a !ove-hate re- 
lationship for some time. It's ex- 

46 COtVIPUTE JANUARY 1992 



NISCA 

IQigoldDentanM, Ste. 104 

Garrollton, TX 750S6 

(214)242-9696 

List price: $399 

Warranty: iitetime tor hardware, 

1 year for software 



tremely powerful software that (to 
me. anyway) seems dedicated to 
preventing me from doing what I 
want to do. Although I've worked 
with it for some time, I still find my- 
self saving Images and working 
with them in another program sim- 
ply because the other program is 
easier to use. 

This difficulty doesn't extend to 
the scanning tools in Image-In, 
however. The scanning tools, in- 
cluding a very useful preview win- 
dow, are designed perfectly to al- 
low you to make settings, capture 
an image in one of several reso- 
lutions, save it. and then worl< 
with It in another program. I regret 
spending so much space talking 
about the software that accompa- 
nies the scanner, but so much of 
the scanning experience Is direct- 
ly related to the usability of the soft- 
ware that you simply can't ignore 
it. And this Is particularly true of 
the Nisca product because the 
scanner has only one control on 
it: a push button to hold down 
while actively scanning. Beyond 
saying that the scanner is comfort- 
able and looks solidly built, there 
is little to say about the product 
itself, 

Image-In allows you to set the 
horizontal and vertical resolutions 
Independently, between 100 and 
400 dpi, providing for some Inter- 
esting distortions. If provides for 
monochrome (purely blac(<-and- 
white), three different kinds of dith- 
ering, and 4- and 8-bit gray- 
scale scanning (16 and 256 
shades of gray, respectively). 
You can adjust brigtitness and 
contrast. The preview was my fa- 
vorite feature, however. Seeing a 





bad scan as it's happening is a 
great help in learning to hold 
your hand steady and pull the 
scanner across the image smooth- 
ly and at the right speed. 

The software allows you to 
save the image in several differ- 
ent formats, including PCX, TIFF. 
H^/ndows bitmap, MacPaint, EPS, 
Microsoft Paint, EyeStar, and 
GEM Paint. You can save imag- 
es at any resolution and at any 
scaled size. If the file format sup- 
ports compression, /.-nage-Zriwill 
compress the saved image. 

Installation was simple, and I 
had little trouble operating the NIS- 
CAN/GS. thanks to Image-In. 

ROBERT BIXBY 

Circle Reader Service Number 309 



SHARP JX- 100 

Sharp's JX-100 is neither a 
flatbed scanner nor a hand-held 
scanner but a marriage of the 
two, inheriting both strengths and 
weaknesses in the bargain. 

With its 3.93 X 6.29 inch scan- 
ning area, the JX-100 almost fills 
a VGA screen with vibrant 256- 



All Benctimark/Performance Test- 
ing is conducted by Computer Prod- 
uct Testing Services (CRTS), an 
independent testing and evalua- 
tion laboratory based in Ma- 
nasquan, New Jersey. Every effort 
has been made to ensure the ac- 
curacy and completeness of this da- 
ta as of the date of testing. Perform- 
ance may vary among samples. 



THE 



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TEST LAB 



SCANNER OUTPUT 

TEST PROCEDURES 

The scanner output samples for both 
the line-art and the photo irnages 
were generated using a setting of 200 
dpi (dots per inch), We set light/dark 
controls on all scanners for the 
midrange point. For all line-art scans, 
we used the black-and-white or line- 
art setting, where available; for all pho- 
to scans, we used the photo or gray- 
scale setting When storing scanned 
images, we used PCX flies where 
possible. 

Output width was set at five inches 
for all images to make comparisons 
equal. The images received no re- 
touching, alteration, or cleanup of any 
kind— they were outputted exactly as 
they were scanned Incomplete or 
"clipped" images reflect a scanner's 
maximum capture area at 200 dpi in 
a single-pass scan. 

— TOIvl BENFORD, PRESIDENT 
COMPUTER PRODUCT TESTING SERVICES 




ORIGINAL 




THE COMPLETE HALF-PAGE SCANNER/GS 




DPI CHS-4000 COLOR HANDY SCANNER 








- -V': 


in" 






if 


■ 





KYE GENISCAN GS-B105G PLUS 
48 COtvlPUTE JANUARY 1992 



KYE GENISCAN GS-C105 PLUS 




MIGRAPH CS4096 COLOR HAND SCANNER 



MOUSE SYSTEMS PAGEBRUSH/COLOR 




NISCA NISCAN/GS 



SHARP JX-100 



JANUARY 1992 COMPUTE 49 



SUPER HOLIDAY SALE! 



SINCE 1979 



STILL #1! 



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Stylish Space Saving 
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IDE Dual Floppy/ 
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1 Parallel and 

2 Serial Ports 

51 2K Memory 

Expandable to 4MB 



3.5 " 1 .44MEG High 
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Monitor and S25" Fiopjnf Drive Option^ 



200 Watt Power Supply 



101 Key AT® Style 

Enhanced Keyboard 



When oun Head BirfER lao ue we would be *sle io owes a 286 computbi K3fl K99*n!j * 386SJ( ccMPiran fob t389.95 w Rffii mowwT was 
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Barrington, II. 60010 

'"We Love Our Customers' 



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• 1 MEG RAM, EKpandoble to 8 MEG • Intel™ CPU • 1 01 Key Enhonc»d Ke>4»ard • 200 Watt Power SuppV • 1 Porallal ond 
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33MHz 386 Desktop Computer $799,95 

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1 82cps Near Leher Quality Printer 

Venatik Paper Handling ■ Compocl Design - ExcellBnt Piinl Qoality 

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139 



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MODEMS 



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2400 Baud Internal Modem 

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We Carry a Full Lini of Computers, 

Software & Accessories! 
Cau for Your FREE aTAioc Today! 

lOOO'S OF ITEMS IN stock 



HouRS(CDT): Monday - Friday 8am to 8pm, Saturday 9am to Noon 

Pkm^o not'if\6uiitiH^!f»t¥^ c^roH. CeJ bg«f'^f b»«il fUrii«r«doML Wt intainflfiihipi>i«hal rotxln] ccntto on nvrndfy ihippid Uf^ Ground. 2nd day ^#% JUI DIITBD ft IDE ^T 11^ #* 

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indudtdVw^fenrwMrid. ntiirvbrluihnHDnpLi'rpDHiar^, oduolpn^ m^, t '~r^ .^^ ' .r^ ' » 

crrcle Reader Service Number 114 *pye, L,0X/C OUT CUStOfTitTS 



TEST LAB 



EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS 
USED FOR OUTPUT SAMPLES 

To produce the output samples you 
see here, we used a 25-MHz 80386- 
DX computer with 4MB of RAM, a 
1MB Super VGA video adapter 
{Tseng chip set), an analog color mon- 
itor, and a Microsoft mouse. For im- 
age capture, we used the scanning 
software supplied with each scanner. 
To ensure accurate and even scan- 
ning, we used SCAN:ALIGN from 
SCAN:ALIGN, Inc, 

A cartoon, measuring 4x4 incfi- 
es, of a girl at a computer served as 
the master image for black-and-white 
line-art scanning. The source for this 
image was Dover Clip Art from Aide 
Publishing'sSpecfrumCD-ROM,Abor- 
derless color photograph, measuring 
3'/2 X 5 inches, of the nation's Capi- 
tol served as the master photo image 
for gray-scale/halftone scanning. 

—TOM BENFORD, PRESIDENT 
COMPUTER PRODUCT TESTING SERVICES 




ORIGINAL 




KYE GENISCAN GS-B1056 PLUS 
52 COIvtPUTE JANUARY 1992 



KYE GENISCAN GS-C105 PLUS 




LOGITECH SCANMAN MODEL 256 



MARSTEK M-800W 





MIGRAPH CS4096 COLOR HAND SCANNER 



MOUSE SYSTEMS PAGEBRUSH/COLOR 




NISCA NISCAN/GS 



SHARP JX-100 



JANUARY 1992 COMPUTE 53 



\ I 



PC Productivity Manager 



\ \ \ 

Work at your peak potential! 
Break free of cumbersome MS-DOS 
restrictions and limitations! 

Single keypresses or mouse clicks do 
it all for you with COIVIPUTE's super 
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Packed with 38 PC batch-file extensions 
and power utilities, this easy-to-use disk 
includes individual help menus for every 
program. You don't have to be a computer 
maven — just press F1 for Help anytime! 

The power utilities alone are worth 
many times the cost of this disk. Imag- 
inel Programs to speed up your keyboard, 
edit disk files, edit and search memory, 
find a specific text string in disk files— plus 
memory-resident programs such as a pop- 
up calculator, a programmer's reference 
tool, an editable macro key program, and 
a graphic screen-capture utility, and more 
all included on this jam-packed disk. 



Our batch-file extensions add new com- 
mands to standard batch-fife language. 
Now you can easily create menus, draw 
boxes, and write strings in your choice 
of colors anywhere on the screen — all 
with simple, easy-to-use commands. 
Then, add some zest to your batch files 
with a command that lets you play a se- 
ries of notes! 

Plus handy system tools let you delete 
an entire subdirectory with one command, 
find out if the system has enough memory 
for an application before it runs, cause the 
computer to remember the current direc- 
tory so that you can come back to it later, 
and much, much, more. 

QRtfER YOUl 
Fj^PRODUCTiWTY 
/MAHAGER TODI 



..^ 



/^ DYES! Please send me _ 5Vi inch liisk(s) ($14.95 each) 



. Subtotal 

, Sales Tax (Residents of NC and NY please add appropriate 

sales tax for your area.Canadian orders, add 7% goods and 

services tax. ) 

. Shipping and Handling (32.00 U.S. and Canada, S3.00 surface 
mail, S5.00 airmail per disk.) 
. Total Enclosed 




Signature 



Daytime Telephone No- . 
Name 



ftelurBiJI 



Address. 
Crty. 



_ Check or Money Order _ MasterCard _ VISA 
(MasterCard and Visa accepted on orders with subtotal over S20.) 



Stale/ 
Provirice , 



ZIP/ 
. Postal Code . 



Send your order to COMPUTE'S PC Productivity Manager, 
324 W. Wendover Aje.. Suite 200, Greensboro. NC 27408. 



TEST LAB 




color after you issue a single com- 
mand. Like full-size flatbed scan- 
ners, the JX-100 requires time to 
work its magic — sometimes sev- 
eral minutes' and several passes' 



SHARP ELECTRONICS 
Sharp Plaza 

Mahwah, NJ 07430-2135 
(8009 BESHARP 
(2019 529-8200 
List price: S799 
Warranty: 90 days 



worth. For this reason, you'll 
want to take advantage of the 
prescan option that can display 
the image to be scanned in speed- 
ier gray scale or black-and-white. 
Or better yet, just peer through the 
transparent acrylic view port in the 
top of the scanner. 

For documents too small or too 
awkward to comfortably accom- 
modate the scanner, though, 
you'll need to turn the JX-100 
face up and rely on the prescan 



mode to position the subject for 
proper scanning. 

Unlike a hand scanner, the JX- 
100 scans neatly every time. You 
don't have to drag the scanner 
over the image, so it's impossible 
for the scanner to slip and make 
annoying errors. 

This color scanner doesn't 
take up any of your computer's val- 
uable expansion slots, but if you 
don't have a PS/2 mouse or an ex- 
tra serial port, you'll have to do 
your scanning with no mouse at 
all— the JX-100 uses a serial 
port. Thankfully, ColorLab. the 
bundled IV/nc/ows-based scan- 
ning software, provides for just 
such situations with reasonable 
keyboard support. You might 
miss using your mouse, but the 
fun of color scanning offers 
some compensation. 



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■ With a single keystroke. TAXPERFECT instantly recalcu- • TAXPERFECT is an essential addition to your 

tales your entire return when you change any item. personal software library • and best of all, it's tax 

• TAXPERFECT also prints directly onto IRS fonns. deductible. 



TAX PLANNING 

• Most powerful program features available - 
at any pficD • Pull-down menus • Prints full sel 
of input sheets to organize your data • Built-in 
calculator feature accumulates input and enters 
total • 32 F-Key functions achieved witti 1 or 2 
keystrokes. • Fast, complete tax calculations ■ 
57 forms in under 2 seconds (most returns in 
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Full calculation-override capability • Follows IRS 
text & line numbers exactly ■ Exclusive context- 
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Current Values Display constantly reflects all 
changes with your input * In Tax-Planning Mode 
all unnecessary text input prompts are not 
displayed. Only numeric input is prompted for. 
Newtor 1931: Form 1040A and Schedules 1. 2, 
3 & EIC-A. 



RETURN PREPARATION 

TAXPERFECT PC/1040 PeitlISTHEIf>JCOME TAX 
RETURfvl FOR YOU on IRS forms or on blank computer 
paper for use with transparent overlays and supports 
Form 1040A. Schedule 1. 2. 3, EIC-A: Form 1040. 
Schedules A. B. C. D, E. EIC, F, R and SE; Form 
1040X. Form 1041, Schedules ABG. D. J & K-t PLUS 
Forms 1 1 16. 2106. 21 19. 2210, 2439, 2441 , 2555. 3468, 
3B00. 3903, 4136, 4137, 4255, 4562, 4684. 4797. 4835. 
4868. 4952. 4972. 5329. 5884. 6198. 6251. 6252. 8283, 
8396, 8582, 8586, 8606, 8615, 8803, 8814. 8815. 8828 
& 8829. .. FIFTY-SEVEN Forms S Schedules in all! 
TAXPERFECT PC/1120 supports Form 11 20 A. Form 
1120S. Schedules A. D. K. Lfil, K-1: Form 1 120. 
Schedules A. C. E. J, L. M. D & PH PLUS the Forms 
2220. 3468, 3800, 4136, 4255, 4562, 4626. 4626 wks, 
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8283. 8586, 8827 & 8830. . . THIRTY-SE VEN Forms & 
Schedules in all! 
Pro Series prints invoice and transmittal letter. 

TAXPERFECT- PC 
Personal 1040 




FULL-FEATURED 

DEPRECIATION 

SUPPORT 

Self-contained Depredation program 
calculates and prints complete listing of 
depreciable assets... all classes... any 
length life. ..traditional methods plus "old" 
rules, ACRS, ttlACRS.. .Half-year, mid-quarter 
& mid-month conventions. Schedule of assets 
attaches as a detailed, printed supplement to Ihe 
FORM 4562. 



Commodore 64 and Commodore 1 28 are Trade- 
marks of Commodore Business Machines Corp. 
IBM is a Trademark of International Business 
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circle Reader Service Number 192 



TEST LAB 



ColorLab supplies you with the 
essential image-processing tools 
of scaling, antialiasing, and dithi- 
ering. For image filters you can 
choose from Sharpen, Smooth, Re- 
move Noise, Enhance Edges, 
and Trace Contour — also fairly 
standard effects. You may save 
images in a variety of formats 
including BMP, CPI. TGA, TIFF, 
PCX, GIF. and DVA. The dpi set- 
ting defaults to 200, but with the 
Zoom option, it's possible for you 
to adjust down to 50 or up to 400. 
The JX-100 has no switches, but- 
tons, or thumb wheels — all scan- 
ning ad[ustments are made using 
the software. 

The JX-100's vinyl slipcover 
lets you pack the scanner along 
with your laptop, and its light 
weight makes it a welcome stand- 
in for a less portable flatbed scan- 
ner. Charge the ni-cads in the lap- 
top and hit the library! All those 
reference books with gorgeous col- 
or pictures that you always want- 
ed to scan but could never check 
out to take to the nearest flatbed — 
scan them tomorrow. The small 
but powerful JX-100 fairly begs to 
accompany you on your next im- 
age-collecting excursion. 

DAVID SEARS 

Circle Reader Service Number 310 



For further information about this 
month's Test Lab, see the COM- 
PUTE area on GEnie and Ameri- 
ca Online. In addition to regular 
Test Lab information, you'll find 
our HDBENCH.EXE, proprietary 
benchmark software developed 
especially for the Test Lab. 



Next month: 

Color 
Printers 



56 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



FURTHER INFORMATION 



THE COMPUTE HALF-PAGE 
SCANNER/G5 

Type: black-and-whiite 
Scan width: 4.1 inches 
Max dpi: 400 
Settings: line art, halftone, gray 

scale 
Max shades of gray: 256 
Environment: Windows 
Output formats:EPS, GEM, MSP, 

PCX. TIFF 

DFI CFIS-4000 

Type: black-and-white, color 
Scan width: 4.13 inches 
Max dpi: 400 

Settings: gray scale, dithered mon- 
ochrome 
Max shades of gray: 64 
Environment: DOS 
Output formats: PCX 

KYEGENISCAKGS-B105GPLUS 

Type: black-and-white 
Scan width: 4.0 inches 
Max dpi: 400 
Settings: line art, halftone, gray 

scale 
Max shades of gray: 256 
Environment: DOS 
Output formats: CUT IMG. MSP, 

PCX. TIFF 

KYEGENISCANGS-C105PLUS 

Type: black-and-white, color 
Scan width: 4.13 inches 
Max dpi: 400 

Settings: halftone, gray scale 
Max shades of gray: 64 
Platform: DOS 

Output formats: CUT IMG, MSP, 
PCX, PIC, TIFF, TXT 

LOGITECH SCANMAN MODEL 256 

Type: black-and-white 
Scan width: 4.13 inches 
Max dpi: 400 
Settings: line art, halftone, gray 

scale 
Max shades of gray: 256 
Environment: DOS, Windows 
Output formats: IMG, PCX. TIFF 



MARSTEK M-800W 

Type: black-and-white 
Scan width: 4.13 inches 
Max dpi: 800 
Settings: line art, halftone, gray 

scale 
Max shades of gray: 64 
Platform: Windows 
Output formats: IMG, IVISP, PCX, 

PNT TIFF 

MiGRAPH CS-4096 

Type: black-and-white, color 
Scan width: 4.0 inches 
Max dpi: 400 
Settings: line art, halftone, gray 

scale 
Max shades of gray: 256 
Environment: Windows 
Output formats: PCX, TIFF 

MOUSE SYSTEMS 
PAGEBRUSH/COLOR 

Type: black-and-white, color 
Scan width: 4.13 inches 
Max dpi: 400 
Settings: dithered 
Max shades of gray: 64 
Environment: Windows 
Output formats: TIFF 

NISCA NISCAN/GS 

Type: black-and-white 
Scan width: 4.2 inches 
Max dpi: 400 
Settings: line art, halftone, gray 

scale 
Max shades of gray: 256 
Environment: Windows 
Output formats:EPS, IMG, MSR 

PCX, TIFF 

SHARP JX-100 

Type: black-and-white, color 
Scan width: 3.39 inches 
Max dpi: 400 
Settings: line art, halftone, gray 

scale 
Max shades of gray: 256 
Environment: Windows 
Output formats:BMP CPI, DVA, 

EPS, GIF, PCX, TGA, TIER 

WMF 



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ming software yon train with and keep 
Comprehensive, at-home training that 
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succeed in one of today's leading 
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training only NRl can provide. 




As a trained computer programmer of 
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Plus you explore the 
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You'll find no heav)' textbooks lo plow 
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NRI's at-home, step-by-slep training covers 
all ihc bases, guiding you from the impor- 



lanl fundamentals to real-world methods 
and techniques, With the help of your NRI 
instructor — offering one-on-one, personal 
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quickly gain the skills you need to handle 
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T Send today 

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Now )-ou can have the professional 
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DISK UPDATE 



Richard C. Leinecker 



COMPUTE OFFERS 
EXTENDED DISK 
TECH SUPPORT 

We've added another dimen- 
sion to COMPUTE Publica- 
tions tliat can help you get an- 
swers to your questions about 
our disks more quickly. 

It's our online service 
called COMPUTE/NET, and 
you can find it on GEnie and 
America Online. Follov/ the 
menus or use the keyword 
COMPUTE 10 get to the COM- 
PUTE/NET area. 

On the GEnie bulletin 
board, there's a section 
called Talk to the Editors. Just 
leave a note with your ques- 
tion or comment, and we'll an- 
swer you as soon as possible. 
You can give feedback to the 
sysop from the main COM- 
PUTE/NET menu or even 
send E-mail to RLEINECKER. 

On America Online, you 
can leave a note addressed to 
screen name Rick CL in the 
message area called Talk to 
the Editors. You can also 
send E-mail addressed to 
screen name Rick CL. 

In your message, be sure to 
describe the problem thor- 
oughly tell us your DOS ver- 
sion, and list your computer 
equipment (CPU, hard drive 
type, floppy drives, graphics 
card, and so on). 

COr\^PUTE/NET gives you 
the flexibility to drop us a line 
anytime it's convenient for you 
without having to call our of- 
fices during business hours. 
It's also probably less expen- 
sive to contact us online than 
to call during the day. 

The Other Side 

We've had some calls about 
the program AltPage that was 
published on our August PC 
Disk. 

The reports we've received 
indicate that many times the 
output seems to break pages 

58 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



With COfflPUTE/NET 

on GEnie and 

America Online, 

it's easier 

than ever to get 

tectinical lielp 

Irom our staff of 

experts. 



at odd times or sometimes 
not until more than a single 
page has been printed. 

The result might be pages 
that are short, maybe 20 or 
30 lines. Alternately, there 
might be run-on pages. 

All of the programs on the 
disk were tested carefully, 
and we never experienced 
these problems. It took some 
time, but we eventually re-cre- 
ated the circumstances that 
led to these situations. 

We found that a text file 
with embedded form feeds 
would produce short pages in 
unpredictable patterns. 

With other formatting and 
control codes, we found that 
there could be run-on pages. 

In the documentation, the 
author explicitly instructs you 
to remove any formatting and 
control codes, including form 
feeds. He even provides a spe- 
cial program called Strip that 
cleans up your text file in prep- 
aration for AltPage. 

If you're experiencing any 
difficulties similar to these, 
make sure your text files are 
clean, straight ASCII files. Run- 
ning the Strip program is a 
good idea if there's any 
doubt in your mind. 

MicroText Extras 

Our August disk has a pro- 
gram called MicroText that 
may not run properly on your 
system, That's because there 
are two files the program cre- 
ates when you first run it that 
were included on the distribu- 
tion disks. They should've 
been left off so that MicroText 
could create them when you 
first run the program. 

The files are COLORS.DAT 
and PRINTER.DAT. If you're 
not having any problems, 
don't do anything. 

If you are having problems, 
you'll need to delete these 
files, fvlake sure you're in the 
directory that contains the Mi- 
cro Texf files. If you use the de- 
fault installation path, it will be 



C;\C0MPUTE\AUG91\ 
MICROTXT Next, delete the 
two files named COL- 
ORS.DAT and PRINTER.DAT 
The next time you run Micro- 
Text, it will prompt you for infor- 
mation if needs to create 
these files for your system. 

CMOS to Floppy 

There is a small problemi with 
our CMOS menu program if 
you install the programs to a 
floppy disk. If you type a 
drive letter, a colon, and may- 
be a backslash {for example, 
A:\) when you enter the installa- 
tion path, you'll get an error 
message saying that the path 
could not be created. 

The problem is fixed now, 
but unfortunately, for the Au- 
gust and October disks, you'll 
have to use a work-around to 
solve the problem. 

Instead of installing to A:\ 
or B:\, you'll need to specify a 
directorv. You might try 
AACOf^PUTE or B:\COfVI- 
PUTE. Then the program will 
install to the directory without 
any problem. 

Go Directly to the Source 

Here at COfvlPUTE, we're 
very happy to help you with 
any problems you're having 
with the programs on our PC 
Disk. But there might be a 
way for you to get faster and 
more personal service. 

You can contact the share- 
ware author directly and cut 
us out of the loop. 

Many times we call the au- 
thors to get answers to your 
questions. While we're glad to 
do this, something may get 
lost in the translation. 

If you call or write the au- 
thor, he or she can interact 
with you directly, and your 
question might be more effec- 
tively answered. 

I've written letters to many 
shareware authors, and they 
usually respond within a cou- 
ple of days. They're usually 
very eager to please. □ 



Enhance Your Tandy 



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■ SX, TX, SL, TL, SL/2, TU2, 


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1 32 Meg 40 MS 


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1 42 Meg 28 MS 


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■ 68 Meg 23 MS 


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H 105 Meg 20 MS 


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1 130 Meg 15 MS 


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1 210 Meg 15 MS 


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lOOOEX/HX 
External Hard Drives 

Complete With Controller 

21 Meg 40MS $349 

32 Meg 40MS $359 

42 Meg 28MS $399 

68 M^ 23MS $429 

85 Meg 16MS $449 

105 Meg 20MS $489 

130 Meg 15MS $529 

210 Meg 15MS $699 

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slots, two 5^5" drive bays, one 3S' 
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A, EX, HX, SX, TX, SL, TL, SL/2, 
TL/2, RL, and the new TL/3 
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Modems and Faxes 

Hayes Compatible, Includes Software 



2400 Baud Internal 
2400 Baud External 
9600 Baud Internal 
Fax/Modem Internal 

5600 Baud Fax, 2400 Baud Modem 

360dpi Mouse w/son™™ $49 
Serial Card aiies«pihx/ex $29 

Serial Card EX/HX $49 



$79 
$99 
$349 

$159 



jFloppy Drive Solutions 

Internal External 

I360K $99 $199 

1 1.2 Meg $159 $199 

720K $109 $199 

1 1.44 Meg $159 $199 

For all lOOO's. Complete w/ Controller 

720Kor360K 'K199 

External for EX/HX ■PJ-'^^ 



VGA Combinations 

For SX, TX, SL, TL, SLQ, TL/l, RL, 
TLO, JOOO's, IBM, Compatibles 

Combo $489 

Monitor: 14" CTX 

.28 Dot Pitch 

2S6K VGA Card 

640 X 480, 256 Colors 

Super Combo $589 

Monitor : 14" CTX 

.28 Dot Pitch 
1 Meg VGA Card 
1024 X 768, 256 Colors 



1000 HX Internal Hard Drives 

CoinilctE with conuoller. Replace a Floppy 

42 Meg 28 MS $299 

52 Meg 17 MS $349 

85 Meg 16 MS $389 

130 Meg 15 MS $539 

IDE 'SmartDrive' For buUt in Controller of 
TLC, TL/3, RL, RLX 

42 Meg 28 MS $289 

CD ROM Drive for lOOO's, IBM, compatibles, 

SLOT BOX. Free CD with 11,000+ progratns. 

Internal Drive $349 Extern al Drive $449 



Memory 

1000, A to 640 K W/Clock, Ser. $229 

256K EX or HX to 640K $1 89 

256K 1200 or IBM to 640K $189 
384K SX, EX, HX, SL to 640K $49 
I TX, TL, TU2, TL/3 to 768 K $49 
3000NL from 5 1 2K to 640K $49 

1000 RL to 768K $39 

1000 RLX to One Meg $39 

Memory Above 640K 

MicroMainframe 5150T EMS Board 

More Space for Spreadsheets, Windows, 
and more. For 1000, A, SX, TX, SL, TL, 
SIV2, TL/2, RL, TL/3, RLX, SLOT BOX 

1 Meg $229 2 Meg $249 

Includes EMS 4.0 Software 

1 Meg for 1500 or 2810 Laptops, also 
for Panasonic CF- 1 70, 270, 370 $ 149 



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PROGRAMMING POWER 



Tom Campbel 



Before you 

slart programming 

in Windows, 

take a deep breath 

and get ready 

for a steep learning 

curve. 



WITH WINDOWS, 
THE MESSAGE 
IS THE MEDIUM 

I've been involved with Win- 
dows on and off since before 
version 1 was released, al- 
tliougfi not as a programmer 
until recently. My first encoun- 
ter was on the technical team 
of a Macintosh database pro- 
ject that was considering a 
port. We had a state-of-the-art 
IBf^ XT. with a stunning 512K 
of memory, a giant 10MB hard 
disk, and the still-acceptable 
Hercules card for graphics. 

The Windows development 
system was everyone's first 
brush with C. and we were 
shocked at how crude the pro- 
gramming environment was 
compared to the Mac's truly 
elegant Pascal development 
system. We were also among 
the very few people even to 
this day who weren't shocked 
and dismayed at how com- 
plex a programming chal- 
lenge it was. Yet I've never 
seen an overview article that 
described — from a program- 
ming standpoint — just how 
staggering a change Win- 
dows is compared with DOS. 

Messages, Medium Rare 

The message is the medium; 
If you've read it once, you've 
read it a million times. GUIs 
are the wave of the future. 
GUIs, like Macintosh System 
7 and Windows 3.0, are ob- 
ject oriented. Well, that's not 
quite true. Let's get some 
terms straight and cut to the 
heart of the programming mat- 
ter while we're at it. 

First, remember that there 
are something like 50 million 
DOS machines out there. Sec- 
ond, note that while about 4 
million copies of Windows 
have been distributed, that 
doesn't mean they're in daily 
use. Ivlany of these copies 
came free with new ma- 



chines. Finally, keep in mind 
that DOS does the job for mil- 
lions of people and spending 
$2,000 to upgrade their ma^ 
chines to the 386SX and four 
megs that Vfmdows requires 
won't give them a commensu- 
rate increase in productivity. 

And it might just do the op- 
posite, since those few appli- 
cations that exist in both DOS 
and Windows incarnations al- 
most always look like com- 
pletely different programs. 
That means that retraining pos- 
es a time-consuming and ex- 
pensive problem. Yes, GUIs 
may be the wave of the fu- 
ture, but for now, DOS is a firm- 
ly entrenched standard. 

As far as object orientation 
goes, the press has confused 
the nearly tangible feel of the 
user interface {menus, file fold- 
ers, and so on) with the pro- 
gramming techniques used to 
write applications for it. This 
probably goes back to Small- 
talt< (well known as the grand- 
daddy of Windows) and the 
Mac Finder, which was in- 
deed both a visually oriented 
graphical user interface and 
the archetypal object-oriented 
programming system. 

Learning Curves 

Nonetheless, programming 
and using Windows is fun. If 
you plan to do it in a "real" lan- 
guage such as C, C+-I-, or Tur- 
bo Pascal, you've got to 
know up front that you'll 
spend at least six months be- 
coming familiar with Windows 
programming issues. Maybe 
even a year. 

You could program in Tool- 
Book or Visual Basic, but nei- 
ther of these languages has 
what it takes to be a com- 
plete Windows language. If 
you choose an object-orient- 
ed language like Turbo Pas- 
cal or C++, chances are over- 
whelming that you'll need to 
know that language's object 
paradigms even before you 
read the V]/indows program- 



ming tutorial. You'll also need 
to spend an extra $60-5100 
on reference materials, unless 
you already own the Microsoft 
SDK for Windows. 

No other programming sys- 
tem on the market has ade- 
quate Windows reference doc- 
umentaton. And unless 
youYe either dirt poor or mere- 
ly self-destructive, you'll need 
to meet regularly with other 
Windows programmers to 
learn things you missed in the 
manuals (or, more likely, that 
the manuals failed to men- 
tion). CompuServe is a good 
place; plan to spend a mini- 
mum of S50 a month in online 
time if you join. 

Pointers and Handles 

When you write a Windows 
program, you must know that 
the message is the medium, 
to make the inevitable cheap 
joke at Marshall McLuhan's ex- 
pense. Your program, if it's to 
look like any other program, is 
seldom in complete control of 
anything. Instead, it's constant- 
ly reacting to messages sent 
to it by Windows, other Win- 
dows programs, and some- 
times even itself. 

Your program has to be 
ready to quit automatically 
when the user shuts down Win- 
dows, redraw any of its 
screens when the user de- 
cides to resize the main win- 
dow, and let go of just about 
any piece of memory it can 
get its hands on. 

The simple act of writing to 
a dynamically allocated 
piece of memory (for exam- 
ple, copying the contents of a 
string into a buffer) means 
that you have to lock that 
piece of memory for only as 
long as it takes to write the val- 
ue and then unlock the mem- 
ory as soon as possi- 
ble—whereupon the memory 
manager is free to write that 
piece of memory temporarily 
to disk so some other l'V/r7- 
dows program can use it. 



60 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



Think about the complica- 
tions arising from doing this to 
a pointer, A pointer repre- 
sents a fixed address in RAfVl. 
Copying it to a disl< file is 
fine, except that the memory 
manager iias marked it as re- 
usable at this point and a few 
milliseconds later it could rep- 
resent something entirely dif- 
ferent. Trying to write the point- 
er now would probably mean 
a crash. 

The fact that memory can 
be moved and locked this 
way means that memory is usu- 
ally allocated as a handle, not 
a pointer. A pointer points to 
an address in memory. Win- 
dows doesn't want you to 
think of that memory as your 
own, so handles, which are 
pointers to pointers, are often 
used as a way to make life eas- 
ier for Windows. 

Handles are easier for Win- 
dows to swap to disk, but 
they're alien to the novice Win- 
dows programmer. If data ab- 
stractions in your program- 
ming system are handled cor- 
rectly, as they are in Turbo 
Pascal and in some C-1--1- 
ctass libraries, the inconven- 
ience of using handles is lim- 
ited to a very few instances of 
direct access to the handles, 
and instead is bound into pro- 
cedure calls or macros that 
do the dirty work. 

fvlessages aren't as easily 
hidden. Some class libraries, 
like Turbo's brilliant Ob- 
jectVision, manage many of 
them behind the scenes. Oth- 
ers add more messages to 
the confusion. So will you. 
Sending yourself a message 
might come in handy, for ex- 
ample, where pressing a let- 
ter key in a spreadsheet-style 
matrix would begin data en- 
try, whereas most other keys 
would be ignored. An alpha- 
betic letter message over an 
empty cell would be preced- 
ed by an enter edit mode mes- 
sage, exactly as if you'd dou- 
ble-clicked with the mouse. 



Printers and Fonts 

One of the nasty rumors 
spread about Windows is 
that you don't have to worry 
about making printer and 
screen images match up any- 
more. That's hype. Windows 
works with jillions of printers: 
you could conceivably be us- 
ing a daisywheel printer as 
your sole hardcopy device. 
More typically, your printer 
probably doesn't come with 
fonts that match the Windows 
screen fonts. 

If the printer does graphics, 
you can come close to match- 
ing, but your program is entire- 
ly responsible for getting font 
widths to match. Usually, 
thank heavens, all other graph- 
ic elements move transparent- 
ly from screen to hardcopy. 
But you become responsible 
for chores that God intended 
the operating system to han- 
dle, not you. Windows gives 
you no assurance that the 
Helvetica condensed text ap- 
pearing onscreen will appear 
condensed or even as Helvet- 
ica on the target printer. 

If you've created a draw pro- 
gram and the text is situated 
snugly inside a rectangle on- 
screen, there is no assur- 
ance — unless your program 
digs deep into the font metrics 
of both screen and printer — 
that it'll still be inside when print- 
ed, Now, perhaps, you you 
see the reason Apple and Ado- 
be want TrueType to succeed. 
This isn't just feature creep. 
Just as much as the tens of 
thousands of journeyman pro- 
grammers who flood these com- 
panies with plaintive tech sup- 
port questions regarding mis- 
matched screen and printer 
fonts, the coders who create 
the operating environment 
want to get out of the device 
driver business. 

Windows 1 came with an 
abundant set ol painstakingly 
crafted printer drivers. It was 
great! The output from my 
humble ProPhnter looked as 



good as that from the fvlac's 
Imagewriter. Microsoft didn't 
enjoy writing all those device 
drivers, though, and decreed 
with version 2 that they were 
the responsibility of the hard- 
ware manufacturers. (Under- 
standably so. Device drivers 
for Windows are difficult 
enough that most program- 
mers take the easy way out 
and make a pact with the dev- 
il to shorten development 
time.) Sure enough, I couldn't 
even do Helvetica on my Pro- 
Printer when Windows 2 
came out. And sure enough, 
Windows 2 went nowhere. '\/er- 
sion 3 brought Microsoft 
back to Its roots. Helvetica 
has finally returned. 

8e True to Your Type 

By providing an extensive set 
of font files with Windows and 
System 7 that will allow 
screen and printer fonts to be 
generated from the same raw 
material, these problems will 
be history NeXT has been do- 
ing it for years now with Dis- 
play PostScript. Anyone 
who's used a PostScript print- 
er knows that its speed could 
be described as glacial on a 
good day, so how could it 
come even close to accept- 
able performance onscreen? 
Simple. Knowing that the 
screen (output) resolution is 
fixed allows the interpreter to 
omit tons of clipping, error- ■ 
recovery and bounds-check- 
ing code. 

The Windows version, Tru- 
eType, is said by those in the 
know to be hauntingly similar 
to Display PostScript, and it 
will be licensed to developers 
for a pittance. What this 
means to you is that you'll be 
able to deal with text as clean- 
ly as you now can with graph- 
ics and that Windows will be- 
gin to fulfill its long-overdue 
promise as a programming 
system that will actually save 
you time when writing for a 
variety of output devices. □ 

JANUARY 1992 COMPUTE 



61 



TIPS & TOOLS 



62 



Small Can Be Useful 

They come in the mail and 
through COMPUTE/NET on 
GEnie and America Online. 
Over the past few months I've 
been inundated with requests 
for short machine language 
programs that do simple 
tasks. I have several ready. 
One program sets your moni- 
tor's border color, two send 
printer codes, and one lists 
your input/output ports. 

Make sure the DOS pro- 
gram called DEBUG is in 
your path or the current direc- 
tory. In these examples, the 
italic text is what the comput- 
er prints; the roman text is 
what you should type. One 
way to be sure you get these 
programs exactly right is to 
have someone read the num- 
bers to you as you type them 
in. Another way suggested by 
one of our readers is to read 
the numbers into a tape re- 
corder and then play them 
back as you enter the pro- 
gram code. 

The first program changes 
the screen border color. 

DEBUG BORDER. COM 

File not found 

-e 100 be 81 00 2b cQ 2b db ac 

-e 108 3c ZD 74 lb 2c 30 3c 09 

-e11D77 Ob 86 c3 b1 Oa f6 e1 

-e 118 03 d8 ac eb ef bS 01 10 

-e 120 Ba fh cd 10 b4 4c cd 21 

-RCX 

CX 0000 

•■28 

-W 

Writing 0028 bytes 

■Q 



To use the program, just type 
BORDER color. In place of col- 
or, type a number from to 
15. Check in your GW-BASIC 
or other BASIC manual for the 
color codes. If you use the 
DOS CLS command, it will re- 
set the border to the default 
color. To get around this, you 
can create a batch file that 
first clears the screen and 
then sets the border color. 

COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



Check your 

serial and parallel 

ports, send 

Gontmands directly to 

your printer, 

and protect your 

computer 

from malicious entry. 



Here's what my file called 
CLEAR.BAT looks like. It 
would help if the program 
were in your DOS directory or 
somewhere else in your path. 

ECHO OFF 
CLS 
BORDER 4 

The next program, FRCOM, 
sends a form feed to the print- 
er to eject the current sheet of 
paper. Once again, type the 
text that's in roman, and the 
computer will print the text 
that's in italic. 

DEBUG FF.COM 

File not found 

-e 100 be 81 00 2b d2 ac 3c 20 

-e 108 74 flj 2c 30 3c 09 77 Ob 

-6 110 86 c2 b1 Oa f6 el 03 dO 

-ellBae eb e( b8 Oc 00 cd 17 

■e 120 b4 4c cd 21 

-RCX 

CX 0000 

.■24 

-W 

Writing 0024 bytes 

-Q 

To use the program, just type 
FE printerport. It will send a 
form feed to the printer con- 
nected to the port you speci- 
fy. Make sure the printer port 
has a value between and 2. 
If you don't specify a printer 
port, it will output to printer 
port 0. 

The following program is 
similar, but it sends a linefeed 
rather than a form feed to the 
printer port specified. 

DEBUG LF.COM 

File not lound 

-e 100 be 81 00 2b (12 ac 3c 20 

-«108 74 fb 2c 30 3c 09 77 Ob 

-€110 86 c2 hi Oa 16 e1 03 dO 

-e118 ac eb ef bS Oa 00 cd 17 

-e120b4 4c cd 21 

-PCX 

CX 0000 

.■24 

-W 

Writing 0024 bytes 

-Q 



To use the program, just type 
LE printerport. It will send a 
linefeed to your printer. Make 
sure the printer port has a val- 
ue between and 2. If you 
don't specify a printer port, it 
will output to printer port 0. 

The next program tells you 
what ports your computer has 
available to you. 

DEBUG PORTS. COM 
F)7e not found 

-e100e4 21 50 2a cO e6 21 e4 
-€108 21 8a dS be e8 01 2b cO 
-e110 8e cO bf GO 04 t)7 10 bd 
-e 118 04 00 ba de 01 eS 5a 00 
-e120bf 08 04 b7 80 bd 03 00 
-e 128 ba e3 01 e8 4c 00 ba e8 
-e 130 01 2b cO 8e cO 26 a1 cc 
-6 138 00 26 Ob 06 ce 00 Ob cO 
-6 140 74 29 2b c9 b8 24 00 cd 
-6 148 33 Ob eg 74 1e ba eb 01 
■e 150 Oa c9 74 14 80 c1 30 88 
-e158 0e f9 01 80 f9 34 74 06 
-e160c6 06 14 01 32 90 eb 03 
-e 168 ba fb 01 b4 09 cd 21 ba 
-e 170 ea 01 b4 09 cd 21 b4 4c 
-e 178 cd 21 8b cd 26 83 3d 00 
-e 180 74 42 53 8b da 8b c5 2b 
-e 188 c1 04 31 88 47 03 5b b4 
-6 190 09 cd 21 84 df 75 25 52 
-e198ba (17 01 c6 06 dc 01 33 
-e1a0 9Q 16 c1 01 75 06 c6 06 
-elaSdc 01 34 90 83 fd 03 75 
-elbOOe c6 06 dc 01 37 90 b4 
-elbSOO cd 21 5a 87 (16 b4 09 
-6 IcO cd 21 87 d6 83 c7 02 83 
-6lcS(d 04 75 06 80 17 18 e2 
-6 1dO ab c3 2a ff e2 a6 c3 2d 
-e 1d8 49 52 51 20 33 24 43 4! 
-e1e0 4d 31 24 4c 50 54 31 24 
■eleBOd Oa 24 4d 61 75 73 65 
-e 1(0 20 43 4( 4d 31 2d 49 52 
-e 1(8 51 34 24 50 53 2f 32 20 
-6 200 4ri 6f 75 73 65 24 
-RCX 
CX 0000 
;10B 
-W 

Writing 0106 bytes 
-Q 

To use the program, just type 
PORTS. II will show you 
which serial and parallel 
ports are installed. It will also 
tell you which IRQs are as- 
signed to each port. If you 



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TIPS & TOOLS 



Suppress 

that nagging 

FORMAT 

prompt, print a 

page with a 

WordPerfect macro, 

and more. 



don't see an IRQ number af- 
ter a port, there's no IRQ as- 
signed to the port. Normally 
you'll see something like this: 
C0M1. IRQ4. But if there's no 
IRQ assigned to C0M1, you'll 
see C0M1 . The program also 
tells you what COfvl port and 
IRQ your mouse is on. 

You can find all of these pro- 
grams, including source 
code, on COMPUTE/NET. 
Just connect to America On- 
line or GEnie and use the key- 
word to find us. Then look for 
the software section and down- 
load these files. 

RICHARD C LEINECKER 
REIDSVILLE. NC 

Perfect Views 

Sometimes when Cm working 
on a page in WordPerfect 
5.1, especially after placing a 
graphic, I want to see what 
that page will look like— with- 
out printing the entire docu- 
ment. WordPerfect allows you 
to print a single page, but do- 
ing so requires several key- 
strokes. I have reduced the 
several-keystroke process to 
a single-keystroke macro. 

Follow these steps to cre- 
ate a macro that will print a sin- 
gle page in WordPerfect bA 
with one keystroke: Beginning 
at the WordPerfect document 
screen, turn on Macro Define 
by pressing Ctrl-FIO. At the 
Define macro: prompt, press 
Alt-P. If no Alt-P macro exists, 
WordPerfect wiH ask you to de- 
scribe the macro. Type Print 
a single page and press En- 
ter. If a macro named Alt-P al- 
ready exists, WordPerfect will 
ask if you want to replace it. 
Press 1 for Replace and Y for 
yes; then type Print a single 
page. {Note: If you don't 
want to replace the Alt-P mac- 
ro, you can define this macro 
with any Alt-letter combination 
you want.) The flashing Mac- 
ro Def tells you that WordPer- 
fect is now recording your key- 
strokes. Press Shift-F7 for 
Print; then press 2 for Page. 



Turn off Macro Define by 
pressing Ctrl-FIO. Now, each 
time you press the Alt-P com- 
bination, the page on which 
the cursor lies will print, 

I have shortened the proc- 
ess for using some of WordPer- 
fect's other features also. Alt- 
F takes me to Base Font for a 
quick font change and Alt-L 
turns off Justification Full and 
left-aligns my letters. 

WILLIAM HARREL 
VENTURA. CA 

Easier Formatting 

Using the undocumented /h 
parameter with the FORMAT 
command disables the Insert 
new diskette for drive prompt 
and thereby speeds up the te- 
dious process. Make sure, 
though, that the right disk is 
in the drive before you type 
this command because the for- 
mat will start immediately 

VINCENT A LAPOINT 
MOUNTLAKE TERRACE. WA 

Protect Yourself 

Here's a four-line protection 
scheme that doesn't require 
typing in a password. What it 
does require is that a floppy 
disk with a named file (called 
KEYBAT In this example) be 
in a certain disk drive (drive 
B: in this example). Place 
these lines at the beginning 
of your AUTOEXEC.BAT file. 

:START 

IF EXIST BiKEY.BAT GOTO END 

GOTO START 

:END 

Make sure that you have a 
file on a floppy called 
KEYBAT in drive B: when you 
boot. Otherwise, it'll stay in an 
infinite loop. It's not foolproof, 
but it works for casual users. 

WILLIAM M SHOCKLEY 
RIVERSIDE. CA 

Small and Useful 

Typing a file and using Ctrl-S 
to pause is a pain, so I use 
L.BAT to list files. 



ECHO OFF 

TYPE %1 MORE 

With DOS 5.0's useful DOS- 
KEY utility I've converted my 
batch file to a DOSKEY mac- 
ro, which follows. 

DOSKEY 1=TYPE SI $B MORE. 

To use either one, just type L 
filename 

Another batch file I've 
been using to speed up my 
keyboard is S.BAT 

ECHO OFF 

MODE CON: RATE=32 DELAY=1 

RICHARD C LEINECKER 
REIDSVILLE, NC 

Conserving Memory 

Add the line DOS=HIGH to 
your CONFIG.SYS file, and 
DOS 5.0 will load into the first 
64K of extended memory free- 
ing conventional memory for 
applications. 

If you have a 386 or better 
you can add the UMB com- 
mand (DOS=HIGH,UMB) SO 
that programs such as device 
drivers and TSRs can run in 
upper memory as well. First 
you need to install the 
EMM386.EXE memory manag- 
er and you need to direct 
your drivers and TSRs to high 
memory by using the DE- 
VICEHIGH command in CON- 
FIG.SYS and LOADHIGH in 
AUTOEXEC.BAT. 

TONY ROBERTS 
GREENSBORO. NC 



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INTRODOS 



Tony Roberts 



LEARN TO 
PLAY THE 
NAME GAME 



Follow just a 

few simple rules, 

and you'll 

be able to find 

any file on 

your hard disk. 



66 



Judging by the questions I'm 
asl<ed, file naming can be a dif- 
ficult task. Computer users 
want to know: "How should I 
name my files?" 

There's no pat answer to 
this question; it's partly person- 
al preference, partly conven- 
tion, and partly dictated by the 
software you use. 

In the IVIS-DOS world, file- 
names consist of an eight-char- 
acter root name plus a three- 
character extension. A period 
is used to separate the root 
from the extension. 

The extension part of a file- 
name often is used to indicate 
the type of file and may pro- 
vide a clue as to which pro- 
gram created the file. 

The extensions EXE, COfvl, 
BAT and SYS all indicate files 
that are used by DOS itself. 
Files ending with EXE or COM 
are executable or command 
files, and as far as you're con- 
cerned, there's no difference 
between them. 

From a programming stand- 
point, these files differ in the lo- 
cation of the program's data 
segment. Also, COM files can 
be no larger than 64K, 

Graphics programs add var- 
ious extensions to files to pro- 
vide information about the 
type of graphics contained 
therein. You'll see files labeled 
with PCX, BMP, GIF. EPS. 
DRW, and TIF extensions. 
Each of these indicates a dif- 
ferent way of encoding graph- 
ic data. 

Spreadsheets typically add 
extensions of their own to files 
to indicate work sheets, 
charts, macros, and so on. 

Today's software is getting 
better at accepting and work- 
ing with data created by other 
applications. Page layout soft- 
ware, for example, usually can 

COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



import graphics files from any 
number of sources and text 
files from a variety of word 
processors. 

When naming files in your 
word processor, keep in mind 
the final destination of those 
files, if you're just writing and 
printing a few letters in 
WordPerfect, you can use any 
extension that suits you. But if 
you're writing a document you 
intend to import into Page- 
Maker, you'll want to use a 
WPS extension, which tells 
PageMaker how to decode 
and interpret your WordPer- 
fect file. 

Enough about extensions. 
What about the first eight char- 
acters of the filename? This is 
a matter of personal, or per- 
haps company, choice. In any 
case, you'll find that adopting 
some uniform system for file 
naming will help you and your 
cohorts figure out what's 
stored on your disks. 

DOS is often criticized for 
its short filenames, but I 
wouldn't look for a change in 
filename length anytime soon. 
Here's how I make the best of 
the situation. 

First, I invent client codes 
and project codes, I do a bit 
of work for Electrical South, 
which repairs circuit boards 
and electronic controllers. Eve- 
ry document I produce that re- 
lates to Electrical South, be- 
gins with the two-letter client 
code ES. 

Taking this first step makes 
it easy for me to find all the 
files associated with Electrical 
South — no matter where they 
happen to be scattered 
across my hard disk, Using a 
file-find utility, I just search for 
ES','. 

Running the search turns 
up such files as ESSKED.XLS, 
an Excel spreadsheet in 
which I set up a newsletter pro- 
duction schedule; ESBACK- 
UPSET, a PC Tools control 
file created when I last back- 
ed up ail of my ES files; 



ESNL0891,Pfvl4, a PageMaker 
document containing the "Elec- 
trical South Newsletter" for Au- 
gust 1991 ; ESBULL.EPS, an en- 
capsulated PostScript file of a 
bull's eye that was used in the 
newsletter; ESRASH.XY3, a 
XyWrite document about Ken 
Rash (which also appeared in 
the newsletter); and ES0715 
.MEM, a memo to the Electri- 
cal South president (written on 
July 15). 

I can remember what's in 
each of these files without hav- 
ing to open it up, I add date 
codes to my filenames espe- 
cially when I create letters and 
memos and when I create is- 
sues of periodic projects 
such as newsletters. 

I try to pack as much infor- 
mation as possible into every 
filename. The system works as 
long as you're willing to follow 
it, and it sure beats ending up 
with a disk full of files with 
names such as RE- 
P0RT1.DOC, REP0RT2.DOC, 
and REP0RT3.DOC. 

If your filenames include a 
numbering scheme such as 
chapter numbers or dates, 
here's another tip. For num- 
bers less than 10, remember 
to add a leading so your 
files will alphabetize properly 
in a directory. 

Use CHAP05,TXT rather 
than CHAP5.TXT or TR0925 
.LTR instead of TR925.LTR. If 
you fail to add the 0, your files 
will appear to be out of order 
in an alphabetized listing. 

You'll find CHAP5.TXT sand- 
wiched between CHAP49 
.TXT and CHAP50.TXT in your 
directory. This occurs be- 
cause the computer treats all 
characters in a filename as 
text and alphabetizes them ac- 
cordingly. When you alphabet- 
ize, CHAP49 is placed before 
CHAPS, 

With these simple file-nam- 
ing tricks, you can by-pass 
DOS's file-length limitations and 
create an efficient file retrival sys- 
tem for your hard drive. O 



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HARDWARE CLINIC 



Mark Minasi 



Learn how to 

make your 

laser printouts looit 

great in 

just one easy 

lesson. 



YOU LOOK 
MARVELOUS 

I jusf finished developing my 
new course on fixing laser print- 
ers, so I've got printers on the 
brain. 

Lasers are no longer some- 
thing owned only by the rich 
and powerful. An HP LaserJet 
series IIP can be had for 
about $800— not much more 
than I paid for an Okidata 93 
dot-matrix printer back in 
1983. And the IIP/IIIP line is 
well worth considering. The 
(IIP actually prints graphics fast- 
er than the III. The HP printers 
are reliable and produce high- 
quality output. But sometimes 
problems can creep in, and 
sometimes we do things that 
invite problems. 



68 COMPUTE 



How a Laser Printer Works 

Laser printing is a multistep 
process. Understanding the 
process is more than just a 
techie exercise; it's essential 
to understanding what can go 
wrong and how to fix it, 

I'll explain this in detail lat- 
er, but here's basically how it 
works. First, the printing 
drum is cleaned, and an im- 
age is painted onto it with elec- 
trostatic charges. Then print 
toner moves to the charged ar- 
eas, and the toner is trans- 
ferred to a piece of paper. Fi- 
nally, the toner is permanently 
fixed onto the paper with a 
heated metal roller. 

The heart of the print proc- 
ess is the photosensitive 
drum, an aluminum cylinder 
coated with a photosensitive 
material. The drum's job is to 
pick up laser printer toner — a 
fine black dust that's the ink 
of the laser printing process — 
and deposit it on the paper. 
The drum turns during the 
printing process. As it touch- 
es the paper, it transfers the 
toner (and therefore the de- 
sired image) onto the paper. 

Before that can happen, how- 

JANUARY 1992 



ever, the drum has to be phys- 
ically and electrostatically 
cleaned. There's a metal 
blade called the cleaning 
blade that gently scrapes 
across the drum, removing 
any stray toner particles. Then 
a bright light called an erase 
lamp shines on the drum, es- 
sentially blanking the drum 
and erasing any prior images. 
A uniform negative charge of 
-600 volts is then applied to 
the drum, preparing it for the 
new image to come. 

That -600-volt charge is ap- 
plied by a very important thin 
wire called the primary coro- 
na located in the disposable la- 
ser cartridge. The corona 
must actually emit a -6000- 
volt charge in order to get the 
-600 volts applied to the 
drum. The drum is now clean 
and ready to receive the im- 
age. The image is drawn on 
the drum with a mirror that di- 
rects a narrow laser beam 
across the drum. Anywhere 
the laser touches the drum 
changes in voltage from -600 
volts to -100 volts. The drum 
then rotates past a fine layer 
of toner particles. The toner 
particles are attracted to the 
-100-volt areas; they prefer 
more positive voltages, and 
-TOO is more positive than 
-600. By the way, the voltage 
can be adjusted at this point 
with the toner density control 
inside your laser. More or 
less voltage makes for a dark- 
er or lighter image. 

The desired image now ex- 
ists on the drum in the form of 
fine toner particles. Toner is 
about 50 percent iron oxide 
and 50 percent plastic. You 
can actually get toner out of ma- 
terials by rubbing a pov/erfui 
magnet across the material. 
Next, the laser printer transfers 
the toner to paper by giving 
the paper a strong positive 
charge (+600 volts). That 
charge is applied by the trans- 
fer corona, another important 
thin wire permanently mounted 



in the printer. The toner then 
jumps from the drum to the pa- 
per. Once the toner is on the 
paper, the paper runs past the 
static charge eliminator, which 
reduces the paper's charge. 

Now the image is on the pa- 
per. But it's only rendered as 
dusty black toner on a page — 
touch it, and it'll smear. That's 
why there's one more step: fus- 
ing. The paper moves past a 
heated metal roller called the 
fusing roller that melts the ton- 
er onto ihe paper, fixing it in 
place. The fuser is kept at 180 
degrees Celsius (356 degrees 
Fahrenheit), explaining why the 
paper is so hot when it comes 
out of the laser printer. By the 
way, it's the fusing roller that 
makes you wait when you turn 
your laser printer on. The sys- 
tem doesn't call itself ready un- 
til the fuser has reached at 
least 160 degrees Celsius. 

Symptoms and Solutions 

Now that you know how a la- 
ser printer works, you can see 
what can go wrong. There 
are lots of potential problems, 
but I only have room to cover 
the most common ones. 

• Symptom; vertical white 
streaks on the page. Since the 
paper is transported from top 
to bottom through the laser 
printer, the paper also passes 
the coronas from top to bot- 
tom. If a part of the corona is 
covered with toner, it can't trans- 
mit all of its charge, leaving ei- 
ther the drum (if it's the main 
corona) or the paper (if it's the 
transfer corona) with insuffi- 
cient charge. That leads to a 
vertical stripe with little or no 
charge, thereby leaving no ton- 
er — or a white stripe on the pa- 
per. The solution is to clean 
the coronas. 

As I mentioned earlier, the 
main corona is in the toner car- 
tridge, so if you're lazy, you 
can simply change the car- 
tridge. Otherwise, you can use 
the brush that's located inside 
your laser printer (at least, HPs 



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dreds and miss this one. It's a bargain for sure. 

UTILITIES 

□ HD Backup 

An easy to use program for backing up your hard 

drive 

□ Quick Cache (2 disks) 

This one will speed up your computer big time. 



D Virus Killers 

Several virus programs on one disk. Why buy 

them separate? 

n Back & Forth 

New load up to 20 programs at once. You won't 
believe it until you sec it. Order this one nowl (HD 
required) 

GAMES 

□ PC Risk 

You played it on a board. Now play it on a 
computer. Same as the board game, but a lot less. 

n 3D Chess 

This one is good. You can even ask the computer 
for help. 

D Striker 

Fly your copter through enemy fire. Arcade qual- 
ity game. 

□ PC Rail Road 

A must for model train buffs. Control your trains 
on increasingly complex layouts but don't worry. 
An automatic collision avoidance system is built 
in. It took a few minutes to evaluate this one and 
hours to mm it off! 

Q Megapoly 

You have inherited SI 00.000. Your challenge is to 
become rich in 20 years. Very good game. 

I I Dominate 

A computer wargamc. Belter and more sophisti- 
cated and involved than Risk. 

We have the best in games for mono, CO A, VGA, 
and Super VGA. 



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HARDWARE CLINIC 



have them) to clean your coro- 
na. Take a look inside your HP 
manual for details. 

The transfer corona sits in 
a metal trench inside the la- 
ser printer. To see it, open 
your laser printer (I'm talking 
II, IID. Ill, or HID here— you 
can't get directly at the trans- 
fer corona on a IIP or NIP). Fair- 
ly close to the front of the print- 
er, there's a metal trench that 
runs the width of the printer. 
It's protected with a webbing 
of monofilament threads. 
Shine a flashlight into the 
trench, and you'il see a hair- 
thin wire. That's the transfer co- 
rona. Dip a Q-Tip into some 
rubbing alcohol and carefully 
clean it end to end. (As my 
friend Brock Meeks says, 
"Once you clean the Corona, 
it's Miller time.") 

• Symptom: smearing on 
the page, What keeps the ton- 
er from smearing? The fusing 
roller. It's covered with a Tef- 
lon-like coating to keep stuff 
from sticking to it, but it can 
become scratched, or junk 
can become baked onto it. In 
either case, the heat doesn't 
get transferred to the page. 
Try Gleaning the roller with a 
soft cloth and some alcohol, 
but let the thing cool down be- 
fore you mess with it! 

You can also get smears 
when you try to print double- 
sided on lasers that are de- 
signed only to print single-sid- 
ed. It's tempting to create dou- 
ble-sided documents by run- 
ning paper through the laser 
twice, but it's not a good 
idea. For one thing, there are 
rubber rollers that grip the pa- 
per in order to pull it through 
the printer. Ordinarily, they 
grip the underside of the pa- 
per and cause no trouble. But 
if you're printing on both 
sides, they end up gripping 
the underside of tfie paper — 
even though the underside of 
the paper has printing on it. 
The rubber rollers smear the al- 
ready-printed side, 

70 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



• Symptom: horizontal 
streaks on the page. If you 
see a regular horizontal line 
on your output, it's probably 
caused by an irregularity in 
one of the many rollers that 
the paper must pass by on its 
journey from the paper car- 
tridge to the output bin. 

To identify the roller, you'll 
need to measure the distance 
between the lines. If the hori- 
zontal lines are alv/ays 
spaced the same distance 
apart, then that distance is 
the circumference of the bad 
roller. 

Use the following numbers 
as a handy-dandy key. Just 
measure the distance between 
the regular horizontal lines 
with a ruler, and then read off 
the name of the bad roller, 
Whether or not you want to try 
to replace the problem child is 
up to you; getting to some of 
those rollers is a bit hairy. In 
my experience, however, the 
most common distance is 3.75 
inches: the circumference of 
the photosensitive drum. 

Repeating Horizontal 

Problem Guide 
Distance in incfies between 

defects, and rolier 

0.50 Registration assembly 

transfer roller 
1.50 Upper registration 

transfer roller 
1.75 Lower registration 

transfer roller 
2.Q0 Developer rolier 

(in cartridge) 
2.56 Lower fusing roller 
3.16 Upper fusing roller 
3.75 Piiotosensitive drum 

(in cartridge) 

• Symptom: black line 
down the side of the page. I 
don't know why this happens, 
but you see it when the toner 
is low, Replace the cartridge. 

• Symptom: paper jams. 
Trying to print double-sided 
can cause problems. The 
first time you run the paper 



through the printer, the paper 
is given a slight curl. Turn it up- 
side down and run it through 
the printer again, and that 
slight curl can become a pa- 
per jam. Another cause of pa- 
per jams is printing on the 
wrong side of the paper. 
There are, believe it or not, 
two different sides to a sheet 
of paper, called the wax and 
the wire. Paper will have a 
"print this side up' indication 
on the wrapper — pay atten- 
tion to it. Paper can acquire a 
curl in humid environments, 
but the wrapper keeps the pa- 
per dry, so don't take paper 
out of the ream until you're 
ready to use it. Using cheap 
paper can also lead to paper 
jams. In addition, old laser 
phnters can have rollers that 
are no longer perfectly 
round, leading to jams. 

Looking Your Best 

Now you know what to do 
when something goes wrong. 
How can you make sure that 
everything goes right? First, 
clean the coronas. And use a 
fresh ream of paper, not one 
that's been sitting in your la- 
ser printer's cartridge for the 
last two weeks soaking up 
moisture and developing a 
curl. Distribute the toner in the 
cartridge. Take the cartridge 
out of the printer and rotate it 
15 times. Then shake it side 
to side 15 times. To help the 
laser's toner-transfer process, 
you can clear its throat by 
printing three to five totally 
black pages. 

You can do that with a 
short LaserJet program. I'll be 
discussing laser language in 
an upcoming column, but for 
those who know how to use it, 
keep this command se- 
quence handy:<esc>&10E 
<esc>&10L<esc>*pOxOY 
<esc> 'c2400a3300B<esc> *cOP 
<esc>E That will print a 
black page. 

Next time we'll learn how to 
speak the mystical PCL5. □ 



INTRODUCING 



DDIUIPUTE 



CDnnpuTE#i 





;t 



*** 
*** 
*** 
*** 

***************** 
COMPUTE RoundTahiB 



Wslcome lo Compute/NET 

Hosted by Rick Leinecker 

with assistants 

Tom Campbell 

Stephen Levy 

Peer Plaut 



GEnie 

1 . COMPUTE Bulletin Board 

2. COMPUTE Realtime Conference 

3. COMPUTE Software Libraries 

4. About tfie RoundTable 

5. RoundTable News (910702) 

6. About COMPUTE and tfie COfVlPUTE Editors 

7. Feedbacl^ to tfie Sysops 

8. RoundTable and Library Help 

9. COMPUTE Products 

10. Coming Soon in COt*/IPUTE 

11. COMPUTE Back Issue Database 

12. COMPUTE Test Lab 

13. Software Publisfiers' Catalogs 

14. COMPUTE Online Game 



COMPUTE/NET on GHiiic had a tcirific 
gi:anil opening. The comments ranged 
from "IVc nc\cr seen a RoundTable open 
up with so much information" to "'This 
makes my modem and computer system 
worth their price." 

This month we're sponsoring some 
contests. Do you know yoitr computer 
trivia? Then tr\' our computer tri%'ia game. 
And that's only one of the games we have 
ready. There's a scavenger hunt and a logic 
game. And if you win, you can get free 
magazine subscriptions, disk.s, books, or 
connect time. 

Above ail, though, when you visit 
COIVIPUTE/NET, stop in at the 
COMPUTE Bulletin Boani ajid participate 
in some of tlic mast stimidating 
conversations online. 




FIND US ON GENIE 



GEnie 

7du Get So Much For So Little. 



Now enjoy unlimited non- 
prime time usage of over 100 
popular GEnie Service features. 
For just $4.95 a month.* You 
get everything from electronic 
mail to exciting games and 
bulletin boards. Nobody else 
gives you so much for so little. 

Plus enjoy access to software 
libraries, computer bulletin 
boards, multiplayer games and 
more for just S6.00 per non- 
prime hour for all baud rates up 
to 2400. And vi'ith GEnie 
there's no sign-up fee. 



■Applies nnly in U.S. Mon.-Fri., 6rM-8AM local 
time iitd all day Sat., Sun., jikI select holidJV!^. 
Fritnc time hourly rate $18 up t<^ 2400 baud. Sunic 
fcaitircs subjccr to s,un:har|>c and may not be 
ivaiiahic outside U..S. Prices ami products ItSTcd as 
of Oct. 1, 1990 subject to change. Tclccommunica- 
tiuns surcharges may app^y. Guarantee limited to 
one per customer and applies only so first month 
of use. 



Just Follow These Simple Steps. 

1. Set your communications software for half duplex (local 
echo), up to 2400 baud. 

2. Dial toll-free 1-800-638-8369. Upon connection, enter 
HHH. 

3. At the U#=prompt, enter XTX99411, COMPUTE. Then 
press Return. 

4. Have a major credit card or your checking account number 
ready. 

For more information in the U.S. or Canada, 
call 1-800-638-9636. 




BE Information Sem'ces 



SIGN UP TODAY 



COMPUTE/NET 



Richard C. Leinecker 



Four great, useful, 

and free 

programs found on 

COMPUTE/NET, 

plus advice for clearing 

up nagging 

teiecommunications 

problems 



ABSOLUTELY 
FREE SOFTWARE! 

1 thought that would get your 
attention. I've picked four 
great, useful, and free pro- 
grams found on COMPUTE/ 
NET to feature this month. To 
get the programs, first con- 
nect to GEnie or America On- 
line. Use the keyword COM- 
PUTE to navigate to the C0f\/1- 
PUTE/NET area. Then go to 
the software library areas and 
download the files. 

Hi-Lo Joker Po/cer (filename 
HI-LO.ZIP) is a new version of 
an old game that's just plain 
fun to play. The CGA graphics 
combine with a nice interface 
for an easy-to-learn, enjoyable 
experience. 

ScreenEdit (filename SED- 
IT.ZIP) can give your batch 
files a professional look. It's a 
text-mode paint program that 
lets you create excellent 
screens that can be loaded in 
right from a batch file using a 
special program included in 
the SED1T2IP archive. And pro- 
grammers will appreciate 
ScreenEdit's ability to save 
screens as source code for BA- 
SIC, C, or assembly language. 

Hard Drive Bench (filename 
HDBENCH.2IP) gives any 
hard drive a real workout and 
lets you know how it did. Re- 
sults from XTs, ATs, and 
386SXs are shown so you can 
see just how a system's hard 
drive and controller compare. 
If you're shopping for a com- 
puter, you can use this pro- 
gram to help you test your 
next hard drive system on the 
showroom floor. (Make sure 
you ask permission before run- 
ning Hard Drive Bench—or 
run the risk of getting some 
very surprised looks,) 

PC Doctor (filename 
PCDOC.ZIP) shows you 
what's inside your systems 
memory and alerts you to the 
status of your hardware ports. 
You can see a list of installed 



device drivers, memory-resi- 
dent programs, and environ- 
ment variables. You can even 
peer into any part of memory 
and change it with the built-in 
memory edit feature. 

You can get all of these pro- 
grams from COfvlPUTE/NET 
All but PC Doctorate complete- 
ly free — no shareware fee. 

Some who are new to tele- 
communications might be hav- 
ing trouble getting things to 
work. With all of the memory 
conflicts that TSRs introduce 
and all of the hardware con- 
flicts that add-on cards throw 
in, it's no wonder. I'll offer 
some advice that will help 
most people who are experi- 
encing problems. 

Make sure your telecommu- 
nication software is set for the 
right serial port. If you have 
trouble, try setting your soft- 
ware to a different COM port. 
You have to watch the baud 
rate. If your modemi is only ca- 
pable of 1200 baud and you 
try 2400 baud, you won't get 
any error messages. Instead 
it will seem as if nothing is work- 
ing. So make sure you're us- 
ing the correct data transmis- 
sion speed. If everything looks 
right but you can't make a con- 
nection, try a slower rate. 

Find out what port and IRQ 
your serial cards, mouse, and 
modem are using. This isn't al- 
ways easy. Watch your com- 
puter's screen when it boots 
and note if the mouse and oth- 
er drivers tell you what port 
and IRQ they're using. You 
can also consult the manuals 
for any cards you have in- 
stalled. I strongly suggest that 
you run a diagnostic program 
like Checlf-lt. It will give you a 
list of IRQs and ports. 

Every COM port needs an 
IRQ. These are hardware-gen- 
erated interrupts that are trig- 
gered by an external event. In 
the case of a modem, the IRQ 
is triggered when a character 
comes in over the line. Once 
the IRQ is triggered, a special 



piece of code decides what to 
do with the incoming charac- 
ter. Without interrupts your se- 
rial devices couldn't communi- 
cate with the computer. 

IRQs can service only one 
external device at a time. You 
can have one IRQ for two de- 
vices as long as you're not try- 
ing to use them both at the 
same time. For instance. IRQ4 
can be used by CQM1 or 
COM3. You can have both se- 
rial ports safely installed in 
your system as long as you 
don't try to use both of the 
ports simultaneously. 

There's a program in this 
month's "Tips & Tools" column 
that will display a list of your se- 
rial ports, their IRQs. and your 
mouse configuration. If you 
don't want to type it in, down- 
load It from COMPUTE/NET 
(filename PORTS.ZIP), 

Once you've identified your 
equipment and all of your 
ports and IRQs, you're ready 
to fix most communications 
problems. Mice are the big- 
gest culprits when it comes to 
conflicting with serial commu- 
nications. Make absolutely 
sure you' mouse isn't trying to 
use the same serial port as 
your modem. Then, make 
sure that C0M1 and COM3 
are using IRQ4 and that 
COM2 and COM4 are using 
IRQ3. 

If there's a conflict, you're go- 
ing to have to get out your man- 
uals and set the board's jump- 
ers and DIP switches to fix the 
problem. It's not hard to do, 
and you probably can't do 
much damage. Just be care- 
ful when you slip the cards in 
and out of the slots. 

I hope you're not having 
hardware problems, If you 
are, these suggestions 
should help. You can send 
questions and comments to 
me on GEnie. address 
RLEINECKER; America On- 
line, sceen name Rick CL; 
and CompuServe, user ID 
75300,2104, a 



72 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



THE LATEST NEWS FROM 



cannpuTE 




Find out how hard drives fared in COMPUTE's 
test labs when wc put them throiigl: a battcrv' of 
dcmatidinjj; tests. Yoifll find a mountain of text lab 
data tliat wouldn't fit in the magazine in the 
COMPUTE/NET area of Amenca Online! 

Interested in space exploration? How would you 
like to download color NASA pictures scanned 
fi-om official NASA photos? The/ re hot, and you 
can get diem on America Online in the 
COMPUTE/NET software libraries, along with 
more software files and programs than ever before 
to do\\Tiload and enjoy offline. 

America Online also offers multi-player graphic 
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Call today for your FREE sofi^varc and FREE trial 
membership of COMPUTE/NET on America 
Online. 




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ORDER TODAY! 



CALL 1-800-827-6364, EXT. 5698 

Or return this coupon to try COMPUTE/NET ond Americo Online! p 



WITH 

AMERICA ONLINE, 

YOU CAN: 

▲ Download more than 
40,000 files and programs. 

A Get computing support 
from more than 75 hard- 
ware and software makers. 

A. Seek advice about nmning 
a small hn.siness from the 
Microsoft' Small Business 
Center, an America Online 
exclusive! 

▲ Find the latest news, 
sports, stock quotes and 
weather, shop or make 
travel plans. If s as easy as a 
point and a click! 



A 

A M E Ryl^C A 



T ES! Send mc my FREE America Online 
software and trial membership so I can tr\' 
COMPUTE/NET and explore America Online 
with no obligation. 

Clip and mail to: America Online, 8619 
Westwood Center Drive, Vienna, VA 22182 



Name 



Address (No P.O. Boxes) 



Cit\- 



. .State 



.ZIP. 



Home Phone Number ( 



.) 



Computer Type and Disk Size: 
DOS-Compatible* Apple 

D 5.25 □ 3.5 D Macintosh 



D Apple II 5.25 D Apple II 3.5 



♦ The DOS-eompatlblc version of America Online requires S12K. RAM memon', a 
Hercules or EGA monitor or higher, a hard drive, and a mouse. 

e 1991 AnicnL-J Online. Int. America Online iE. j rcgiiEered screitc niilrk of Anicricj Online, Jnc. and requires J 
VIS.^. Mjster Card, or cheekints jecoiint. COMPLT>:/'NET is a legtMcred service mart nf COMPUTE 
PubltCilions tmernational Linijled. Allow r\vo weeks for deliver^'. 5698/rC 



POINT & CLICK 



T^y" 



Clifton Karnes 



The Norton 
Desktop 
for windows 
gives your 
system a real 
drag-and- 
drop facelitt. 



SUPERCHARGE 
YOUR DESKTOP 

The Norton Desktop for Win- 
dows {Symantec, 10201 Torre 
Avenue, Cupertino, California 
95014; 408-253-9600; $149} 
IS nothing if not ambitious, it's 
a complete replacement for 
botfi Program Manager and 
File Manager In addition, the 
package comes ctiock-full of 
excellent Windows utilities. 

You can run Tlie Norton 
Desktop either as your default 
V^indows shell or as an appli- 
cation. Either way, you1l imme- 
diately notice that your desk- 
top is very different from the 
one you're used to. Along the 
left side you'll see an icon for 




74 



each drive on your system. 
Along the right side are icons 
for Printer, Backup, Viewer, 
and SmartErase. Across the 
top of your screen, you'll find 
Tiie Norton Desktop menu 
bar. If you choose to run Nor- 
ton's Quick Access, you'll al- 
so have Norton's improved ver- 
sion of Program Manager 

Clicking on a drive icon 
calls an instance of Drive Win- 
dow (Norton's file manager) 
for the selected drive. The 
icons along the right side of 
the screen are targets for 
Drive Window files. The Print- 
er icon prints a file, and the 
Viewer'tcon allows you to view 
any of 30 different file formats. 

The interesting thing about 
these target icons is that you 

COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



can drag a file from a Drive Win- 
dow to one of them and crop 
the file on the icon to activate 
the feature. For example, to 
view/ a file named BAL- 
ANCE.XLS. you click on the file- 
name in the Drive Windowand 
drag its icon to the Viewer icon 
and release it. Tlie Norton View- 
er will pop up with BAL- 
ANCE.XLS displayed. 

In addition to being able to 
drag and drop files from a 
Drive Window to these icons, 
you can drag and drop files on- 
to the desktop. 

For those attached to Pro- 
gram Manager and its icons, 
there's Quick Access, which 
works like Program Manager 
but has many added features. 
Perhaps the most useful of 
these is its abil- 
ity to store 
groups as 
icons on other 
groups. This 
can make or- 
ganizing pro- 
grams and 
documents 
much easier. 

In addition 
to the pack- 
age's two ma- 
jor applica- 
tions {Drive 
Windows and Quick Access), 
The Norton Desktop is packed 
with a huge number of utilities 
including Backup. Scheduler 
SmartErase. Shredder. Sleep- 
er Launch Manager Su- 
perFind, System Information. 
BatchBuild. KeyFinder, Icon 
Editor and Disk Doctor 

There are so many useful 
programs here that it's hard to 
know where to begin. For me, 
the most impressive applica- 
tion in this group is SuperFind. 
It searches for files either by 
name or by text content, and 
it's fast. The real power of the 
program, however, lies in 
what you can do with the files 
you find that match your crite- 
ria. You can view, copy, 
move, sort, or delete them, 



and you can use them as ele- 
ments in a batch file that Su- 
perFind automatically creates 
for you. SuperFind by itself is 
almost worth the price of the 
package. 

Of the other utilities, most 
are good, and some are excep- 
tional. One that's very useful is 
KeyFinder With it, you can 
quickly find the keystrokes you 
need to produce all those 
weird characters in the extend- 
ed ANSI set. You can also 
copy and paste these charac- 
ters into your program. 

The Norton Desktop is an im- 
pressive achievement, but it 
has a few rough edges. The 
first is its extremely slow load- 
ing speed. If you find yourself 
moving from DOS to Windows 
several times a day, the pro- 
gram's sluggish boot time will 
become a negative, The Nor- 
ton Desktop is also glacially 
slow when saving its current 
configuration. 

When I installed Desktop, 
Quick Access completely ig- 
nored the icon spacing I'd set 
up in Control Panel and 
clumped my icons very close- 
ly together. With Control Pan- 
e/ifs easy to change icon spac- 
ing, but with The Desktop, you 
have to edit the program's INI 
file manually and reboot. 

Another problem with icon 
management is that unlike Win- 
dows, which always lines up 
icons neatly beside each oth- 
er, The Norton Desktop 
doesn't seem to know where 
any minimized program icons 
are, and it's continually plop- 
ping its icons on top of other 
ones, tvlore than once I've 
tried to rerun a program be- 
cause The Desktop had ob- 
scured its icon. 

These criticisms aside, The 
Norton Desktop is an excellent 
product, especially consider- 
ing its lowball price of S149. 
Even if you don't opt to use it 
as your default shell, the utili- 
ties alone are well worth the 
package's price. a 



ADVENTURE INTO 
A LIVING UNIVERSE 



,^'^ 1 




You and your comrades wi! follow a 
path of clues across the adventure- 
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New World Computing is a trademark ol New World Computing. Inc. 

IBM screens shown, actual screens may vary. circle Reader service Number 153 



P.O. Box 4302. HQllywood. CA, 90078 



HOME OFFICE 



COMPUTE CHOICE. If you're planning to add a CD-ROM 
drive to your home PC, look to Sony's disc-packed 
laser library for a solid— and entertaining— investment. 

Peter Scisco 



SONY LASER 
LIBRARY 

What better sign that CD-ROM 
has arrived than ttie introduc- 
tion of a CD-ROM system de- 
signed expressly for consum- 
ers by the consumer electron- 
ics giant Sony? The Sony La- 
ser Library system has a 
you need to enter the world / 
of CD-ROf\/l from your / i; 
PC. And if you do move / ^ 
on to Windows-based / 
multimedia products 
in the future, it's quite 
capable of meeting the basic 
specifications. 

At the heart of the Laser Li- 
brary is an external Sony CD- 
ROM drive, a solid performer 
that meets all current demands 
for CD-ROM use. I used the 
drive with a variety of appiica- 
tions, including those that 
came with the system, and ex- 
perienced no problems. 

Unlike Tandy's low-cost 
CDR-1000 drive, the Laser Li- 
brary employs a CD caddy for 
handling both audio CDs and 
CD-ROMs. There is some dis- 
cussion in the industry as to 
whether a caddy is the most ef- 
ficient, or even the most consu m- 
er-friendly, means of inserting 
discs into a CD-ROM drive. Port- 
able audio CD players usually 
sport a flip-top design. Still, 
the Sony caddy posed no prob- 
lems, even after weeks of use. 

Sony deserves applause for 
making such a complex device 
as simple as possible to install, 
use, and upgrade. A folding 
Read Me First guide lays out 
the basic steps for installing 
and running the system. Sony 
even includes a dual-head 
screwdriver for installing the 
adapter card into your PC. 

The Host Adapter card is a 
half-size board compatible 
with XT- and AT-bus personal 

76 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 




comput- 
ers. Sony's instal- 
lation guide, with its well-or- 
ganized illustrations and ciear 
instructions, leads even the 
most technophobic user 
through the process of remov- 
ing the computer cover and 
properly inserting and setting 
the board, More sophisticated 
users will find IRQ and base ad- 
dress information in the System 
User's Guide, in case there are 
conflicts with other I/O devices, 

Once you've installed the 
card and replaced your PC's 
cover, you're ready to hook up 
the CD-ROM drive. Connection 
is made through one of two 40- 
pin bus connectors; just click 
the supplied cable into place. 
Once you've plugged in the 
power cord, you're ready to in- 
stall the Laser Library software, 

The installation program is al- 
so well designed and works ac- 
cord ing to the most recent "stan- 
dards." It searches your hard 
disk to make sure you have 
enough room to install the La- 
ser Library files and then 
prompts you to insert one of the 
six CD-ROMs that come with 
the system. From this disc, the 
system creates a DOS menu 
for launching CD applications. 



If you 
have 

Windows 
3.0 on your 
system, the In- 
stall program will 
create a Laser Li- 
brary group and assign each 
CD-ROM application an icon 
within that group. 

During the setup procedure, 
you can specify whether you 
want the Library menu to ap- 
pear each time you start your 
computer. If you skip this op- 
tion, you can call the menu to 
the screen by typing LL at the 
DOS prompt. The menu itself is 
simplyar'anged and can be ma- 
nipulated from the keyboard or 
with a mouse. The six CD-ROM 
applications are listed, with a 
scroll bar to the right. High- 
light the application you want to 
launch and press Enter, or dou- 
ble-click on the application 
name — it's that easy A dialog 
box appears onscreen to ask 
for the correct disc. Once 
you've loaded the application, 
using the CD caddy it launch- 
es automatically 

The CD-ROM applications 
included as part of the Sony La- 
ser Library represent a wide 
range of use and practicality 
and they're an excellent value: 



a CD-ROM drive and software 
valued at more than £1,000, 
all for less than S700. 

Disk 1 is Compton's Family 
Encyclopedia. Thougti not the 
multimedia version, this is still 
an excellent electronic re- 
source. Thousands of articles, 
pictures, and definitions are 
cross-linked. Students of all ag- 
es will appreciate the Research- 
ers Assistant feature, which 
suggests assignments on 100 
different topics. 

Disc 2 IS Microsoft Book- 
shelf: 1991 Edition, a full-fea- 
tured reference library com- 
plete with Th)e American Heri- 
tage Dictionary Roget's Elec- 
tronic Thesaurus. The Concise 
Columbia Encyclopedia. The 
World Almanac and Book of 
Facts 1991. Bartlelt's Familiar 
Quotations (my favorite), and 
The Concise Columbia Diction- 
ary of Quotations. 

For language students, disc 
3, Languages of the World, al- 
lows you to pursue your avoca- 
tion with electronic vigor. Trans- 
late words and phrases into 12 
languages, including Chinese 
and Japanese. You can aiso 
search for idioms and compare 
word use throughout the select- 
ed languages. 

Disc 4 is one of two in the li- 
brary that comes close to mul- 
timedia. The program. National 
Geographic Mammals, is a da- 
tabase of photographs, draw- 
ings, and text related to the 
earth's family of mammals. 
Most exciting, however, espe- 
cially for younger children, are 
the video clips of several dif- 
ferent mammals. 

Mixed-Up Mother Goose on 
disc 5 is a departure from the 
reference materials. Aimed at 
young children, this Interactive 
game leads the player on a jour- 
ney through the land of Mother 
Goose. Children will delight in 
meeting such favorite charac- 



SONY 



m 



LABBH UBi 



THE COMPLETE 
CD-nOM STAHT UP KIT 

COM^nnnceirjrHiEH vctTtHbkT 




ters as Humpty Dumpty and Lit- 
tle Miss Muffett. 

Sony rounds out the library 
on disc 6 with Software Tool- 
works World Atlas, a compre- 
hensive database of maps and 
related information. You can 
print descriptions and maps to 
a file or send them to your 
printer, and you can import 
your maps into many popular 
word processing and desktop 
publishing packages. 

You aren't limited to these 
discs when using the Laser Li- 
brary, You can delete, add, or 
edit Items on the menu as your 
CD library evolves. But though 
Sony has worked hard to make 
it easy to add disc titles to 
the menu, the process can be 
fraught with frustration. 

As more CD-ROM publish- 
ers include automatic installa- 
tion to the Laser Library as an 
option on their discs, adding to 
the menu should become sim- 
pler Sony has done what it can 
to establish a menu for a sys- 
tem that so far has avoided stan- 
dards. The company provides 
an 800 number for technical sup- 
port. I found the technicians 
ready to help me sort through 
the variations of CD-ROM instal- 
lations and launches. 

Separate from the discs, So- 
ny included one feature I thor- 



oughly enjoyed while reviewing 
this unit— an audio CD player 
program. You can bring to the 
screen a detailed Image of a So- 
ny CD player; all of the buttons 
on the image are live. The play 
button starts the CD, the pro- 
gramming buttons let you set 
the order in which you play the 
CD tracks, and the eject button 
stops play and ejects the cad- 
dy from the CD-ROM drive, 

For those who need a break 
from silence or office Muzak, 
the CD player can be run as a 
TSR. Having access to CD-qual- 
ity audio from artists of your 
choosing is far better than be- 
ing limited to the classic rock sta- 
tions that litter the airwaves 
these days. The CD drive itself 
can be linked through a stereo 
amplifier to power regulation- 
size speakers. If you want to 
keep the m.usic to yourself, So- 
ny includes headphones. 

If you're contemplating add- 
ing a CD-ROM drive to your 
home computer system, you'll 
have plenty of models and 
types to choose from this year. 
The Sony Laser Library isn't the 
least expensive, but its superi- 
or design and engineering, 
menu interface, easy installa- 
tion, and high-quality CD-ROM 
applications provide solid value 
for your investment. D 

JANUARY 1992 



IBM PC and 
compatibles, 51 2K 
RAM, hard disk 
with \m tree 
space; VGA 
recommended— 
$695 



SONY OF AMERICA 

Computer 

Peripheral 

Products 

655 River Oaics 

Pi(wy. 

San Jose, CA 

95134-1997 

408-432-0190 



COMPUTE 77 



WORKPLACE 



Daniel Janal 



Just because 

you're on the raad 

doesn't mean 

you're out ol loucli: 

voice mail and 

E-maii to tlie rescue. 



WELKONKECTED 
TRAVEL 

Nearly half of Terry Kalil's 
work life is spent on the road — 
at conventions, meetings, air- 
ports. In today's world, that 
isn't unusual. But it does pre- 
sent an interesting problem. 
How do you manage a staff 
when you've been gone 80 
out of the past 200 workdays? 

As public relations manag- 
er for Great Plains Software, 
the leading developer of ac- 
counting and business man- 
agement software for small- 
and medium-sized business- 
es, Kalil spends at least 16 
weeks on the road meeting 
with strategic partners such as 
Apple, Borland, and Lotus to 
discuss marketing opportuni- 
ties and with resellers and re- 
porters to announce new prod- 
ucts and strategies, Technol- 
ogy helps. 

"I could not travel as much 
as I do . . . without technolo- 
gy," she says. "The company 
is very skilled at taking advan- 
tage of the technology." 

One of the bi( 




erates on the company's per- 
sonal computers. "Our com- 
pany thrives on voice mail. It 
is a critically important tool," 
she says. "We use the tele- 
phone for more than 'It's Ter- 
ry; call me.' We leave full mes- 
sages—and get full answers 
in return." 

Voice mail is a powerful 
tool for Kalil. She uses it to in- 
struct her staff and answer 
their questions. She also uses 
voice mail to report to her man- 
ager and respond to ques- 
tions coming in from from the 
public. "I use voice mail like I 
use Post-it notes. I attach a 
note to the original message 
and send it off. I can delegate 
by forwarding. I'm not losing 
productivity because I have to 
wait to get home." 

With voice mail, she can 
even discuss sensitive issues. 
Kalil was at a conference re- 
cently when she had to dis- 
cuss salary adjustments for 
her staff. Since she was thou- 
sands of miles away and pay- 
day was the next day, she had 
to conduct the process entire- 
ly over the phone. Security is 
built into the system so 
that unauthorized listen- 
ers can't hear messages, 
by accident or on purpose. 

She can save time by broad- 
casting messages to anyone 
or everyone in the company 
headquarters or at its 57 re- 
mote field sites in North Amer- 
ica. For instance, when a na- 
tional C.P.A. contest rated 
Great Plains at the top, she 
sent a message to all compa- 
ny personnel. "We played an 
audiotape of our announce- 
ment, complete with the com- 
pany president's extemporane- 
ous remarks. I got calls from 
people saying, 'I felt as if I 
were there, I heard the pop- 
ping of the balloons."' 

By using voice mail active- 
ly, she's been able to estab- 
lish positive relationships with 
new contacts and maintain ca- 
maraderie with office mates. 



"Because we spend so 
much time on the road, we 
have adapted," she says. "If 
you rely on technology, you 
end up being a better commu- 
nicator. There are people I've 
never met whom I've had 
extensive conversations with. 
When we meet, we feel [as if] 
we know each other. We are 
like old friends and know 
each other well." 

Although voice mail doesn't 
afford you the opportunity to 
pick up important cues like 
body language, Kalil says 
that if you are a good listener, 
you'll hear the subtle cues deliv- 
ered by voice inflections and 
other means. "If you are a 
good communicator, the tele- 
phone or E-mail is not a hin- 
drance." She has this advice 
for voice mail users; 

1 . Be a good listener. 

2. Be personable, not formal. 

3. Laugh. Let them hear a 
smile in your voice. 

4. Show empathy. 

5. Use the memo approach by 
stating the subject up front. 

Other tools in Kalil's traveling 
arsenal include a Compaq port- 
able computer. "A laptop is 
never more than inches away 
from my hand," she says. Her 
laptop puts her in touch with 
the company's cc:Mail and 
fvlCI Mail. 

"At 5:00 a.m. 1 can sign on 
and l<now what our daily sales 
figures are. I can vm[e press 
releases, approve copy, and 
send thank-you notes to my ad- 
ministrative assistant to type. 
I type it into the system, and 
people at the main office get 
the work done." 

For those times when she 
must actually see material for fi- 
nal approval of layouts or cop- 
ies of articles that will appear in 
the media, Kalil relies on the 
powers of the fax machine: 
"How did we live without them? 
I feel so connected to the busi- 
ness with it. I'm never out of 
touch," she says, "fvlaybe I'm a 
communications junkie." □ 



78 COMPUTE JAt^UARY 1992 



'WND-BOeeUNGAUENTION TO DETAIL^ 
LOOKS UKETHE IDEAL TRAINING GROUND FOR 
ALL BUDDING ASTRONAUTS'' 

BASED ON TESTING AND DOCUMHTA TtON FROM NASA 



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NUMEROUS TRAINING, SCIENTIFIC AND "STAR WARS" 
(SDI) MISSIONS 

MULTIPLE HELP LEVE15 FROM 'NOVICE" TO "VETERAN" 

VARIOUS LAUNCH AND LANDING SITES 

ROLLING DEMO OF FEATURES AND VIEWS _^ 

1 FOLD-OUT SHUTTLE FLIGHT DECK POSTER -.,, 

'This progmm is clearly the most powerful and complex flight 
simulator eyer designed.' GAME PUYER'S 

'An obvious winner!" COMPUTER EDGE 




msamm 



8 1 



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\3 




IFF OFF. Now, soaring obove the eorth ot 17,000 
MPH, 2B0 nnuticD miles above the earth, 
SHUTTLE enables you to fly numerous realistic, 
missions in the Spate Shuttle Orbiter-intluding 
classified "Star Wars" (SDI) osslgnments. ^ 

Based on official government documents, SHUTTL^ 
is the most accurate and comprehensive simulafian 
of NASA's Space Shuttle ever produced for any home ' 
computer. . 

With the aid of Mission Control, you will master sutli 
challenges as deploying and repairing solellifes, 
launching spy satellites, maneuvering your croft 
through zero gravity, attaining the correct re-entr)y 
trajectory and pulling off complicated landings. J 



'•-4^ 



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ma 



Bivnono ir 



©1991 Virgin Games, Inc. All rights reserved. ©1991 Vektor Grofix, Ltd. All rights reserved. Virgin is n registered trademark of Virgin Enterprises, Ltd. 
For pricing and orders, please call 800-VRG-INO7. Visa, Mastercard, American Express, and checks accepted. 




circle Reader Service Number 145 



THE BARGAINS 

OF THE COMPUTER AGE 

MAY BE WAITING 

AT A FLEA MARKET NEAR YOU. 



COMPUTER FLEA MARKETS 



Buying computer equipment is nev- 
er easy — especially whien you're 
trying to build a home office. 
Salespeople are notoriously un- 
helpful, prices are high, and stores of- 
ten have only a limited selection of hard- 
ware and software. You can spend 
months looking for a system that 
meets your particular needs and your 
pocketbook's limits. 

Fortunately, there are alternatives. 
Mail-order vendors offer good prices 
and a variety of hardware and soft- 
ware. The trouble v/ith mail order is 
that some people prefer not to spend 
their hard-earned money on something 
they can't examine before the sale. 
Most buyers are happy ordering by 
mail, but some people still don't like 
mail order, no matter how many happy 
endings they've heard. For these folks 
and everyone else, there's another way 
to get a good deal: computer flea mar- 
kets or fairs. 

Computer fairs have a long history. 
In the 1970s and early 1980s, person- 
al computers were rare and exotic ma- 
chines torn from the pages of Popular 
Science. It was seat-of-the-pants com- 
puting in those days. Then, computer 
fairs were where people with a com- 
mon love for uncommon machines 
came together to share discoveries. 

Today, user groups and entrepre- 
neurs sponsor computer shows and 
flea markets for the same purpose. 
Amateur radio operators also host gath- 
erings called hamfests that usually in- 
clude computers and other gear. 




Flea markets can be found through- 
out the country. Some are run at parks 
or drive-in theaters; others at hotels 
and motels. The best way to find out 
about them is to ask at your local user 
group meeting or on bulletin board sys- 
tems (BBSs). Some regional computer 
magazines list them, and the bigger 
fairs advertise in newspapers and on ra- 
dio. You can still find equipment and 
programs you haven't seen in years, as 
well as hardware and software at pric- 
es you won't believe. 

Sound too good to be true? Well, a 
computer flea market is not a perfect 
environment; there are problems. 
These shows can be very crowded. If 
you have a touch of claustrophobia, 
you don't want to go to indoor shows. 
One I attended was closed by the 
state fire marshal because of over- 



crowding. Though you might think that 
would be the end of the show, you 
would be wrong. Dealers just kept sell- 
ing in a light spring rain as they 
moved their wares from the exhibition 
hall to their trucks. 

There are other problems. Shows 
are not the place to go if you don't 
know what you're looking for. The deal- 
ers are often there because they know 
computers and they want to make ex- 
tra money to supplement their day 
jobs. They may know more than the 
guy in the computer store who's trying 
to sell you a computer based on the col- 
or of its case, but they often don't 
have time to explain things. 

If you don't know what cable you 
need to get your printer and computer 
talking, they might be able to help you. 
Usually, however, there's too much go- 
ing on for them to do so. On the other 
hand, if you know specifically what 
you're looking for, you can probably 
find what you need in a hurry. 

It's best to do your homework — and 
not just so you can confidently say 
that you want a serial mouse and not a 
bus mouse. You're going to see more 
computer goodies per square foot 
than you've ever seen in your life. You 
may go in planning to buy a box of flop- 
py disks and walk out with a VGA mon- 
itor, an 80486 motherboard, and an Ap- 
ple Me. Leaving your cash at home 
won't help; many dealers take plastic. 

You should also be careful of other 
traps. The folks who sell at a flea mar- 
ket are as honest as anyone, but they 



BY STEVEN J. VAUGHAN-NICHOLS 



80 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 




JANUARY 1992 COMPUTE 81 



\ 







i 









m^ 







can be hard to find if you need help. If 
sometfiing goes wrong with your new 
modem or other peripheral, you may 
be out of luck, 

You need to be cautious of buying 
used, homemade, or no-name equip- 
ment. Used goods might not work as 
advertised. While someone with techni- 
cal skill can build a perfectly fine 
80386 computer in the garage, that per- 
son might not be able to help you if 
something goes wrong with it in a 
week or a month. One reason IBM can 
charge so much for its machines is 
that it stands behind its products 100 
percent. The Romans had a phrase 
you should remember: caveat emptor — 
let the buyer beware. 

Brand-name computers and compo- 
nents can also be found at these 
shows for incredible deals — 40 percent 
below list price is not uncommon. Deal- 
ers usually can sell goods with these re- 
markable discounts because, in the ev- 
er-changing world of computers, yester- 
day's PC can be as hard to sell as yes- 
terday's newspaper. These orphaned 
systems often fall into the hands of flea- 
market merchants, but that doesn't 
mean they're worthless. They're just 
harder to sell in sufficient volume to jus- 
tify giving them room on the shelves. 

When you're buying an older sys- 
82 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



tern, you should bear one potential pit- 
fall in mind; Some systems and periph- 
erals are too slow for modern software. 
A real IBM XT may be a steal if all 
you're going to run is a word processor 
or a text-based spreadsfieet, but 
you're wasting your money if you want 
to run desktop publishing software un- 
der Microsoft Windows. An older sys- 
tem simply doesn't have the horsepow- 
er necessary to run these programs 
effectively. If it will run them at alt. 

Conversely you might be tempted 
to purchase an old version of a soft- 
ware product. But look it over careful- 
ly You might discover that it can't do 
the job you need done. 

Rules fo Sove By 

Still want to try out the flea markets? 
You should. You won't find better 
deals anywhere. But to make sure you 
get your money's worth, here are a few 
rules you should keep in mind. 

The first rule is not to buy anything 
at first glance. I did this the first time I 
attended a computer flea market, and 
only ten seconds later, I was sorry. I 
was looking for a copy of Datastar, an 
old CP/M database program, for my 
faithful Kaypro computer {this was in 
1986. and you couldn't find CPIM soft- 
ware anywhere). Just inside the door 



was a man selling old CP/fvl software 
for $20 a package, I grabbed a copy 
of Dafas/ar immediately, congratulating 
myself on my good fortune. There 
wasn't a happier person around — until 
I turned the corner and found another 
person selling every CP/M program I'd 
ever heard of for $10 a pop. 

The second rule is a relative of the 
first. Go through the entire show before 
you lay money down for anything. No 
matter how great the deal sounds, 
there may be a better one on the next 
table. If you're looking for a part or a 
program for an older computer, don't 
grab the first thing that comes along. 
You'll find that flea markets are the on- 
ly places where you can find a selec- 
tion of things to buy even for your sen- 
ior citizen system. 

Another rule is that if a vendor takes 
credit cards, use them. You may have 
to pay more for the privilege (a 5-per- 
cent premium isn't uncommon), but 
don't let that stop you. For a few addi- 
tional dollars, you buy the opportunity 
to stop payment if your purchase 
turns out to be a dud. Some credit 
cards extend the manufacturer's war- 
ranty on anything you buy with them, 

Whenever you're shopping for bar- 
gains, it's a good idea to get to the mar- 
ket early and park as close as you can 



Brain Gain. 



Wiy let your kids play games 
with their future? Instead, give 
thein Br(i)derbund's newest com- 
puter program, The TVeehouse. And 
help them play it smart. ^ Rather 
than shoot-em-ups, monsters, and 
mayhem, The Treehouse features 
science, math and music. Not to 
mention language arts, social 
studies and creativity. % Our earlier 
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preschoolers a playful place for 
learning. Nov\^ The Treehouse gives 




THE 

TEEEHOUSE 



6- to 10-year-olds their own world 
to explore. If Both programs fea- 
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And they're both chock full of fun. 
So learning becomes play, not 
work. H The Treehouse runs 
on MS-DOS (coming soon for 
Mac and Apple 11). See it at your 
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If And teach your child to shoot 
for the moon, instead of blasting 
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Circle Reader Service Number 171 20 COJ 



to the site. You stand a better chance 
of beating the hordes Jl you arrive with 
the morning light. Computer people 
aren't early birds. 

You should bring along some pacl<- 
ing materials to wedge around equip- 
ment in the rear seat. Most of the time 
you won't need it, but now and then 
you'll find a piece of used equipment 
that doesn't have any packaging. 

Always look carefully at anything you 
buy. There may be a very good reason 
that top-of-the-line brand-name comput- 
er costs so little; it may have been 
dropped at the store. If you don't have 
a chance to see if a machine works 
and it shows signs of having been 
through hard times, don't buy it no mat- 
ter how great the deal. It doesn't mat- 
ter how inexpensive something is if it 
doesn't work. 

How Get Your Wings 

I know that's a lot of things to worry 
about. But trust me. If you go to one of 
these shows, you'll go back again. Pric- 
es tend to be 20 to 40 percent less 
than in the stores. You'll never find 
more hardware and software in one 
place. You may even find something 
that you didn't know you needed. 

If your computer isn't a part of the 
PC and Macintosh mainstream, these 



shows are often the only way you can 
get anything for your machine. Be- 
sides, there's the adventure of the flea 
market experience: You never know 



what you'll find when you walk through 
the doors. Computer treasure is wait- 
ing to be found at a flea market near 
you. See you at the show. O 



OTHER ROADS 



Flea markets aren't the only way to lurnish 
a home office with inexpensive software 
and hardware. Used computers can be a 
real boon to entrepreneurs on a tight budg- 
et. Even systems that have only been run 
once by a little old lady from Pasadena 
should cost only 60 to 85 percent of their 
original price. Finding such systems can 
be a real headache, however, and that's 
where computer brokerage services 
come in. 

Companies like the National Computer 
Exchange (800-622-6639) and the Boston 
Computer Exchange (617-542-4414) ar- 
range for buyers and sellers of used equip- 
ment to make deals with one another. 
While cutting-edge systems are rarely 
lound on the exchanges' virtual floors, old- 
er but still useful systems are easy to find. 

D.A.K.. C.O.tVI.B., and ottier distributors 
of discontinued and overstocked merchan- 
dise frequently offer brand-new hardware 
at far below original cost, sometimes bun- 
dled with brand-name software. 

Users desperately seeking low-priced 
software should give shareware programs 
a try This kind of software, available from 



online services like CompuServe and local 
BBSs, can be tried on for size before you 
buy. If a program doesn't fit your needs, 
just delete it from your hard disk, and you'll 
owe its maker nothing. 

Shareware can be both inexpensive 
and powerful. The staples of computing 
work — word processing, spreadsheets, 
and databases— can be handled by such 
shareware products as Galaxy Lite, PC- 
Calc+. and Wampum. Their names may 
not be as well known as WordPeriecl. Lo- 
las 1-2-3, or dBASE. but these and other 
shareware programs may be exactly what 
your home office needs, and they re avail- 
able at a fraction of the cost of shrink- 
wrapped software. 

You may not need to go to shareware, 
though, for top-quality programs. Compa- 
nies like Ashton-Tate, now oart of 
Borland, are marketing programs like 
their flat-file database. RapidFile, and 
their integrated software package. Frame- 
work XE. for less than $150. Many other 
companies have followed their lead in sup- 
plying consumers with inexpensive, full- 
featured office software. 



JANUARY 1992 COMPUTE 83 



ARIS & LETTERS 



siisa 



Robert Bixby 



ART AND 
ARTIFACT 



WDal God hath 

wrought: 

It's diflicuii to 

separate the 

creative urogrammer 

from the 

capabElities of the 

code. 



I recently finished putting ttie 
final touches on our Novem- 
ber feature on fine art, written 
by fine artist Lee Noel Jr, for- 
merly of COMPUTE. 

Tlie material he provided 
was exciting and arresting — 
art that could be appreciated 
by anyone. In fact, you proba- 
bly have had in your posses- 
sion a work by one of the art- 
ists: Joni Carter's work has 
appeared on postage stamps. 

A couple of the artists v^^ere 
involved in creating the soft- 




ware that creates their art- 
work. Another was working on 
the hardware level, stringing to- 
gether machines, sensors, 
and output devices to create 
something that would result in 
an experience for the viewer 
At the same time I was work- 
ing on the feature, I was read- 
ing a pile of science fiction 
books — Joe Haldeman and Lar- 
ry Niven — culled from the local 
used-book emporium. So it 

84 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



was inevitable that f began to 
think about pushing the limits. 
When Isaac Asimov created An- 
drew, the wood-carving robot 
in his classic science fiction sto- 
ry, there was no question in the 
minds of people who saw An- 
drew's carvings whether he 
was creating art. But Andrew it- 
self was only a tool produced 
on an assembly line. Only be- 
cause of a defective positromc 
brain was Andrew creative. 

fvlany people who program — 
perhaps most — eventually sit 
down to create a graphics pro- 
gram. I wrote a few and en- 
joyed the process, and here's 
why. The Interest in text and da- 
ta files lies in 
their meaning, 
and there are 
only a few 
things you can 
do to words 
with a text edi- 
tor and still 
have words that 
make sense. 
By contrast, 
you can do al- 
most anything 
to a graphic, 
and it can still 
be visually inter- 
esting. 

In my ef- 
forts, I created 
something I 
called a wallpa- 
per processor. 
It would rotate 
an image 90 de- 
grees and su- 
perimpose it 
on the original 
image, move the image to the 
right a set number of pixels 
and then repeat the process. 
Depending on the original im- 
age, the result would look like 
the very busy wallpaper fa- 
vored in the early part of this 
century, with intricate patterns 
repeating every inch or so. 

I won't make a case that my 
wallpaper processor created 
art (although I managed to pub- 
lish some of it in literary maga^ 



zines). but if it were art, would 
the art be my art? Or could a 
case be made that the comput- 
er created the art and my only 
contribution was a signature? 

What if, instead of giving the 
computer a set of fairly com- 
plex but rigid instructions, I had 
informed the computer about 
aesthetics — showing it how to 
achieve balance withoutsymme- 
try, to use a variety of shading 
techniques to provide an inter- 
esting set of textures? I might 
even have designed an expert 
system that mimics the creative 
processes in an artist's mind. 

Alan Turing, the English com- 
puter visionary who was a 
member of the team that 
breached the codes of the Ger- 
man Enigma machine during 
World War II. devised a test to 
determine whether a comput- 
er was capable of thought. His 
test involved having a person 
interact via teletype with either 
a computer or another human 
being (a teletype was the only 
input device they had at the 
time). If the human operator 
was unable to tell whether the 
interaction was with a comput- 
er or a human being, then you 
could say the computer was ca- 
pable of thought and was. in 
a sense, human. 

It seems to follow that a com- 
puter that can create original 
art indistinguishable from hu- 
man art — even human art cre- 
ated on a computer — is an art- 
ist and human in this way. 

I don't think Alan Turing con- 
sidered what to make of the 
programmer who created the 
program that was capable of 
thought. As a creator of some- 
thing indistinguishable from hu- 
manity, is the programmer el- 
evated above the human lev- 
el? As frightening as these 
things are to think about, they 
are close at hand. It's easy to 
tell van Gogh from his brush, 
but it's more difficult to distin- 
guish the creative program- 
mer from the capabilities of 
the program code. n 



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DISCOVERY 



COMPUTE CHOICE. Whether for power 

or a golden age, you write 

the new history of mankind's civilization. 

Keith Ferrell 



SID MEIER'S 
CIVILIZATION 



It's less than 10,000 years old, 
this impulse to cultivate the 
land, to domesticate wildlife, 
to settle in one location. 
That's not much time. Our 
earliest primate ancestors 
appeared on the scene 
about 18 million years 
ago. with the first 
members of the ge- 
nus Homo arriving 
16 million years or 
so later. Homo sapi- 
ens sapiens, our subspecies, 
barely 100.000 years old. Civ- 
ilized humanity is, so to speak, 
a most modern invention. 

Yet that handful of civilized 
millenniums represents a 
climb from cowering in dark- 
ness to reaching for the stars. 
While civilizations have risen 
and fallen over the past 8000 
years, the impulse to civilize, to 
develop natural and human re- 
sources for the betterment of 
the population, has remained 
for the most part constant. 

Sid Meier's Civilization 
gives you the opportunity to 
create, rule, and manage a civ- 
ilization. Ruling and managing 
are. as players quickly discov- 
er, quite different things. As 
the game begins, you control 
a single band of settlers with 
little or no technology; to win 
the game, yours must be the 
first civilization to colonize a 
planet in another stellar sys- 
tem. This game has range. 

Civilization may, in fact, be 
the most open-ended and flex- 
ible computer game ever de- 
veloped. Each step along the 
pathway to a fully functioning, 
happy and healthy, wetl-man- 
aged civilization can lead in 
several directions. Decisions 
made early in the game can 
generate consequences that 

86 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 




Stretch across centuries. 
There is no right or wrong way 
to play the game. 

Paradoxically, this freedom 
imposes a greater responsibil- 
ity on the player than most 
games would dare. There's 
more at stake here, or at feast 
there seems to be. Sid Meier 
has done a wonderful job of 
creating the illusion of genuine 
consequence within what is, af- 
ter all, interactive electronic 
entertainment. 

Don't get me wrong — you 
can have quite a good time 
with Civilization by playing 
quickly, taking a "smash-and- 
grab" approach. Devote your 
entire attention and produc- 
tive ability to cranking out mili- 
tary units, seeking enemies, 
and making war. Such an ap- 
proach, though, may be fore- 
doomed. Your opponents are 
likely to be craftier, more intel- 
ligent (in the context of the 
game, at least), and more or- 
ganized than you. 

Their own attention to eco- 
nomic and cultural develop- 
ment may ultimately provide 
them with more effective weap- 
ons of war than yours. (Bear in 
mind, too, that even a "quick" 



game can 

take several hours to com- 
plete — unless your civilization 
is rapidly overrun by other 
more vibrant cultures.) 

Conquest and warfare cer- 
tainly piay a major part in Civ- 
ilization. This is a terrific war 
game, yet more. Culture and 
government, religion and com- 
merce demand the same de- 
gree of attention as production 
of weapons and military units; 
they may well prove more val- 
uable to the ultimate destiny of 
your civilization. 

fvleier's accomplishment 
here is, ultimately, the creation 
of a game whose peaceful de- 
velopmental aspects can be 
as fulfilling as its v^farlike as- 
pects, perhaps even more ful- 
filling. How many war games 
can you think of in which you 
have the choice between pro- 
ducing weapons of mass de- 
struction or building Shake- 
speare's theater? The pres- 
ence of that option indicates 
fvleier's growth as a designer; 
that plowshares can in some 
ways be as fundamental to suc- 
cess as swords indicates the 
sophistication of the game. 

There is a science fictional — 



or perhaps fantastical — aspect 
to Civilization. The game 
doesn't promise to duplicate 
civilization as our history 
knows it. Rather, players have 
the tools for civilization and the 
chance to make of them what 
they will. While all players — 
you and up to six computer 
opponents — start at the same 
level, the evolution of individual 
civilizations does not follow par- 
allel tracks any more than it has 
in our own history. Forms of gov- 
ernment, ideotogies, technolo- 
gies — all can collide. I have 
played games wherein I con- 
structed lovely civilizations of a 
TOughly medieval level of tech- 
nology, only to see them invad- 
ed and conquered by oppo- 
nents in tanks and aircraft. 

Likewise, ! have found my- 
self in control of modern tecii- 
nologies that provided the 
means for laying siege to the 
entire world. Sid Meier's 
game makes vivid the clash of 
cultures that dramatizes so 
much of human history 

Placing chariots and cata- 
pults in the path of armored per- 
sonnel earners without the con- 
frontation seeming forced or 
false, in the manner of a war 
game construction kit, is a trib- 
ute to the game's persuasive 
abilities. You'll find yourself not 
only suspending your disbelief 
but also coming to care for the 
societies you create. 

Through it all, the manage- 
ment aspects of a civilization 
will demand your attention. 
Infrastructure is crucial. You 
will provide your people with 
housing, food, and care, or 
they will let you know of their 
displeasure. The infrastructure 
requires maintenance and up- 
grades. Simple roads give 
way to highways or rail lines. 
Primitive sailing craft able on- 
ly to hug the shore evolve into 
huge oceangoing transports, 



battleships, carriers, and 
subs. You'll find libraries and 
universities here as well as 
barracks and depots. Ideas 
prove as crucial as ordnance 
to the growth and expansion 
of your civilization. 

Best of all, there's a sense 
throughout of the interrelation- 
ship among ideas. Decisions 
made early in the game echo 
throughout its progress, both to 
your advantage and against it. 
Each path you choose both 
opens and closes other oppor- 
tunities. You quickly learn to 
choose carefully 

Meier is also aware that civi- 
lizations play out their lives on 
planetary surfaces, often de- 
spoiling them in the process. 
Here, you are charged not only 
with exploiting the world's nat- 
ural resources but also with re- 
newing and restoring them. 

There's even an interactive 
encyclopedia of sorts, with en- 
tries specific to the game. De- 
sign and aesthetic decisions 
are well supported by informa- 
tion resources, both within the 
game and in Bruce Shelley's el- 
egantly written documentation. 

Will you make the right de- 
cisions? There's no clear an- 
swer to that question. Sid 
Meier is as aware of the dilem- 
ma of design bias as any de- 
signer I know. It's not by acci- 
dent — nor solely by marketing 
intent, I think — that MicroProse 
calls the game Sid Meier's Civ- 
ilization. Insofar as is possible, 
though, Meier has minimized 
his overt presence in the 
game. You don't have to "think 
like Sid" in order to prosper. He 
has created a sort of electronic 
pocket universe with clearly de- 
fined rules and proscriptions. 
Within those limits, you're on 
your own, able to find your way 
according to your own inclina- 
tions and abilities. 

While the game is primarily 



Sid Meier's 



CIVIUZATIM. 

Build An Empire To Stand TJie Test Of Time 







ii^ PROSE 



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intended as entertainment, it 
has an educational aspect that 
cannot be overlooked. Meier 
isn't teaching here — nor, ex- 
cept in a couple of environment- 
al areas, is he preaching. 

Rather, he provides players 
with a self-contained continu- 
um to explore and lets the rea- 
sonable and realistic rules of 
that continuum do the teach- 
ing. You learn by experience 
what works and what doesn't. 
If the lessons learned don't di- MICflOPROSE 
rectly apply to the real history 180 Lakelront Dr. 
of our planet, you might at Hunt Valley, MD 
least allow that they may deep- 21030 
en your appreciation of the in- (301) 'HI-IISI 
tricacies of history and the 
odds against which civilizations 
have always struggled. 

Civilization is a bold stroke 
from one of the boldest of our 
interactive game designers. 
This game challenges the wor- 
thiness of your intellect as well 
as your instincts and provokes 
interplay of ideas while provid- 
ing fun. In short, it's a most 
civilized entertainment. □ 

JANUARY 1992 COMPUTE 87 



PATHWAYS 



Steven Anzovin 



Monument Valley 

mesas or Antarctic 

wilderness? Tlie 

wonder of fractal art 

lies partly in its 

relationship to nature. 



FRACTAL 
COMPACTION 

As the Incredible Shrinking 
Man discovers at the end of 
the classic science fiction 
film, there are always new lev- 
els of wonder in the universe. 
no matter how small you get. 
Legions of computer users are 
discovering this truth as they 
play with the curious mathemat- 
ical entities called fractals. Frac- 
tals, you see, are pretty much 
the same at every scale, from 
the cosmic to the miniscule. 

A coastline provides a good 
example of fractal geometry. 
From space, the coast of Cali- 
fornia has a certain rough irreg- 
ularity. A mile above the land, 
the coast has a similar rough- 
ness. Get down on the beach 
on your hands and knees, and 
the irregular boundary between 
sand and surf looks remarkably 
like the coast seen from space. 
That self-similarity is an essen- 
tial property of fractals. 

A number of software pro- 
grams make it possible to ex- 
plore fractal geometry on your 
home computer. It isn't neces- 
sary to master the mathemati- 
cal mystery of IFS attractors, 
metric spaces, and affine trans- 
formations in the Euclidean 




plane to have fun with fractals 
(though you'll understand the 
theory better if you got past an- 
alytic geometry in school). 

Most programs let you take 
a colorful image, like the well- 
known fyiandelbrot set (kind of 
a mathematical black hole with 
an infinitely complex bounda- 
ry). and simply zoom in and out 
at will. At any level, you can 
find whirling vortices, flaming 
dragons, Amazonian river sys- 
tems, and complex Escher-like 
tilings. Their rhythmic, psyche- 
delic quality is fascinating. 

Two absorbing fractal explo- 
ration programs are The Beau- 
ty of Fractals Lab for the Macin- 
tosh, based on the book The 
Beauty of Fractals by Peitgen 
and Richter (Springer-Verlag. 
175 Fifth Avenue, New York, 
New York 10010: 212-460- 
1500; software $49.00, book 
$39.00). The image that accom- 
panies this column Is from The 
Beauty of Fractals. For PCs 
and Macs there's Desktop Frac- 
tal Design System by Michael 
F. Barnsley (Academic Press, 
465 South Lincoln Drive. Troy, 
f\/lissoun 63379; 800-321-5068; 
549,95), companion software 
to Barnsley's book Fractals Eve- 
rywhere. also by Academic 
Press (S44.50). It's considered 
by fractal mavens to be one of 
the few classics in the field. 

Seaufy creates beautiful ab- 
stract graphics. It even has a 
cool 3-D option but requires a 
color Mac with a math coproces- 
sor. Desktop has fewer options 
but runs on any AT-class ma- 
chine with 640K and EGA or 
VGA. It's more of a teaching 
tool for using fractals to model 
real objects like ferns, clouds, 
and even human faces. 

Fractals are good for more 
than creating calculation-inten- 
sive eye candy on your PC. how- 
ever. Another essential proper- 
ty is that they can be described 
v/ith relatively smali amounts of 
information — as little as a singie 
mathematical formula. 

Thus any computer image 



that can be described with frac- 
tal geometry can be stored In 
a very small amount of space. 
Barns ey's company, Iterated 
Systems (5550A Peachtree 
Parkway Suite 650. Norcross, 
Georgia 30092; 404-840- 
0633), has a fractal-transform 
compression process called 
P.OEM that compresses a 
768K 24-bit color image down 
to 10K with little loss of detail. 

The weirdest, most fractal- 
like thing about POEM imag- 
es is that their resolution is 
practically unlimited. You can 
even view them with more de- 
tail than in the original image. 
The transform process adds 
all the extra detail! Iterated Sys- 
tems and Jones and Bartlett 
Publishers have copublished 
a 1.44MB floppy disk called 
Floppy Book (Jones and 
Bartlett Publishers, 20 Park Pla- 
za, Boston, Massachusetts 
02116; 800-832-0034; $24.95) 
that contains 100 "pages" of 
full-screen 24-bit images and 
text. That's packing about 
77MB of data onto an ordinary 
3y?-inch floppy. 

P.OEM PC floppy books 
can also contain compressed 
video (two minutes per disk), 
digitized sound, and ASCII 
text. They might well supplant 
CD-ROMs as a digital publish- 
ing medium for single books 
rather than entire encyclopedi- 
as or databases. The floppy 
book is faster (you can load 
the P.OEM file to your hard 
disk for access speeds no CD- 
ROM player can match), it's 
cheaper to duplicate, and eve- 
ry computer has a floppy disk 
drive. 

You don't need special hard- 
ware or software to read a 
P.OEM floppy book, but you 
need special hardware to 
make one. The compression 
development kit costs up to 
$13,000, but you can have It- 
erated Systems or a service bu- 
reau compress your files for a 
low piecework rate, starting at 
$25 per picture. □ 



86 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



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MARTIAN MEMORANDUM 

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deception, and prophecy from present 

day San Francisco to the year 2039. 



WORDTRIS 

A new challenge from the TETRIS 

people at Spectrum HoIoByte. The fast 

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tetters on them, which players try to 

form into words. Time is of the 

essence as you try to maneuver letter 

tiles to spell words, as they fall from 

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you like TETRIS, you'll love WORDTRIS. 



FACES...TRIS III 

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"Trademark s 1 99 1 Paramount Pictures. All rights reserved. Konaml Inc. Authorized user. 



MULTIMEDIA PC 



David English 



Braderbund'sJust 

Grandma and 

Me is jusi one 

of GO new 

mullimedfa titles. 



SELLING 
THE SIZZLE 

The date: October 8, 1991. 
The place: the Hall of Meteor- 
ites at the American Museum 
of Natural History in New York 
City. This was it, folks— the 
day that multimedia officially 
came to the PC. Now that mul- 
timedia has arrived, what 
does it mean for the average 
consumer? Will historians look 
back on this event as the offi- 
cial wedding of television and 
computer technologies? Or 
will multimedia be just another 
niche market for people with 




money to burn? Maybe I'm bi- 
ased, but I think we're onto 
something big here. 

it was hard not to be im- 
pressed. The first speaker was 
James Burke, best known for 
his two rapid-fire history-of-tech- 
nology series on PBS, "Connec- 
tions" and "The Day the Uni- 
verse Changed." With Burke 
comparing multimedia to Guten- 
berg, Martin Luther, and the 
American Revolution, you 
couldn't help but feel you were 
witnessing a real-life day the uni- 
verse changed. 

Microsoft's Bill Gates fol- 
lowed Burke with a more down- 
to-earth view. He was clearly de- 
lighted with the 60 titles on 
display—though most of the ti- 
tles weren't quite ready to ship. 
(The official name for a multime- 
dia software product is title, not 

90 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



program or application.) Gates 
also demonstrated how you'll 
be able to paste a sound from 
a multimedia application into a 
Word for Windows document. 
An icon is placed on the page, 
and the reader can click on the 
icon to play back the accom- 
panying sound. 

So what kind of titles can you 
expect to buy for your new Mul- 
timedia PC? Broderbund 
showed Just Grandma and 
Me, the first installment in the 
new Living Books series. It's sim- 
ilar to The Playroom, but it's 
structured more like a tradition- 
al book, As you would expect, 
it includes full digitized voices 
and some very 
clever anima- 
tion. The Voyag- 
er Company 
demonstrated 
a similar title, 
Amanda Sto- 
ries, which was 
more free-form 
in its organiza- 
tion and more 
whimsical in its 
content. !n the 
same vein, Sier- 
ra On-Line 
showedthemul- 
limedia version of its award-win- 
ning Mixed-Up Motiier Goose. 
All three titles will have young 
children begging in the aisles 
for a Multimedia PC. 

For those who prefer to cre- 
ate their own multimedia pres- 
entations and applications, 
AimTech has IconAuthor, a 
high-end authoring program 
that lets you mix graphics, text, 
sound, animation, and video in- 
to a seamless whole. From Au- 
todesk you can buy Autodesl< 
Animator, Autodesk Animation 
Player for Windows, and a 
large selection of clips (mostly 
animation with some digitized 
audio and MIDI clips). It's all on 
one CD-ROM, and it's called Au- 
todes/f Multimedia Explorer. Mi- 
disoft is offering Midisoft Studio 
for Windows, a powerful MIDI 
recording/editing program that 



can display standard music 
notation as you play. 

Other notable new titles in- 
clude Microsoft's Multimedia 
Beethoven: The Ninth Sympho- 
ny, which contains the full au- 
dio recording of the symphony, 
as well as the orchestral score 
and a detailed analysis by 
UCLA music professor Robert 
Winter; InterOptica's Great Cit- 
ies of the World, Volume 1, 
which takes you on a multime- 
dia tour of ten international 
cites; Metatec's Nautilus, the 
first subscription-based multi- 
media service available on CD- 
ROM; and HyperGlot's Learn to 
Speal< Spanish, with 30 inter- 
active lessons featuring the dig- 
itized voices of native Spanish 
speakers. 

In addition, softv/are compa- 
nies have converted many of 
today's top programs to multi- 
media, including Britannica 
Software's Compton's MuttlMe- 
dia Encyclopedia for Windows 
and Guinness MultlMedia 
Disc of Records 1991, Inter- 
play's Battle Chess and Dvor- 
ak on Typing, Sierra's Jones In 
the East Lane and King's 
Quest V, Access Software's 
Links, the Software 
Toolworks' World Atlas and Ch- 
essmaster 3000, Passport De- 
sign's Master Tracks Pro and 
Encore, and Microsoft's 
Works for Windows and Book- 
shelf for Windows. 

Of the software developers 
I talked to who are converting 
their programs to CD-ROM, 
most plan to offer their CD- 
ROM versions for less money 
than their disk-based ver- 
sions. Expect to see $59.95 
programs available for as little 
as $39.95 on CD-ROM. (Not on- 
ly is it cheaper to supply soft- 
ware on CD-ROM, but it virtu- 
ally eliminates the problem of 
illegal copying.) If tfie software 
companies can get enough ti- 
tles out there at rock-bottom 
prices, multimedia could real- 
ly take off. Fortunately, we're 
off to a great start. D 



THE VOVAGE 
CONTINUES! 

STAR TREr: 
25th Anniversary™. 








tdAlfaf>tilWteW.-tahTn 



Fasten your seatbelts, 
bring your seat backs to 
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and stow away those 
other computer games. 
You're about to pilot a 
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STAR TREK: 25tk Anniversary 
combines a realistic, 3D space flight 
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adventures to create a gripping game of 
galactic exploration. 

You'll play James T. Kirk and experience 
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using Interplay's stunning, new, state-of-the- 
art, digitized model graphics. You'll control 
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Scan and survey hundreds of fractally 
generated worlds and then join a landing 
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alien races and artifacts. So beam aboard the 




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■ Full 256 color VGA graphics 

■ Thousands 0/ state-of-the-art, 3D digitized, 
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■ Interact with doz^T^is of alien races 

■ Navigate Kirk, Spock and Bones on a 
variety of world exfilorations 

■ Complete musical score featuring digitized 
sound effects from the series and major 
sound hoard support 

■ Easy to use, point-and-click, icon interface 

To order STAR TREK:25th Anniversary, call 
I-800-969-GAME. Available on MS-DOS 
compatible machines for $59.95. 




MS-DOS Saeens Picmred. 



Interplay Productions 
3710 S.Susan, Suite 100 
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(714)549-2411 



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MS-DOS is Traikmmk of Microsoft Cmporaiion. 



GRAND PRIZE: 

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Circle Reader Service Number IDS 




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Clrd* R«ad«r Service Number 200 




WORLD OF ELECTRONIC GAMES 



GAMES GONE GLOBAL 

THE GAMES OF THE 

ELECTRONIC WORLD HAVE UNIVERSES 

HIDDEN INSIDE 



Nations rise; lyings fall. 
Some civilizations leave 
impressive relics of past 
glories, while others van- 
ish without a trace, But 
they're all at the mercy 
of your PC's on/off 
switch. Press it, and 
they're only ephemeral 
bits of magnetic parti- 
cles on a floppy disk. 

Game designers can 
squeeze the globe and 
its billions of inhabitants, 
along with their wars 
and explorations, their 
laws and creations, onto 
a piece of plastic no big- 
ger than your hand. 

We may get to play with these 
worlds, but they're not ours to keep, 
They're the children of game design- 
ers like Chris Crawford, Sid Meier, 
Will Wright, and others. And they act 
and think a lot like their parents. 

Balance of Power, a geopolitical 
sinnulation where you go toe-to-toe 
with the Soviets, is still one of the 
best examples of designer hubris. 
Though Balance of Power evokes 
the sense of brinkmanship, few oth- 
er pieces of software are so 
marked by their creator's hand. 

Play from the American perspec- 
tive, for instance, and you can find 
yourself going to the thermonuclear 
threshold because the Russians are 
trying to push military advisers into 
Mexico, Not only is it absurd that 
any Soviet regime would be so auda- 
cious, but when they won't back 
down under pressure, the situation 
slides to the ludicrous. The only way 
to survive is to be DPC, Designer 
Politically Correct. Don't want to 
play by Crawford's rules, which can 
quickly force you into a set piece of 
wimpy behavior? Too bad. All you 
can do is pack it in (or more likely, 
spark an atomic conflagration) 
when you try to get tough. 

Crawford's not the sole example 
of the global game designer point of 
view. Will Wright, maker of the ultra- 
popular SimCity and its sequel. 




SimCity from Maxis, a polilically correct simulation. 

SimEarth. abridged cities, then plan- 
ets. In SimCity, where you manage 
urban populations, you can quell cit- 
izen complaints by simply building a 
sports palace, a cynical attitude 
that evokes images of Roman circus- 
es. Mass transit is OK, while automo- 
biles are an evil you need to dispose 
of as soon as possible. More DPC. 

SimEartti, a stunning but often pas- 
sive model of world building, har- 
bors a bias against nuclear power in 
its advanced levels. To its credit, 
though, SimEarth lets you promote 
any species — even dinosaurs — to 
intelligence, a remarkably liberal 
viewpoint, 

Sid Meier, MicroProse's premier 
designer, recently released his new- 
est work. Civilization, a game in 
which you guide your culture from 
the pre-Bronze Age to the Space 
Age. Though your choice menu is 
impressively long and complex, the 
race to supremacy is decidedly West- 
ern and very technological. 

What can you expect? Computer 
games, after all, are made by peo- 
ple. People with opinions. 

Writers bring personal perspec- 
tive to their work, sometimes in- 
flamed views that are meant as 
much to sway as to report. All crea- 
tive endeavors — and game design 
is just such an undertaking — begin 
with an opinion. 

Perhaps what fools us is that 



these games run on com- 
puters, which brook no 
shading, only blacks and 
whites. Or maybe it's the 
word sIrDulation that 
tricks us into thinking the 
genre must be neutral 
and neutered. But game 
makers— and thus their 
games — are anything 
but objective. 

"There's definitely a 
designer's perspective, 
but I think of it as more 
of a question of what you 
want to emphasize," says 
Sid Meier. "[Political and 
economic games] are in 
the more subjective topics. When you 
talk about politics or history, of 
course there are different opinions. 
But dealing with another level of bias 
is, in some ways, more interesting." 
Chris Crawford puts it more plain- 
ly. "I've never claimed that my 
games are free of bias. In fact, a 
game designer has a moral respon- 
sibility to put his perception of the 
world into the game. But he'd better 
make sure that the opinions are as 
broadly based as possible." 

"My view of a city is what's reflect- 
ed in the program [SimCity]," 
chimes in Will Wright. "It's very sub- 
jective, but , , . so is any form of 
entertainment. It's not something 
you find just in computer games. No 
matter how hard you try to be neu- 
tral, you still have a point of view." 
It's no surprise, then, that we're 
not completely content with the PC 
worlds we borrow, especially those 
that explore emotional topics like pol- 
itics, religion, and the environment. 
The key is this Chris Crawford com- 
ment: "Any good piece of art exag- 
gerates reality." 

So take Crawford, Meier, Wright, 
and other ambitious game design- 
ers with a grain of salt, accept v/hat 
they let us play with, and argue 
with it if you like. Just don't expect 
games to be as soulless as the com- 
puters that play them. 

GREGG KEIZER 



JANUARY 1992 COMPUTE 93 



WORLD OF ELECTRONIC GAMES 



PRINCIPLES OF GOOD GAME DESIGN 

PLAY iNOUGH GAMES, AND YOU'LL 

PROBABLY DEVELOP YOUR 
OWN PHILOSOPHY OF GAME DESIGN 



UR-OtMW< 

HioimcKV 



Star Control 



You saved up for 
months to buy a new 
game for your PC. You 
read the reviews, investi- 
gated tlie bestseller 
lists, asked your friends 
and relatives, and set- 
tled on a package. 

As you lay your mon- 
ey down, you wonder if 
your diligence will be 
rewarded. Will the 
game be as incredible 
as everyone says? 
Wfnat makes a good 
game, anyway? 

Ask game designers 
and they can talk for 
hours. Various themes 
surface in their an- 
swers — good games are 
fun, they balance challenge witfi suc- 
cess, they tell good stories, they 
have whiz-bang features. Good 
games are simple; they help you ex- 
pand your mind. 

Play enough games and you'll 
probably develop your own philoso- 
phy of game design. Certainly it will 
include a few of these principles. 

Fun Comes First 

Name: Paul Reiche III 

Recent Release: Star Control from 

Accolade 

Other Games: Archon and World 

Tour Golf 

For Paul Reiche III, good ganne de- 
sign starts with good fun. "I don't 
have any highbrow ideas of games 
as statements of social change." 
says Reiche. "To me the litmus test of 
a good game is how much fun it is." 

His answer may sound obvious, 
but Reiche goes into great depth 
about this basic principle. He ex- 
plains that designers can describe 
their newest games ad nauseam 
but never say, "The fun part is. . . ." 

"Consequently," he says, "any 
fun in the game is completely acci- 
dental. A good game has to have a 
fun core, which is a one-sentence de- 
scription of why it's fun." 



H l&IEIHDBHD 




^BEHaSDD H 



FREE STMtS 



creator Fteiche designs games based on 

Exercising his sense of fun, 
Reiche spends time thinking about 
games we play in the reai world. He 
picks out the fun core of the game. In 
hide-and-seek, for example, the fun 
part of being the hider is finding a 
good place to hide. Then he thinks 
about how that can translate to a 
computer game. 

Besides looking to the real world 
for standards of fun, Reiche exam- 
ines successful games of the past. 
His latest release. Star Control, was in- 
spired by an old 8-bit Atari game 
called Star Raiders. Look at the graph- 
ics of Star Raiders and you'l! smugly 
roll your eyes. But the game was 
great fun back then, and it's still fun 
today. "I think those games are over- 
looked as a source for fundamental 
game design," says Reiche. 

He also plays games with friends, 
"We have a game night once a 
week when we play games we want 
to play or games that look interest- 
ing, " he says. "We usually don't play 
computer games. We usually play 
board games." 

Reiche's philosophy — that a 
good game design is simply a fun 
game — may seem too basic. But, as 
Reiche's contemporaries Brent Iver- 
son and Dan Bunten agree, fun is 
the essential element of an excellent 



fun. 



game. Isolating that ele- 
ment, though, can re- 
quire many hours of sift- 
ing through unneces- 
sary game details. 

Of his own design 
process, Bunten re- 
marl<s, "We go through 
these designing-playing- 
designing-playing-type 
iterations to follow the 
thread of what's fun and 
build on the foundation 
of what we think is need- 
ed" Iverson echoes this 
philosophy with his admis- 
sion, "There are cases 
where you design some- 
thing that looks good on 
paper and there's only 
one small part of it that's 
fun. You have to focus on that and 
throw the rest away." 

Perhaps fun is too intangible a 
term to pin down — successful 
game designers can't readily define 
what fun is even though they contin- 
ue to produce engaging games. As 
an old hand at designing popular 
games, Paul Reiche takes his "fun" 
seriously enough to build some of 
the most entertaining diversions 
around, with or without a working 
definition. 

We Crave Simplicity 

Name: Dave Jones 

Recent Release: Lemmings from 

Psygnosis 

Other Games: Menace and Blood 

Money 



When Dave Jones and his cohorts 
built Lemmings, they decided to 
emphasize simplicity. They thought 
the best-designed games were also 
the least complicated. 

"Tetris is the ultimate example of 
the most ultimately simple game, 
but it's so addictive," said Jones. 
"Lemmings is complexly simple. 
That's what's fun about it." He 
found, however, that attaining sim- 
plicity posed great difficultly. "We 
took a good six months to design 



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COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



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Circle Reader Service Number 119 



WORLD OF ELECTRONIC GAMES 



AS CONSUMERS HAVE DEVELOPED 

MORE SOPHISTICATED PALATES, 

GAME DESIGNERS HAVE SPICED UP 

THEIR WRITING SKILLS 



this game," muses Jones. "That's an 
unusually long time." 

Lemmings almost defies descrip- 
tion. A group of rodents move irresist- 
ibly forward. You endow thiese crea- 
tures with special skills tliat help 
them overcome obstacles. Of 
course, the skills are limited and the 
solutions are not always obvious. 

In the interest of good game de- 
sign, Jones whittled 
down the skills from a 
collection of 20 to a 
group of 8. "The sim- 
pler you can make the 
control of the game, the 
more playable it is. 

"We thought that with 
these eight skills we 
could throw anything at 
the players. When we 
started to take skills out, 
we figured they could do 
these things with these 
three skills. Can this lem- 
ming replicate what this 
skill can do with two or 
three other functions?" 

The final product is a 
game that many design- 
ers call ingeniously sim- 
ple but obsessively inter- 
esting. Origin Systems' 
Richard Garriott adds his opinion to 
the body of praise for this Psygnosis 
hit. "I would not have been able to pre- 
dict Lemm/ngs would be such a popu- 
lar game, but it's stick and 
simple." Even the jaded Jones ad- 
mits that this is the only game he has 
ever wanted to play after finishing the 
project. 

Perhaps simplicity is an aspect of 
game design that more designers 
should note. Reiche extols the virtue 
of an uncomplicated game: "The re- 
ally blisteringly original games are 
incredibly simple." 

To Jones, however, the best 
game design would sprinkle glamour 
over innate simplicity "The ultimate 
game would be one that's as play- 
able as Lemmings but has the [cine- 
matic-style] graphics of Wing Com- 
mander," he says, "That is something 



that people have tO' work towards 
and that is very difficult to do." 

The Plot's the Thing 

Name: Roberta Williams 
Recent Release: King's Quest V 
from Sierra On-Line 
Other Games: Tiie Colonel's Be- 
quest and Mixed-Up Motiier Goose 
Roberta Williams designs games 




Sophistication tielped make Origin's Ultima successful. 

that have a discrete, victorious end. 
A good game, in her view, takes 
you to that final victory in an interest- 
ing way. 

"More and more, we're thinking in 
terms of the plot," she says. "And is 
the protagonist a likable person? 
And who is the antagonist?" 

Adventure games have changed 
a lot since she began her long- 
lived King's Quest series. "In the old 
days, when I first started designing 
adventure games, there wasn't 
much plot," Williams says. "You 
kind of ran around beating up trolls 
and gathering treasure." 

As consumers have developed 
more sophisticated palates, game 
designers have spiced up their writ- 
ing skills. According to Williams, 
"More and more, [games are] turn- 
ing into interactive fiction, and more 



and more, we're concentrating on 
plot, the characters, and proper writ- 
ing technique." 

Williams equates her adventure 
games with movies and books. Her 
creations aspire to be as well craft- 
ed and as absorbing as those you 
would find in a motion picture. Play- 
ers must be able to identify with the 
characters. Puzzles must fit into the 
plot without drawing at- 
tention to themselves. 

Balancing a game's 
plot with an acceptable 
amount of interactivity 
is one of the toughest 
tasks in designing a 
good adventure game. 
"In the case of an adven- 
ture game, the protago- 
nist is controlled by the 
player," Williams ex- 
plains. "The writer has no 
control over what the pro- 
tagonist does. The protag- 
onist is kind of like a wild 
horse that you have to 
catch and rein in. ' 

The only time she can 
direct the protagonist is 
during program control 
sequences. These are 
the parts of the game 
where the player is forced to find 
clues through overheard conversa- 
tions and cutaway scenes. These se- 
quences keep the game moving. 

"It's at those points that you can 
rein the players in and make them 
dance to your tune," she says. "But 
then they're off and running." 

With both good plots and good 
writing techniques, Williams designs 
games that double as escape hatch- 
es from everyday life. That escape, 
combined with the sheer pleasure of 
winning, is what she finds fun in the 
King's Quest games. 

Tethnology First 

Name: Richard Garriott 

Recent Release: Ultima VII, The 

Black Gate from Origin Systems 

Other Games: Ultima series, Martian 

Dreams 



96 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



Build An Empire To 
Stand The Test Of Time 



...With Sid Meier's CIVILIZATION 



IM 




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rrrrrrrrr 
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Rout Ramses... Outwit Alexander... Knockout Napoleon.. 

History is littered with the bones of great men who thought 
their achievements would live forever. Now you can 
succeed where they failed as MicroProse brings you 
Sid fvleier's Civilization. Guide a culture from its earliest 
stages, through agricultural and industrial revolutions, all 
the way to your own Space Age. Survive and dominate 
by oulmaneuvering mankind's most legendary leaders. 
Carve your name indelibly in the pages of history. With 
Sid fvleier's Civilization, you really can build a brave 
new world. 



/?==ws«j PRDSE 

? -J - i rn A i rj M F N T . SOFTWARE 

For IBM-PC/Tandy/Compatibles. For the latest information on release dates 
and availabilities call MicroProse Customer Service at 301-771-1151, 9 am to 
5 pm EST, weekdays. ©1991 MicroProse Software, Inc., 180 Lakefront Drive, 
Hum Valley. MO 21 030. 



Clicle ReadBT Service Number 225 



WORLD OF ELECTRONIC GAMES 



A GOOD COMPUTER GAME IS 
PRETTY MUCH THE SAME THING THAT GAMES 

WERE ALWAYS MEANT TO BE: 
SOMETHING TO WILE AWAY SOME TIME WITH 



Like King's Quest, Richard Garriott's 
Ultima games have been around for 
a long time. Unlike King's Quest, 
however. Ultima's key to success is 
its technological sophistication — 
plot comes later. 

"When I sit down to design a 
game, I usually have a few basic 
goals that I am very much aware of 
from the onset," Garriott says. "The 
message of the game and the ma- 
jor technological achievements I 
want to take on — I usually have 
these well in hand con- 
ceptually before I put a 
line of code in." 

For Garriott, techno- 
logical issues drive the 
game design process. 
He says he can write a 
good story and try to 
make the computer tell 
that story, but without 
close attention to the lim- 
its of the machine, he 
won't know how much 
code he'll have to write. 
He won't even know if 
the idea is possible. 

"On the other hand, if 
you first develop the 
technology, then you 
'Okay, I can design a 
does that,' The story is well within 
the scope of the technology" 

As he redesigns the technology 
for each new Ultima, Garriott 
carves the plot out of the new pos- 
sibilities. Far example, in each of the 
Ultima games, Garriott has been 
able to show the world of Britannia 
in more detail. By Ultima V, he 
could put furniture in the rooms, so 
he included a harpsichord the play- 
er could play — just because it was 
possible, Since he couldn't justify 
the harpsichord on aesthetic 
grounds alone, he rigged the instru- 
ment so that when players press a 
certain key a secret passage opens 
and reveals one of the major parts 
of the game. 

By creating more detail and more 
possibilities, Garriott has built a series 
that wraps players in the fantasy of an- 



other world. He says the fun part of 
the Ultima series is that immersion in 
a separate reality, a reality that 
grows richer and richer with each 
installment, 

"Ultimas are fun," Garriott says, "be- 
cause everything from the moment 
you open the box is there to compel 
you to believe that you might really 
be going to a real place. The fiction 
of the whole game is there to support 
the reality of your escape to the 
world of Britannia." 




Ftoberta Williams' King's Quest series is interactive fiction. 



can say, 
story that 



And Still More Fun 

Name: Dan Bunten 

Recent Release: Command HO 

from tvlicroProse 

Other Games: M.U.L.E. and Hobot 

Rascals 

Bundle up all the elements of a 
good game and give them a vigor- 
ous shake. What sifts through is a 
special kind of growth that comes 
from having a good time. 

"Fun is not a fatuous activity," 
says Dan Bunten. "Fun is the meter 
on your emotional state. Fun is the 
summary feeling that you've got, but 
what's contributing to that are unex- 
pected opportunities for growth." 

According to Bunten, fun takes 
on an important role as an indispen- 
sable part of our lives. "It's a char- 
acteristic of intelligent species to en- 
gage in activities for which there 
seems to be no reward," he says. 



"As a culture, we class those activi- 
ties as play. Those are things that 
don't have any extrinsic reward. The 
reward is all intrinsic." 

He explains why we need fun, "As 
intelligence rises, the need for stimu- 
lation also rises," he says. "For every 
brain, there is an optimum level of 
arousal that your brain wants to get 
to." If your brain doesn't reach that lev- 
el during the day, you've got to play. 
By consuming your daily quota of 
stimulation, you promote your psy- 
chological and spiritual 
growth. You can also ex- 
pand your intellectual 
capacity. "Some things 
have a certain amount 
of depth that pushes 
you, makes you think a lit- 
tle deeper than you 
have, makes you study 
a little more, makes you 
connect with things out- 
side of the game environ- 
ment." 

According to Bunten, 
when you become com- 
pletely absorbed by a 
game that pushes you to 
your intellectual edges, 
you feel like what you've done is 
more deeply significant than what 
you would have done otherwise. He 
asserts, "Because of the richness of 
the environment, the connection to out- 
side, real-world experiences, you 
come away with a more profound 
experience than you would have had 
without those elements — even if the 
entertainment value is equivalent." 

Good games are good for you, 
by Bunten's account. Fun is a vita- 
min for the mind, essential nourish- 
ment for your intellect. Or perhaps 
Reiche comes closer to the truth 
when he says, "A good computer 
game is pretty much the same 
thing that games were always 
meant to be: something to wile 
away some time with." 

But whatever your rationale, what- 
ever your excuse, don't worry. A lit- 
tle fun never hurt anybody. 

HEIDI E. H. AYCOCK 



98 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 





ATTEMPT TO DEFUSE A HIGHLY CHARGED 
PLOT OF MURDER, CORRUPTION AND INTRIGUE. 

• Your mission in this adventure roie play, should you choose to accept it, is to delve into a 
dangerous world of espionage and uncover a large scale plot that could lead to crime riddled 
government. 

• Create a team of four agents from a pool of 20, each with a range of character profiles to 
choose from, based on attributes and skills such as stamina, charisma, \n\\\ power, persuasion, 

impersonation, armed and unarmed combat, and more. 

• Equip your agents with the devices necessary to find 
clues, gather vital intelligence and survive crucial encounters. 

• Send all four agents on assignment simultaneously, going 
undercover, probing suspicious events and spying on 
unsavory characters. 

• Engage numerous spy tactics including wire tapping, 
surveillance, lock picking, computer operation, disguises, 
tracking, and many others. 

• Make contacts at a variety of locations such as an 
airport, golf course, beach house, restaurant, yacht club, 
and IMF Headquarters. 

• Comprehensive grid map of entire mission setting lets 
you track agents and members of the underworld. 

• Agents can acquire new 
skills and improve on others 
throughout the mission. 

• Digitized graphic scenes 
and original music from the 
Mission: Impossible television 
series. 

Available Fall 1991 for MS-DOS. 




TM & Artistic Co|jyfioh|l©199i Paramount Pictures. 
All Rijttts Heser»6(t. Missiorjmpossibioji^ 
tradBmarft'ot ParBmounl Pictures. >}pni(i>rtlic. 
-Authorized User, Konami®.ls a registered trademark, . 
i)IKonainiCo-,|.l(J. ©1391 Konami, Inc. • v-i? 

(708)215-511-1*AII'RightsRese™cl. , , '■ 

Circle Reader ServioirNunitieE^^fi^ 

.i\-t*- ^'-.s a^^^ ' 



WORLD OF ELECTRONIC GAMES 



COMPUTER GAME ETHICS 

WHAT CULTURAL VALUES DO 

COMPUTER GAMES COMMUNICATE 

TO THEIR USERS? 



Consider these notes 
from the computer-gam- 
ing press: 

In 1983, Atari seeks 
to halt the distribution of 
Custer's Revenge, an in- 
dependently produced 
game in which the play- 
er's objective is to rape 
an Indian woman bound 
to a post. 

In 1987, one of the 
most popular fvlacintosh 
programs on the market 
is MacPlaymate, an 
adult-oriented game in which the play- 
er undresses an animated woman 
and stimulates her with a wide varie- 
ty of sex toys. 

In the summer of 1990, California 
Assemblywoman Sally Tanner intro- 
duces a bill to prohibit the depiction 
of alcohol and cigarettes in comput- 
er games distributed in the state. 
The bill is defeated in committee. 

In 1991 , an underground game cre- 
ates a small flurry in the American 
computer press. The game, which is 
circulated on BBSs in Europe, puts 
players in charge of a Nazi concen- 
tration camp and rewards them for 
the quantity and brutality of their 
executions. 

For game designers, software pub- 
lishers, and parents who are already 
uneasy about their children's all-en- 
compassing Nintendo obsessions, 
news items like these strike an omi- 
nous chord. As the novelty of person- 
al computers wears off and electron- 
ic games find their way into the main- 
stream of American culture, thought- 
ful developers and consumers are 
starting to face the tough ethical 
questions. What effect do these 
games have on kids? Why are they 
so violent? And, perhaps most cen- 
trally, what cultural values do com- 
puter games communicate to their 
users? 

The questions aren't new, but 
they're becoming more pressing as 
the market grows. The time is fast 
approaching when game designers 
and publishers must reckon with 




In Loom, from Lucas Film Games, you can't die. 

the moral questions that have 
dogged their colleagues in other 
media for decades. 

Is the Medium the Message? 

"Computer games are definitely not 
value-free," asserts Chris Crawford, 
a veteran designer noted for the 
strong ethical content of his games. 
"We can't argue that they're mind- 
less entertainment with zero moral 
value, because it's obvious that 
there is some form of cultural com- 
munication going on whenever some- 
one sits down to play a game. And 1 
think it's very appropriate for people 
to be concerned about what messag- 
es are being communicated," 

Ftoberta Williams, head of develop- 
ment for Sierra On-Line and design- 
er of dozens of games for both chil- 
dren and adults, agrees. "Computer 
games communicate values the 
same way any other medium you 
watch or participate in — movies, 
books, TV, or magazines. And I'm 
not convinced that we should hold 
games to any different moral stan- 
dards than we hold the movie or TV 
industries to." 

According to Crawford, computer 
games do get extra scrutiny, mainly 
because they're perceived as chil- 
dren's entertainment. "Freedom of 
speech is paramount when you're 
creating entertainment for adults, who 
are better able to accept or reject the 
values presented to them. But we've 
also established the legal principle 
that freedom is appropriately re- 



strained when you're ad- 
dressing children. Right 
now, computer games 
are closely associated 
with children, and I think 
that the public debate 
about their moral content 
comes largely out of that 
association, Our image 
as a 'kiddie medium' 
gives us increased expo- 
sure to censorship." 



Death, War, and Gore 

As any parent can tell 
you, most of the ethical concerns 
about computer games centers 
around their notoriously high levels of 
violence. "It's the one issue that cuts 
directly to the heart of the industry" 
says Crawford. Computer game vio- 
lence comes in a variety of flavors, 
including the following. 

Repetitive death games in which 
the player's character dies over and 
over. After each "death," you typical- 
ly insert another quarter or reload the 
saved game and start over. {Nervous 
adults have expressed concern that 
kids who spend too much time with 
driving simulations might actually 
think you can drive that way.) 

Military games that simulate (and 
some say glorify) war. "A goodly por- 
tion of Americans find the rather stri- 
dent militarism of these games ob- 
jectionable," says Crawford, who has 
designed several war simulations. 
"They often present war as an excit- 
ing adventure, a noble quest by 
brave men and women. In short, 
they tell the player that war is fun." 

In his games, Crawford attempts 
to redirect this message by working 
some humanity into the manual or 
right into the game itself. Take, for 
example, his upcoming game, Pat- 
ton Strikes Back. 

"After each major battle, there are 
these interruptions that stop the 
game to tell you personal stories 
about Ration and other people in 
the war— how this battle affected 
them personally. Some of them are 
quite graphic. People will still be en- 



100 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 






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IF OUR IDEAS OF CONFLICT ARE 

LIMITED TO VIOLENCE, 

WE'VE GOT A LOT TO LEARN 

ABOUT GAME DESIGN 



tertained, but I hope they also walk 
away with a deeper sense of how 
horrific a real battle is." 

Sid Meier of MicroProse, a compa- 
ny known for its war simulations, 
takes a different attitude. "You can 
make a case that war is full of terri- 
ble consequences — but I don't 
tfiink that's news to anyone. There 
are a lot of movies and books 
about war, with a lot of 
different points of view. 
And I think that's be- 
cause 'war is terrible' is 
not the only lesson to be 
learned; there's also tfie 
decision making and 
leadership and personal 
growth that occur be- 
cause people have 
been through that situa- 
tion. In our simulations, 
we want you to come to 
understand the decision 
process, the tradeoffs 
that are involved, the 
kinds of things people in 
battle are faced with, 

Shoot-'em-up games 
in which the object is to blow away 
everything that moves, "it's instruc- 
tive that ail the early computer 
games were shoot-'em-ups," notes 
Meier. "In the beginning, it was just 
technically easier to do those kinds 
of games. And people didn't know 
what computer games were all 
about, so you had to make it clear 
who the good guys and the bad 
guys were. It's easy to do that in a 
battle context," These days, notes 
Meier, the last bastion of the shoot- 
'em-up is "your classic Nintendo 
game, where violence is the focal 
point of everything that happens." 

"This sort of generalized blood- 
thirstiness, which a lot of games 
have, makes people very uncomfort- 
able, and I think rightly so," muses 
Crawford. "This sort of rampant, de- 
humanized killing generates an au- 
ra of tawdriness that does our indus- 
try no favors." 

Blood and gore. Designers are 
widely divided about the morality of 



showing up-close-and-personal 
scenes of blood and death. "Of the 
games I've done, I've stayed away 
from gore; I don't think it adds any- 
thing to the game to show blood 
and arms and legs flying around," 
says Meier. 

Tom Loughry, who designed the 
close-range combat simulation Gun- 
boat for Accolade, wrestled long 




A-10 Tank Killer from Dynamix is a typical war game. 



and hard before coming to the op- 
posite conclusion. "The fact is, 
when you shoot people, they bleed 
and die. You're not telling them the 
truth about war if you sanitize the 
death scenes." 

Why are computer games so vio- 
lent? According to most of the de- 
signers interviewed, they don't 
need to be. "Violence is a symptom 
of lazy design," asserts Crawford. 
"All games must have conflict of 
some kind, and violence is the most 
direct and intense form of conflict 
there is. As the industry matures, we 
should move away from it, but for 
that to happen, people have to 
make the effort to design games 
that take other approaches." 

Several thouglitfui designers and 
publishers are already making the ef- 
fort. "We've all but banned death 
from our games," boasts Brian Mori- 
arty, a senior game designer at Lu- 
casfilm Games. "The possibility of 
death is a convenient and easy way 



to create game conflict, which is 
why you see so much of it. But I 
don't buy the notion that you need it 
to create dramatic tension. There's 
almost always a more elegant way 
to move the plot along if the design- 
er is willing to think a little more 
creatively Our perception is that peo- 
ple equate death with failure. And fail- 
ure is not fun." 

Among Mioriarty's 
more recent games is 
Loom, "which took this 
idea even further — not on- 
ly can't you die, you 
can't fail. The fun of the 
game is in making choic- 
es for your character. 
Like all good stories, it al- 
so has a strong moral, 

"After all, computer 
games do teach people 
things about the world," 
he concludes, "If our ide- 
as of conflict are limited 
to violence, we've got a 
lot to learn about art, sto- 
rytelling, and game 
design." 
Moriarty, Crawford, and Williams 
project that shoot-'em-ups, war 
games, and other types of violent 
games wiil soon be only small nich- 
es in a much broader market. In 
fact, the game shelf at your local 
Egghead might ultimately be as di- 
verse as your local video rental 
store with a full spectrum of come- 
dy, drama, mystery, adventure, and 
children's software. And the analogy 
may extend one step further to in- 
clude X-rated adult games behind a 
curtain in the back of the store. 

For Adults Only 

Games with strong sexual content 
have been around almost as long 
as personal computers. Along with 
the infamous Custer's Revenge, the 
more notable efforts include Inter- 
lude, a 1982 text adventure that con- 
tained several X-rated scenarios; 
Leather Goddesses of Phobos, a 
1986 game that was actually a lot 
tamer than its hype led one to think; 



102 



COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 




THE GAME THAT PREDICTED THE COUP 
CHALLENGES YOU TO RUN THE SOVIET UNION. 



It's true. Crisis in the Kremlin", 

designed and programmed 

before the coup occurred, 

predicted an uncanny 

number of the coup's events. 

The fall of the Communist 

Party. Gorbachev's mysterious 

"illness." The dissolution of the 

Soviet superpower. Crisis in 

the Kremlin simulates 

Russia's economic, political 

and social culture and 




challenges you to make it 
work. As you try to meet the 
objective of staying in power 
for 30 years, you'll be kept on 
your toes by top Soviet 
officials, by live TV coverage 
that alerts you to the latest 
crisis — and even (nobody 
said it was going to be easy) 
your Russian mother. Good 
luck. Comrade President. 
You're going to need it. 



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WORLD OF ELECTRONIC GAMES 



WE DECIDED AT THE 

TIME WE DID 

LARRY THAT THAT WAS OUR 

ABSOLUTE LIMIT 



and Sierra's Leisure Suit 
Larry series, a tacky 
spoof on the hot-tubs- 
and-gold-chains singles 
lifestyle. 

Perhaps the most fa- 
mous of all, however, 
are MacPlaymale (1986) 
and its second incarna- 
tion, Virtual Valerie 
(1989). "They're proba- 
bly the most pirated 
games in the history of 
Macintosh," sighs crea- 
tor Mike Saenz, who cob- 
bled MacPtaymate to- 
gether in just three 
days. "I don't even think 
the games were very erot- 
ic. I did them for a laugh because I 
think the idea of interactive sexual 
computer entertainment is patently 
absurd. MacPlaymate was a spoof 
of all the fetishistic trappings of the 
average male's preferred sexual 
imagery" 

Saenz says there's no question 
that his two products objectify wom- 
en as sexual playthings. "It's like hav- 
ing your own 'Stepford date-on-a- 
disk'; you don't even have to send 
her roses," he muses. "But I was hop- 
ing that the absurdity of it would 
sink in, that by putting it into such 
bold, simplified relief, men would re- 
alize how unreal it is to expect wom- 
en to behave that way sexually. I 
was hoping to make some of this 
outrageousness clear. But I overes- 
timated my audience; it ended up in 
the hands of a bunch of nerdy guys 
who'd never talked to a woman be- 
sides their mother. 

Although it seems that there are al- 
ways one or two popular adult-orient- 
ed games on the market at any giv- 
en time, most mainstream publish- 
ers regard X-rated games as a very 
small niche. "Every company has its 
moral or ethical limits," says Wil- 
liams. "There might be some com- 
pany that decides it wants to make 
money doing P/ay£)oy-type games. 
But that's not what Sierra is about. 
We decided at the time we did Lar- 




Sierra's Leisure Suit LMrry series offers mild adult humor. 

ry that that was our absolute limit, 
as far as the R-rated stuff is 
concerned," 

Williams adds that some of her de- 
signers approached her about do- 
ing a more explicit game, but she re- 
fused. "It's not just that I don't like 
the way women are portrayed in 
these games. It's also that we'd be 
shooting ourselves in the foot if we 
sold them, We might sell quite a few 
to the men who buy that kind of 
thing, but over the long run, we'd 
lose the respect of our market. Even 
those same men would hesitate to 
buy our kids' games for their fam- 
ilies — and women wouldn't go near 
us. It would be a long-term loss for 
us. If some other company decided 
that that's who they were, fine, but 
we're in the business to make soft- 
ware for everybody" 

Saenz admits to feeling a similar 
backlash. He recently published a 
mainstream fantasy game called 
Spaceship Wariock— "an old-fash- 
ioned space opera that's nostalgic 
in a Flash Gordon/Buck Rogers 
sort of way, complete with sopho- 
morically bombastic dialogue. Un- 
fortunately, if you really try to cap- 
ture that 'golden age of science 
fiction' feel, it will inevitably be some- 
what chauvinistic, although it looks 
very liberated compared to, say, 
the first Star Trek series. Still, be- 



cause of MacPtaymate 
and Valerie, people are 
looking for me to have 
this attitude. It turns out 
that there are a whole 
bunch of people who 
love what I do — a lot of 
closet Mike Saenz fans 
out there^and a lot of 
other people who think, 
'That guy's sick.' I've 
been typecast as a terri- 
ble misogynist." 

Of Demons, Drugs, 
and Censorship 

Sex and violence may 
be the big ethical issues, 
but they're not the only 
ones. Over the years, the television, 
film, recording, and publishing indus- 
tries have felt pressure to watch 
their language (as in the recording 
industry's well-publicized debate 
over parental warning stickers). 
Just Say No (as part of the federal 
government's much-ballyhooed War 
on Drugs), and beware of demons 
(at the behest of the fundamentalist 
Christian movement). Through it all, 
though, computer game developers 
have managed to stay well out of 
the range of fire. 

You would think that Mike Saenz, 
for example, would be an obvious 
target. "But none of the pressure 
groups seem to have found me 
yet," he marvels. "I haven't heard 
from Tipper Gore or Women 
Against Pornography I think the 
hardliners and fascists must be very 
small groups that exert a lot of fo- 
cused pressure — and right now 
they're going after the record 
companies." 

"Sure, we've all gotten letters 
from parents who scream that hack- 
and-slash fantasy games are in- 
spired by the devil," concurs 
Crawford, "but the numbers are so 
small that we tend to think of it as a 
marginal concern." 

As computer games go main- 
stream, though, they're starting to at- 
tract at least some attention. And, 



104 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



WORLD OF ELECTRONIC GAMES 



A RATINGS SYSTEM 
WOULD BE USEFUL BECAUSE 

YOU'D KNOW 
WHERE BOUNDARIES EXIST 



surprisingly, one of the early battle- 
grounds wasn't violence or sex, but 
drug abuse. "Drugs and tobacco 
just aren't usually a part of the con- 
text of most games," says fvloriarty. 
Crawford ecfioed this, adding that 
"sometimes players will come 
across a vial that says, 'Drink me,' 
like in Alice In Wonderland, and you 
float over the river or something as 
a result of taking it. But 
nobody's ever suggest- 
ed that this promotes 
drug abuse." 

Because designers 
and publishers regard 
drugs as such a nonis- 
sue, the introduction of 
California Assembly Bill 
3280 in June 1990 took 
them completely by 
surprise. 

The bill, introduced 
by Assemblywoman Sal- 
ly Tanner (D-EI Monte), 
would have prohibited 
designers from placing 
any alcohol or tobacco 
company logos in 
games or showing char- 
acters holding or using 
alcohol or tobacco prod- 
ucts. Even though it 
was drafted with the loftiest of inten- 
tions, the computer game industry 
was quick to perceive a threat and 
moved quickly to block the bill. "We 
ship a children's product called 
Mixed-Up Mother Goose, which has 
been widely used in classrooms for 
years," says Williams. "In the 
game, King Cole loses his pipe, and 
the child helps him find it. It didn't 
make sense. Under this bill, reading 
a book of nursery rhymes would be 
perfectly legal, but I could go to jail 
for animating the same nursery 
rhyme. I don't like my kids seeing 
people smoke or drink, either, but to 
be restricted where other media ar- 
en't isn't fair," 

A Kinder, Gentler Future? 

All the designers and publishers inter- 
viewed for this article were optimis- 



tic that the ethical nature of comput- 
er games will continue to improve 
as the audience broadens in num- 
bers and sophistication. 

"Right now, we're locked into a tra- 
ditional, hobbyist market that has a 
specific set of expectations about 
the kinds of games they want," Mori- 
arty observes. "A lot of us want to 
move beyond those expectations 




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Accolade's Gunboat doesn't sanitize death scenes. 

but feel held back. Still. I'm con- 
vinced that there are a lot more com- 
puter owners out there who are Inter- 
ested in using their machines for 
entertainment but aren't attracted to 
the traditional offerings." 

He's pleased that Loom has 
been very popular with first-time 
gamers and women — two groups out- 
side the core market — but com- 
plains that publishers are often reluc- 
tant to support games that fall out- 
side of standard genres, even If 
they might open up the world of 
computer gaming to a broader 
market. 

As game developers look toward 
the big time, they're taking their 
cues from the film and recording 
industries. Many publishers have 
long adhered to their own internal 
standards. At Sierra, for example, 



games are categorized as either 
adult games, like Leisure Suit Larry 
and Space Quest: family games, 
like King's Quest, that children and 
parents will likely play together; 
or children's games, in which 
blood, death, and violence are 
entirely banned. "Our goal is to 
make software for everyone." says 
Williams. 
There's also wide- 
spread talk of an indus- 
trywide rating system, 
based on the system 
the MPAA uses to rate 
movies. "We're kind of 
in this window where 
we don't have a ratings 
system yet because 
we're still a new Indus- 
try and not all the piec- 
es are together," Saenz 
says. "But I think a rat- 
ings system would be 
useful because you'd 
know where boundaries 
exist and it would help 
both the developers 
and the audience clear 
up a lot of the confu- 
sion in the marketplace. 
I don't want to limit free- 
dom of expression, and 
a rating system might be one way 
to protect It." 

Crawford points out that, as v^ith 
books and movies, the truly outra- 
geous games appeal only to very 
small and specialized niche mar- 
kets. (The numbers bear this out. 
MacPlaymate. despite its tremen- 
dous popularity, was only available 
through mail order. The concentra- 
tion-camp game is only distributed 
via BBS, and no American game 
designer Interviewed had actually 
seen it.) "Mass marketing will be the 
key to improving the ethical climate 
in computer games, " Crawford pre- 
dicts. "You can only push people so 
fast, bui the messages we communi- 
cate will certainly improve as we 
slowly learn how to design games 
for a larger audience." 

SARA REEDER 



JANUARY 1992 COMPUTE 105 



WORLD OF ELECTRONIC GAMES 



THE ULTIMATE GAME MACHINE 

THE TIME WHEN A 286 WITH A 40MB 

HARD DRIVE COULD RUN 

THE LATEST 5HOOT-'EM-UP IS FADING FAST 



Normally when you read 
about an "ideal" this or a 
"perfect" that, what you 
get is a wish list of what 
someone would buy if 
cost were no object. 
This isn't one of those. 
You hold in your hands 
a down-and-dirty sun/iv- 
al guide to playing state- 
of-the-art computer 
games in the 1990s- All 
the more exciting and 
frightening because it 
covers only the basic ne- 
cessities, this guide puts 
you on the road to the up- 
per limits of gameplay r^ ■ • ,«,■ ^ -, 

on the PC Origins'<N\nQCon\ma.r\6er\\ has hefiy system requirements. 

As inconceivable as it may have 386." Simply put, your 286-based 
sounded just two or three years ago, PC and your VGA card are not the 
the following statement is now true: In most compatible of partners. David 




order to play the newest generation 
of computer games, you need a 386- 
class machine. Sure, plenty of titles 
still run on 286s or even XTs, but the 
next wave of games, even more 
than the current crop, will need eve- 
rything the 386 has to offer. The ex- 
pectations of today's computer 
game players contribute to this head- 
long rush toward high-end machines. 
People demand wall-to-wall VGA 
graphics, sound, and animation. 

Fred Schmidt, general manager of 
Origin Systems, says it's all quite sim- 
ple. 'If you're going to have graphics 
and sound moving at high speed, 
then you need a 386." He means it. 
Most of Origin's recent major releas- 
es basically require a 386 to run sat- 
isfactorily Strike Commander, Ultima 
Vlt, and Wing Commander II all warn 
buyers that they need at minimum a 
12-MHz 286 to run, but even then, 
Schmidt admits, the games' perform- 
ance on those machines tends to be 
unacceptably slow. 'The settling 
point for writing games is now a 16- 
to 20-rv1Hz 386." 

John Williams, vice president of 
marketing at Sierra On-Line, agrees, 
"This is the... shame of the system 
right now — VGA is so far ahead of 
the machine that it necessitates a 



Bradley, developer of Bane of the 
Cosmic Forge, allows that the 386 
chip offers "realtime speed, and 
that's what's needed for realism." 

When these folks talk about 
speed, they don't just mean chip 
speed. A 16-MHz 386SX chip, for ex- 
ample, moves information around 
twice as fast as a comparable 286. 
On top of that, a 386DX moves that 
info out twice as fast as its SX cous- 
in. That makes it at least four times 
as fast as a 286 with the same 
clock speed. This striking speed ad- 
vantage allows animation at a realis- 
tic rate. A 486 is faster still, but no 
one expects games to demand 486s 
for another four or five years. 

Today's game machine demands 
VGA color. A high-resolution video 
mode that also allows 256 colors to 
be displayed on the screen at the 
same time. VGA exhibits dramatic 
mprovement in sharpness and clar- 
ity over EGA graphics. VGA comes 
in a number of different flavors, but 
as a gamer, your VGA or Super 
VGA (SVGA) card should have at 
least 51 2K of video RAM (VRAM) on 
board, which handles higher resolu- 
tion and more colors. Of course, 
you'll also need a VGA or multisync 
color monitor to go with the card. 



Most game producers 
now add sound effects 
and musical scoring to 
their work, but to hear 
these, you need a sound 
card. Sound cards sport 
everything from low-end 
synthesizers on a chip to 
the glorious Roland MT- 
32, a full-powered synthe- 
sizer in a box. Games 
that support one board 
may not support another, 
though most support the 
Ad Lib board— the de fac- 
to standard. 

There are still three 
major items to go. Two 
of these are absolute ne- 
cessities today; the third is going to 
be a necessity very soon. 

The problem with all of this gor- 
geous, cinematic animation and 
sound is that it consumes an 
enormous amount of disk space. 
King's Quest 1/ fills over 9 mega- 
bytes; Falcon 3.0, 8 megs; Trial by 
Fire, more than 4 megs; and Bane 
of the Cosmic Forge, about 3 
megs. Most impressive computer 
simulations, adventures, and role- 
playing games today begin at 
about 3 megs. V\/ith DOS. Windows, 
and one or two other "serious" ap- 
plications installed, a typical 40MB 
hard drive only has room for two or 
three of the newer games before it 
runs out of space. 

Asked what size hard drive he'd 
put in a PC game machine. Sierra's 
director of engineering, Chris Iden, 
recommends 80 megabytes— mini- 
mum. Other experts feel 100 megs 
would leave room for comfort. So 
add a jumbo hard drive to your list of 
necessities. 

Don't think you can get along on 
just 640K of RAM, either. Wing Com- 
mander, for instance, needs a full 
meg in order to take full advantage of 
the game's sound. Soon, games de- 
manding two megs of memory won't 
be uncommon. 

Finally, we arrive at the one piece 
of optional equipment that will be a ne- 



106 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 




Hit the auto pilot 
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Three seasoned combat 
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Use these moves to 
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^H^^^^ you're out. Available for MS-DOS. 

VV KONAMI' 





- KONAIVft ^ Cirele Real 



TM, ® a Artistic Copyright C 1991 Piramount Pictures. 
All Rights Reserved. Top Gun is a registered Trademark 
of Paramount Pictures. Konami, Inc. Authorized User. 
Konam'f' isa registered trademark of Korami Co^ Ltd. 
t 1991 Konami, Inc. (70S| 215-51 1 1 . Ail Rights Resereed. 



der Service Number 226 




WORLD OF ELECTRONIC GAMES 



THE ADVENT OF THE CD-ROM IS FUELED BY 

ECONOMY— IT'S MUCH CHEAPER 

TO PRODUCE A CD THAN DUPLICATE A 

DOZEN FLOPPY DISKS 



cessity before we get the shrink- 
wrap off this year's latest and great- 
est games— a CD-ROIVI drive. The 
first trickle of CD-based games from 
major publishers began at Christmas. 
Soon you will see a steady stream. 

The reason for CD-ROM's inevita- 
bility, in a word, is money — the cost 
of duplicating each disk in a game 
box (over $1 per disk in many cas- 
es) multiplied by the large number 
of disks it takes to contain one of 
these monster games. Then there's 
the added cost to publishers for ship- 
ping the heavier boxes. It's no long- 
er economically feasible to ship 
large games on floppies when pub- 
lishers can put significantly more 
information on a CD-ROM that can 
be duplicated much more cheaply. 

Also, the cost of developing 
these games with all the sound and 
animation has broken the $1 million 
barrier. This adds up to a retail 
price of $70 to $80 on many new 
games. That, too. is frightening. 
Schmidt comments that customers 
can't afford to pay any more. "From 
now on, [CD-ROM] is not a novelty; 
it's a requirement. In two years you 
won't see products from major com- 
panies shipped on disk." Williams 
agrees. "CD-ROM is inevitable. 
Most games wiil be shipping on it in 
two years." 

How much will your next gaming 
PC cost? Today including a CD- 
ROM drive, somewhere in the vicini- 
ty of $600 to $800 more than a ba- 
sic 386 with VGA and a hard drive— 
a price that has dropped to weli un- 
der $1 ,500. The extra cost moves 
closer to 31,000 if you upgrade 
from an XT or a 286. 

As demand increases, spurring 
competition among manufacturers, 
hardware shouid cost you less. For 
your money, you'll receive a serious 
computer with enough power to desk- 
top publish, prepare presentations, 
and run a business — ail without 
stretching the limits of what you real- 
ly bought the machine for — playing 
the best of the newest games. 

PETER SPEAR 




Falcon 3.0 from Spectrum HoloByte requires 8 megs of disk space. 



CD-ROM SOFTWARE 



Despite the small numbers of CD-ROM 
players, some entertainment software is 
already available. Most titles available 
now are what Nolan Bushnell (former 
head o( Commodore's CDTV division) 
calls shovelware: floppy disk software 
placed on CD-ROM, 

Currently, the TurboGrafx-CD and 
CDTV have the most titles available. 
Some nev/ products for the TurboGratx- 
CD, such as HudsonSoft's J. S. Harold 
Murder Club and Cinemaware's It 
Came from the Desert, were due to 
ship for Christmas of 1991. In total, 
there are about 15 titles available or an- 
nounced for the TurboGrafx-CD. 

Over too titles have been an- 
nounced so far ior CDTV, with entertain- 
ment software as the largest category. 
Among others, Disney, Interplay, and 
Maxis announced CDTV titles. Lu- 
casfilm announced tiiree titles for 
CDTV for Christmas of 1991— Loom, In- 
dy III, and Monhey Island. CDTV Loom 
combines an audio drama with the 
game and presents every line of dia- 
logue in 16-bit digital stereo. This ver- 
sion sports revised graphics, too. 

Several companies, including Brader- 
bund. Sierra, Maxis, and Virgin 
Games, have announced products for 
the MPC standard. Sierra will put its 
best-selling adventure game ttUes on 
CD, including King's Ouest f (which 



will require three CDs!). Expect a num- 
ber of entertainment titles for the MPC 
standard by early 1992. 

A few CD-only games are being devel-, 
oped by some publishers. ICOM Simula- 
tions produces Sherlock Holmes Consult- 
ing Detective for a variety of CD-ROM 
systems, including the TurboGrafx-CD, 
CDTV, and the MPC. This mystery 
game features video of actors in cos- 
tume on period sets. Reactor's Space- 
ship Warlock is one of only a handful of 
CD-ROM games that are available for 
the Macintosh. It contains well over a 
hundred megabytes of graphics and 
sound to take you through an interstel- 
lar adventure. The elatrorate high-resolu- 
tion graphics and animations prove 
quite compelling. 

Look for a pure CD-ROM title from 
Trilobyte for Virgin Games. Tentatively ti- 
tled Guest, this horror game is designed 
for the upcoming MPC standard (with ver- 
sions possible on other CD platforms). 
Guest uses the full audio and video capa- 
bility of the MPC to create an atmos- 
phere of terror. The game contains an en- 
tire 22-room mansion modeled in 3-D, 
along with digitized video and sound. 

Undoubtedly, many more CD titles 
are under development for each of the 
systems discussed, but most compa- 
nies dislike talking about future pro- 
jects. We'll just have to wait and see. 



T08 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



The 

Lost 



tacti^JMlMlpH 



The 
Per feet 
General 





"^Tj^^v^ 












.r^„ 



Quantum Qualiiy Productions. Inc. 



Circle Reader Service Number 196 




You're an admiral who was dismissed from the service and 
exiled from your homeland on trumped-up charges. You're 
given another chance by an old friend who's the head-of- 
state of a world power. 
Can you meet the challenge and regain your admirat's rank? 

• 9 superb scenarios. 

• 1 random map scenario, with virtually miliions of maps. 

• 15 campaign games. 

• Flagships with special abiiities (In campaigns only). 

• The challenge of a very strong artificial intelligence. 

• An in-depth officer's ranking system. 

• A thorough history of your combat endeavors. 

• Play either side against another human or a computer. 
"The Lost Admiral" computer game is IBM PC compatible. 
It can be obtained through your favorite retailer or ordered 
direct by calling: 

1-90B-788-2799. 

» 1991 QQP Productions. All rights reserved. 
IBM Is a lrademari< ol internatlonai Business Maclilnss. 



Tftis game is based on a twelve-year-old tournament series 
and includes a highly refined yet simple playing system. 

• Gorgeous playing field and landscapes. 

• Clean and simple interface. 

• Two difficulty levels. 

• You control every move and fire of your forces. 

• Superior artificial intelligence. 

• One or two players, human or computer, plus play by 
modem. 

• A wide range of intriguing scenarios. 

• The thrill and sounds of artillery, tanks and infantry in 
action. 

"The Perfect General" computer game is IBM PC and Amiga 
compatible. It can be obtained through your favorite retailer 
or ordered direct by calling: 

1-908-788-2799. 

© 1991 QQP and White Wolf Productions. Ail rights reserved. 

IBM is a trademarit of Internatlonai Business Maclilnes. 

Amiga Is a trademark ol Commactore. 



GAMEPLAY 



Howard Millman 



Guest columnist 

Howard Millman takes a 

look at the 

psychological aspects at 

computer games. 



THE GAMES 
USERS PLAY 

The single most important fac- 
tor fueling the accelerating suc- 
cess of computer games is 
their ability to substitute variety 
for routine. As a means to put 
your brain in neutral, idle the 
cares of the day, or drive away 
boredom, electronic games 
have no legal equal. Like the 
magic genie imprisoned in a 
bottle, your computer remains 
poised to release its silicon sor- 
cery to entertain on demand. 

The advantages of recrea- 
tional softVi/are over more tra- 
ditional games are many. Un- 
like sports, they can be played 
alone. While most other forms 
of gameplay from football to 
Monopoly encourage mixing 
and mingling, computer 
games promote isolation. 
Then again, unlike static 
board games, computer 
games are dynamic: they can 
deliver nonstop action, realis- 
tic sound, and vibrant color. 

Jay Novins, a White Plains, 
New York, psychiatrist, recog- 
nizes the value computer 
games have in relieving bore- 




dom but echoes a caution 
that w/as sounded a decade 
ago, when electronic games 
meant Atari 2600 and Cole- 
covision: Don't overindulge or 
let games become an obses- 
sion. Novins says playing com- 
puter games is "fine so long 
as it's in the context of a 
healthy lifestyle. That means 
keeping it in balance. Other- 
wise, this constant interaction 
with a machine can lead to a 
self-imposed isolation." 

What's wrong with wanting 
to be by yourself? Is a desire 
for solitude necessarily un- 
healthy? That depends on 
whom you're getting away 
from and why. 

Roger Kallhovd, chairman 
of the Department of Psychia- 
try, Phelps Hospital, North Tar- 
rytown, New York, likewise 
stresses moderation to avoid 
unpleasant side effects. "Yes, 
computer game playing can 
lead to isolation and withdraw- 
al. Many games are deeply ab- 
sorbing and entirely solitary ac- 
tivities," he says. Some of the 
complaints he hears about 
computer games are "from 
wives who complain that their 
husbands spend so much 
time with their computer 
games [that] they exclude oth- 
er kinds of interaction." I 
didn't ask him to elaborate, 
but the computer widow (or 
widower) has taken a place in 
our society right beside spous- 
es widowed by football and 
golf. 

According to mental health 
professionals, occasional 
short-term solitude is benefi- 
cial. However, ongoing lack of 
social interaction can lead to 
isolation, particularly among 
those who already tend to shy 
away from social situations. 

Steven Witzl, vice president 
of marketing at Access Soft- 
Vi/are, comments that tradition- 
ally "people all across Ameri- 
ca communicated by sitting 
on the front porch. They 
talked with each other. Now 



that's gone, taken away by the 
speed of everyday living and 
replaced with technology." 
Witzl sees technology both cre- 
ating and solving the problem 
of isolationism. "It helps peo- 
ple keep pace with the faster 
lifestyle we've adopted. It 
helps them relax." Computer 
games can help people relax 
by enabling them to focus on 
completing more passes in a 
football simulation, amassing 
a taller mound of dead mu- 
tants, or even getting higher 
marks in geometry. 

Educational software dis- 
guised as games will capture 
and hold a student's interest. 
Compared to learning by rote, 
learning with colorful, dynam- 
ic computer screens will pre- 
vail every time. Judith Bliss, 
president of Mindplay (a pro- 
ducer of educational software 
in Tucson, Arizona), asserts 
that educational software 
needs to be fun. "As with 
adults, life for children is filled 
with stress. Relief from that 
stress is healthy and benefi- 
cial." Software that entertains 
"will more effectively communi- 
cate its educational mes- 
sage," says Bliss. The range 
of educational software ex- 
tends from teaching first grad- 
ers reading skills to teaching 
astronauts how to pilot the 
space shuttle. 

Tomorrow's multimedia tech- 
nology will present mind-bog- 
glingly realistic and innovative 
games. Online services like 
America Online and the Sierra 
Network will allow us to interact 
socially while playing comput- 
er games. 

Beyond bolstering intelli- 
gence, game playing builds con- 
fidence. According to Novins, 
"It imparts a sense of accom- 
plishment and mastery over the 
environment that can increase 
self-esteem." Game playing 
can enable players to become 
symbolically triumphant over 
others, an important, perhaps 
necessary victory for some. D 



COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



Walk An Inch In IVIy Shoes 



MAP ► 




This Universe Is Yours 
For The Taking. 



Each Of These Squares Is A 

Battle Ground - A Step Toward 

Universal Conquest. 



What Ant's Life Would Be 

Complete Without A Kitchen 

To Invade? 



Drive Out Those 
Yucky Humans And Win! 



The Yellow Ant Is 
Your Insect Alter Ego. 



Beware The Red Ant Menace - 

And That Spider's 

Ready For Breakfast. 



I'm an ant. You've stepped on me, poisoned me, cursed me — even held a magnifying glass 
over me. But do you know what it's like to be me? 

SIMANT" The Electronic Ant Colony puts you in my place. This new game from 
the creators of SimCity" and SimEarth" lets you experience life as an ant. Fight for queen 
and colony. Face hungry spiders and menacing hordes of enemy ants. Endure abuse from 
those merciless humans. So easy to play even a human can do it — 
but, based on real ant biology and behavior, SimAnt has the depth of 
play and serious gaming challenge to really drive you buggy. So, before 
you step on another ant, walk an inch in my shoes. All six of them. 
SimAnt is available now at your favorite software retailer,or call MAXIS 
direct at 1-800-33-MAXIS. 

Macintosh and VGA screens shown. Available for Macintosh. DOS version available soon. 
SimAnt. SimCity and SimEarthare trademarlts of MAXIS. 51991. MAXIS. All rights 
reserved woriduvide. And then some. CMPl W 

circle Reader Service Number 194 




^^ 



9 



DESIGN 
&COLJ0R 




Introducing a whole new world ofhmi 













^^S^^_ 





Now, you can enhance your child's creative 
potential with the new Barbie™ PC Fashion 
Design & Color! It's an explosion of fashion, 
color, and fun[ 

This menu-driven software program lets your 
child select, then color Barbie fashions. Thousands of 
combinations to choose from for hours of fun. 
Available for IBM or IBM-compatible PCs in S'/z inch 
and 5 'A inch Disk versions. 

Dress up your child's imagination and enter 
the world of Barbie with Barbie PC Fashion Design &: 
Color. See your local software retailer or, for the outlet 
nearest you, call: 1-800-537-0295. 




Paint with 1ZD colors from 
the Barbie Palette. 



CRAFT 
HOUSE 



Ciicle Reader Service Number 1S9 



Craft House Corporation, Toledo, Ohio 43607 *" flPPX' c"^-^ 



BARBIE is a trademark owned by and used under license from Mattel Inc. © 1991 Maltt'l, Inc. All Rights Reservud 
IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. 



ii^/JVWiSi^.l 



64/128 VIEW 



Two new COMPUTE disks 

offer great graphics and powerful utilities 

for your 64 or 128. 

Tom Netsel 



It's been said that one 
graphic is worth a thou- 
sand bytes. If that's true, 
don't bother reading this 
message; just order our Ga- 
zette Graphics Grab Bag 
and see for yourself. We've 
compiled a collection of 
toois for the 64 and 128 that 
can soon have you turning 
out impressive graphic dem- 
onstrations and works of 
computer art. 

You say you aren't the ar- 
tistic type? If the left side of 
your brain is the dominant 
side and you prefer logical 
and practical programs, 
then check out our 1992 
Best of Gazette Utilities. 
These programs will help 
you seize control of your op- 
erating system. 

Here's a brief look at 
some of the programs on 
these disks. Let's start with 
the Grab Bag and some of 
its programs. 

Artists can bring their hi- 
res graphics to life, produc- 
ing smooth 3-D animation 
with 64 Animator. There's al- 
so a 128 version. 

Screen Mal<er lets artists 
and programmers stream- 
line the construction of cus- 
tom screens. Packed with 
features, this fast and effi- 
cient program offers joystick 
operation, a palette of col- 
ors, and lots of characters. 
A separate subroutine 
makes it easy to access 
your custom screens from 
BASIC, 

Screen Designer 128 lets 
128 owners create impres- 
sive text and graphic 
screens on their machines. 
These screens can also be 
sent directly to Commodore 
odd-series or compatible 
printers. 

Create a menagerie of dy- 
namic hi-res displays with 



Starburst Graphics; then sit 
back and watch colorful 
graphics fill your screen. 

With Supratechnic you 
can take the 64's video chip 
beyond its natural limits, 
and VDC Graphics adds 
nine new commands for BA- 
SIC 7.0 to let you control 
bitmapped graphics on the 
128's 80-column screen. 
Then use Dissolve 128 to 
make them dissolve in and 
out of view. Show off a num- 
ber of images with Super 
Slideshow. This program dis- 
plays both hi-res and multi- 
color files in 13 formats. 

Special editions of Bruce 
Bowden's Graphic Assault 
System (separate versions 
for the 64 and 128) give you 
exceptional power to manip- 
ulate 40-column graphic im- 
ages. Create your own or 
load popular-format graph- 
ics or sprites, and then in- 
vert them, ilip them, reverse 
them, mirror them, rotate 
them, and experiment with 
many more techniques. 

If utilities appeal to you, 
then go for the Best of Ga- 
zette Utilities. This outstand- 
ing collection includes BA- 
SIC enhancements, an as- 
sembly language editor, a 
1541 speed enhancer, a BA- 
SIC compiler, a character ed- 
itor, a scientific calculator, 
and much more. 

Try MetaBASIC. Quick. 
Sprint 11, Ultrafont+, RAM- 
Disl<. BASSEt^, SciCalc 64. 
List Formatter, and Me- 
gaSqueeze to add punch to 
your programming library. 

These disks are 511.95 
each, plus $2.00 shipping 
and handling. Look for an ad 
in this section or order by writ- 
ing to COh-^PUTE's Utilities, 
324 West Wendover Avenue, 
Suite 200, Greensboro, 
North Carolina 27408. n 



GAZETTE 



64/128 VIEW G-1 

Two new COMPUTE disks offer great graphics and 
powerful utilities for your 64 or 128. 
By Tom Netsel. 

FEEDBACK G-2 

Questions, answers, and comments. 

FLYING COLORS G-6 

If you're frustrated by the 64's color cell 
limitations, check the freedom that FLI can offer. 
By Bill Pitts. 



REVIEWS 

RAf\/IDrive, RAMLink, 

and Elvira. Mistress of the Dark 



G-1 4 



MACHINE LANGUAGE G-1 9 

Logical operations deal directly with 

the computer's fundamental elements: bits. 

By Jim Butterfield. 



GEOS 

Let color liven the winter doldrums. 
By Steve Vander Ark. 



G-20 



D'lVERSIONS G-22 

Make sure others see you as you see yourself, 
with digital electronic cosmetics. 
By Fred D'Ignazio. 

BEGINNER BASIC G-23 

See what RND can do for sound and graphics. 
By Larry Cotton. 

PROGRAMMER'S PAGE G-24 

Secret messages and other tips from readers. 
By Randy Thompson. 



PROGRAMS 

Improved FRE 

Multi-Screen 64 

Padlock 

TriBlox 

Synthesizer 

LISA 



G-25 
G-26 
G-28 
G-29 
G-31 
G-35 



JANUARY 1992 COMPUTE G-1 



FEEDBACK 



Bug-SwQtter 

There are a couple of errors 
in Showdown (September 
1991). When playing the 
game, bumping the borders 
too many times can result in 
an OUT OF MEMORY error. 
To fix this, in line 510 change 
GOSUB 530 to GOTO 530. 

The other error is similar, 
but may not cause problems 
unless the autoplay feature is 
used repeatedly. It could also 
prevent a crash just as some- 
one is about to get a perfect 
score. Change two lines to 
read as follows. 

120 H=0: GOSUB 1000: IF H=-1 

THEN 150 
1180 H=-1: PRINT "[CLR]": 
RETURN 

MIKE STYPE 
MICHIGAN CITY. IN 

The program listing of Sci- 
Calc 64 (June 1991) has a 
printing defect in the line 
which starts at address 
GDC1. It makes the check- 
sum value at the end of that 
line appear to be AE when, in 
fact, the value is AF. 

GEORGE VANLANDEGHEM 
STERLING HEIGHTS. Ml 

Cross Aid, published in the 
March 1991 Gazette, doesn't 
allow for words to be edited 
as stated in the article. Here 
is a way to correct that. 

First, load Cross Aid as usu- 
al, but don't run it. Then enter 
the following two lines in imme- 
diate mode. 

POKE 2287,20: POKE 3400,201: 
POKE 3401,141: POKE 3402, 
208 

POKE 3403,3: POKE 3404,76: 
POKE 3405,70: POKE 3406,8 



Save the program with a new 
name before running it. When 
you want to delete or change 
words, use Shift-Return and 
then, where necessary, the 
Del key. Use the cursor key if 
more than one word is dis- 
played, and, finally, press Re- 

G-2 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



Questions and 

answers 

about previous 

programs, 

sequential arrays, 

and more 



turn when your changes have 
been made, Avoid using the 
Run/Stop key during opera- 
tions as it ruins the database. 

DOHEEN HORNE 
BRISBANE. QUEENSLAND 
AUSTRALIA 

Our copy of the program per- 
mits editing as the article 
states, so it's difficult for us to 
test your correction. If any 
reader has trouble editing pre- 
viously saved words, howev- 
er, give these pokes a try 

Sequential Arrays 

I have been trying unsuccess- 
fully for the last year now to 
write an array to a sequential 
access file while in BASIC. 
What am I doing wrong? 

NEIL F, COPES 
PLANT CITY, FL 

The following BASIC program 
illustrates how to write numer- 
ic and string array data to 
disk, then read them back. 



XX 10 POKE 53280, 6:POKE5 
3231,6:PRINT"{CLR} 
{2 DOWN} {N) {WHT}" 

DS 20 DIM NA(100) ,STS (10 
0) ,N2(100) ,S2$ (100 
) 

SQ 30 INPUT"WHAT NUMBER 
{SPACET(USE 99 TO 
{SPftCE}STOP) ";XX 

SF 40 IF XX=99 THEN 60 

DJ 50 NH=NM+1:NA{NH)=XX: 
GOTO30 

CQ 60 INPUT"WHAT STRING 
{SPACsT(USE 99 TO 
isPACE}STOP) "; YVS 

XG 70 IF Y¥S-"99" THEN 9 


AX 80 SG=SG+1:SRS (SG)-YY 
5:GOTO60 

DG 90 PRINT "WHAT DATA FI 
LE NAME DO YOU WAN 
T?": INPUT NAS 

XG 100 PRIMr"SAVING THE 

(spaceTdata. . ." 

PH 110 : 

FE 120 REH WRITING THE D 

ATA OUT 
GG 130 0PEN1,8,5, (NA$)+" 

,S,W":PRINTItl,NM; 

CHRS(13) ;SG;CHRS( 

13) 
HE 140 IF NM>e THEN FOR 

{SPACE}XX=1 TO NM 

:PRINT#1,NA(XX) ;C 

HRS (13) :NEXT 



QS 150 IF SG>0 THEN FOR 
{SPACE}XX=1 TO SG 
:PRINT#1,SRS(XX) ; 
CHRS(13) :NEXT 

MM 160 PRINT#1:CL0SE1 

DQ 170 : 

DR 180 REM READING THE D 
ATA BACK IN 

CM 190 0PEN1,8,5, (NAS)+" 
,S,R":INPUT#1,AA, 
BB:REM LOAD ARRAY 
SIZES 

MA 200 IF AA>0 THEN FOR 
{SPACE}XX=1 TO AA 
:INPUT#1,N2(XX) :N 
EXT 

SG 210 IF BB>fl THEN FOR 
(SPACElXX=l TO BE 
:INPUT#1,S2S (XX) ; 
NEXT 

GJ 220 CLOSEl 

EX 230 ; 

HK 240 IF AA>0 THEN FOR 
{SPACE}XX=1 TO AA 
:PHINT"NUMERIC";X 
X;" =";N2(XX) :NEX 
T 

MR 250 IF BB>0 THEN FOR 
[SPACE )XX=1 TO BB 
:PRINT"STRING";XX 
!" = ";S2S(XX) :NE 
XT 



In line 10 we set the screen, 
border, and text colors, clear 
the screen, and shift to upper- 
and lowercase mode. 

In line 20, we dimension 
four arrays — two for the origi- 
nal numeric and string data 
when it is written to disk as a 
sequential file and two to re- 
ceive the data when it is read 
from the disk. 

Lines 30-80 comprise two 
loops for getting numeric and 
string data. Enter as many 
numbers as you like. Enter 99 
when you wish to stop. You'll 
then be asked to enter a 
string, which can be a letter, 
word, or sentence. It can also 
be a number that is saved as 
a string. To stop, enter 99 
again. Variables In these 
loops also keep track of the 
number of elements in each 
of the arrays. 

The data is saved to a se- 
quential file in lines 130- 160, 
starting with the number of 
elements in the array. Notice 
that each datum is deline- 
ated by a carriage return, 




NOT SO FAST! 

Your Commodore' is siitl one of the 
best home computers ever produced. 
Why? Because Softdisk PubUshing sup- 
ports your Commodore with over 1 00 new 
programs every year. And, these programs 
can all be yours for LESS THAN A 
DOLLAR EACH! 

LOADSTAR' is a software subscription 
produced especially for Commodore 64 
computers. After more than seven years of 
publishing LOADSTAR, we've gathered 
some of the nation's leading programmers 
to offer you all-new, all-original programs. 
With LOADSTAR you'll discover why 
your Commodore is far from obsolete. 

Each month seven to ten new programs 
will come lo your mailbox postage-paid. 
And, if you're like most subscribers, you'll 
find that a single program is worth the cost 
of the enrire subscription. 

SEND NO MONEY NOW! 

Tiy a sample issue of LOADSTAR 
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niail or fax the coupon back to us or call 
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Circle Reader Service Number 142 



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for any reason, return our invoice marked 
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issue is yours to keep FREE. 

We're so sure you'll love LOADSTAR 
that we'll even send you our Loadstar 
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SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS: for fommoJore 64 mil fommorfore I2S 
ampalen; one S.25' disk rfriVe tegiiiretl. 

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COMMODORE 128 OWNERS 

Coll for pricing on our quorleriy 

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i ^ 



YES. Please rush my first RISK-FREE issue to LOADSTAR. I'll receive my FREE Loodstor 64 Sampler with 
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LOADSTAR' 

J 3 Months $29.95 (Just 59.98 per Issue]) 

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FEEDBACK 



CHR$(13). The sequential file 
is saved with the filename you 
provided in line 90. 

In lines 190-220. the data 
is read from disk and loaded 
into two new arrays. Lines 
240-250 verify that the data 
was saved properly by print- 
ing the loaded values to the 
screen. 

Manuals Needed 

I was never into the "comput- 
er thing," but recently I inher- 
ited some computers that in- 
cluded a 128D, a64C, and a 
Plus/4. There were manuals 
with all the devices except for 
the Plus/4. Does anybody 
know where I can get one? 
Suddenly I am excited about 
computers. 

JIM HOUGH 

1107 ARKANSAS AVE. 

KILLEEN. TX 76541 

You could write to Commo- 
dore. Department C, 1200 
Wilson Avenue, West Ch- 
ester, Pennsylvania 19380 
and ask if the Plus/4 manual 
(#310196-01) is stilt available. 
The price was $7.30, plus 
$3.00 shipping and handling, 
but there's a good chance 
one of our readers will help 
you find one. 

Do Not List 

I am writing a text adventure 
game for the 64. A couple of 
years ago you published infor- 
mation about a command 
that could be used to prevent 
users from listing a program. 
Can you tell me how to do 
this so t can keep users from 
prying into my game? 

Also, can you tell me 
where I can still purchase In- 
focom games? 

DANIEL POLSTON 
JACKSONVILLE. AR 

One of the more common 
tricks is to enter a Shift-L after 
a REFvf statement on the first 
line of your program. This will 
print a syntax-error message 
on the screen when anyone 

G-4 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



Readers need help 

witli manuals, 

and others offer 

tips about 

SYS addresses and 
printer ribbons. 



tries to list the program. 

To answer your second 
question, try Software Sup- 
port International. 2700 NEAn- 
dresen Road, Suite A- 10, Van- 
couver, Washington 98661. It 
has a number of new and 
used Infocom games availa- 
ble. Call (800) 356- 1179 to or- 
der or request a free catalog. 

Uninterrupted Power 
Source 

I recently acquired an UPS Da- 
tashield AT 800 which ap- 
pears to be in excellent work- 
ing condition. It is my under- 
standing that the unit main- 
tains a constant green light 
and will emit a beeping 
sound when the local power 
to the computer and disk 
drive is cut off. I'd like to find 
someone from whom I could 
obtain a manual or operating 
instructions. 

MERLE WILLIAMS 
842 flIVERVIEW LN 
TARPON SPRINGS. FL 34689 

We're not familiar with that 
power supply but perhaps 
our readers can help. 

More on Printer Ribbons 

A few months ago a Gazette 
reader wrote requesting infor- 
mation about where he could 
find ribbons for an Okidata 10 
printer. I get mine from Quill 
Corporation, Box 4700, Lin- 
colnshire. Illinois 60197-4700: 
(708) 634-4800. The price is 
$3.49 each. I buy six at a 
time and pay a total of 
$22.72, which includes ship- 
ping. You can't beat that. 

DURHAM J, "BUD" BELANGER 
LAS VEGAS. NV 

If anyone is looking for a rib- 
bon for a 1525 printer, try Ra- 
dio Shack. Ask for the ribbon 
with stock number 26-1424, 

DAN WAGNER 
LEWISTON. ID 

Missing SYS Address 

In your April issue I read 
about someone's problem 



with missing SYS addresses 
for machine language pro- 
grams. The following short pro- 
gram may help. After the pro- 
gram runs, insert the disk that 
contains the program whose 
address you need, type in the 
name, and that's it. 

1D INPUT"[CLR1 [DOWN! FiLE 

NAIVIE";FS 
2D PRINT "LOAD ADDRESS IS"; 
30OPEN1,8,1,"0:"+F$ 
40 GET#1,L$ 
50GET#1,HS 

60 XS=HS:GOSUB100:H=X-256 
70XS=LS:GOSUBiaD:L=X 
ao PRINT H+LCLOSEI 
90 END 

100IFX$=""THENX=(I: RETURN 
110 X=flSC(X$) 
120 RETURN 

JERRY JOHNSON 
SUGARCREEK. OH 

Thanks for your suggestion, 
Jerry. Your program does pro- 
vide the address where a pro- 
gram starts to load in memo- 
ry, but that is not necessarily 
the SYS address needed to 
run it. Of course, that's a 
good address to try if you 
can't remember the other If 
that doesn't work, however, 
you may still have to examine 
the program with an assem- 
bler to determine the proper 
address to make it run. Fortu- 
nately, many programmers 
these days include code that 
makes their machine lan- 
guage programs load and 
run like BASIC ones. Another 
trick before you forget the 
SYS address is to write your 
own BASIC loader that auto- 
matically loads and runs the 
machine language program 
for you. 

If you have a question, com- 
ment, or problem, we want to 
hear from you. Send your let- 
ters to Gazette Feedback, 
COtvlPUTE Publications. 324 
West Wendover Avenue, 
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FLYING 





ii. 



Whether you're a 
beginner or on 
accomplished computer 
artist, if you 
ind the color eel 
imitations o' 
the 64 to be a source 
of frustration, 
then I'm sure you'l 
welcome the 
added freedom that 
"LI can offer. 

Article by 
Bill Pitts 



I 



What is FLI? Well, depending on 
whom you ask, FLI stands for Flexible 
Line Interrupt or Flexible Line Interpre- 
tation, European software producers 
originally developed FLI to create 
more colorful logos for their software 
demonstrations. 

What FLI does is to offer the use of 
all 16 of the 64's colors in each 4x8 
multicolor (medium resolution) cell. The 
standard multicolor format limits the 
number of colors used to four. 

Due to technical limitations, which I'll 
discuss shortly, there are currently no 
full-blown paint programs that use FLI. 
There are several FLI editors currently 
available, however, with each having 
its own unique features. I'll mention 
more about them later. 

A Little Background 

To explain the benefits and limitations 
of FLI, I'll start with an overview of how 
the 64 uses color and then explain how 
this relates to FLI. The designers of the 
64 realized that certain compromises 
would have to be made to obtain the de- 
sired range of colors, flexibility, and 
speed needed to mal<e the 64 the mar- 
velous game machine that it is. 

They came up with a unique color 
cell or card system based on the 8- 
dot X 8-dot character grid, where 
each dot or pixel is represented by 
one bit in memory. This system allowed 
a palette of 16 colors when other per- 
sonal computers of that era were hard- 
pressed to produce four colors. 

Hi-Res Mode 

This system has several operating 
modes, but I'm going to concentrate 
on the so-called color bitmap modes. 
The first of these is hi-res (high resolu- 
tion) mode, where we have an 8K area 
of memory corresponding to the 
64,000 bits of a 320 x 200 bitmap 
screen, divided into one thousand 8 x 
8 cells or cards. 

In addition, another IK area of mem- 
ory must be set aside to hold the infor- 
mation for one foreground and one 
background color per cell, This is 
done by dividing each byte (8 bits) in 
this special color memory into a lower 
nybble and upper nybble of four bits 
each, Reading from right to left in bina- 
ry notation, the first four bits (0-3). the 
lower nybble, hold the color information 
for the background color, while the sec- 
ond four bits (4-7) hold the foreground 
color information. Since the maximum 
number you can count with four bits in 
binary is 16 (0-15), that's the origin of 
the 16-color limitation. 

Multicolor Mode 

The other bitmap mode, the one we're 
most concerned with here, is the mul- 

G-8 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



ticolor mode, so named because it al- 
lows three foreground colors per cell in- 
stead of the single color of hi-res 
mode. Since, as the old saying goes, 
you don't get something for nothing, 
there is a tradeoff. That tradeoff is two- 
fold. There is a limit of only one back- 
ground color for the entire bitmap, and 
the horizontal bitmap resolution is cut 
in half, from 320 single-bit dots to 160 
double-wide bit-pair dots, with the 
cells themselves reduced from 8x8 
to 4 X 8 "fat dots." 

Why? Well, if you want two more fore- 
ground colors, you're going to need an- 
other 1 K block of color memory or vid- 
eo matrix. You have to store this added 
color information somewhere, and 
you'll need a means of keeping track 
of where you stored it. That's where the 
VIC registers come in. 

There are only so many registers 
available in the VIC chip. We now 
have four areas of color information to 
manage: the background color— one 
per screen— and three foreground col- 
ors per cell. One of the foreground ar- 
eas is stored in color RAM from 55296 
to 56295 and the other two within 1000- 
byte video matrices in locations of our 
choosing. 

With ali this added information to 
deal with, we need to do a bit of bor- 
rowing from somewhere to point to our 
stored colors. Now we'll see why the 
horizontal resolution must be cut in 
half. With four areas to keep track of, 
we obviously cannot use the high/low 
nybble system we used in hi-res. In- 
stead, we get the needed pointers by 
splitting the eight bits in each graphics 
bitmap data byte into four bit-pairs in- 
stead of the high/low nybbles of hi-res 
color mode. 

We then use these bit pairs (0-1, 2- 
3, 4-5, 6-7) to control the correspond- 
ing horizontal pairs of screen bits 
(dots). The source of the coior nybble 
that each bit pair points to will depend 
on the binary number combination con- 
tained in that pair, according to the fol- 
lowing binary chart: 

1 1 - Low nybble of color RAfvl, starting 
at SD800 (55296) 

10 - Low nybble of screen RAM, (vid- 
eo matrix) often starting at $0400 
(1024) 

01 - High nybble of screen RAM (vid- 
eo matrix) 

00 - Low nybble of background color 
register at $D021 (53281) 

Since we are doing this on a cell-by- 
cell basis and there are four choices 
we can make above (one for each of 
the four bit-pairs), we can have up to 
four colors per cell, with one being the 
common background color set at 



$D021 (53281 in decimal). 

The other three colors will be what- 
evei' we set in the appropriate screen 
and color RAM maps that parallel our 
visible screen. If we change any of the 
color nybbles already set, we will affect 
all occurrences of that color within the 
cell that point to that nybble. 

For example, if we set the low 
nybble of screen RAM to 14 (binary 
1110), then all bit pairs in that cell that 
we set to point there (10) would show 
up as Commodore light blue, number 
14. If we change that nybble to 15 
(1111), then all occurrences of the 10 
bit-pair for that cell would now show up 
as light gray, number 15, 

The Artist's Point of View 

So what does all this mean to the art- 
ist? Well, let's say you've fired up your 
favorite drawing program and started 
work on the ultimate masterpiece. 
You've carefully shaded the hair and 
beard in a portrait by judiciously com- 
bining brown and two shades of gray 
(dark and medium) on a black back- 
ground. 

Now, perhaps you decide that a 
touch of light gray or white here and 
there would really set this off. So you 
choose light gray from your palette and 
click your mouse or joystick button on 
a dot that you have already set to me- 
dium gray. ROW! Much to your sur- 
prise and chagrin, not only is that me- 
dium gray dot now light gray, all the 
other medium gray dots in that cell 
have also changed to light gray. You 
probably think you've done something 
wrong as you laboriously redo all the 
changed dots back to medium gray. 

You try one more time, and it hap- 
pens again! At this point, your lan- 
guage may be more colorful than the 
screen. Welcome to the world of com- 
puter graphics! You have just encoun- 
tered your first color collision or color 
blowout. 

Some paint programs try to get 
around this problem by preventing you 
from entering a fifth coior or by revert- 
ing ail instances of the affected color to 
the background color, which is really 
no solution at all. 

Now the Good (and Bad) Stuff 

By now you're thinking there has to be 
a better way. There is. Suppose we cre- 
ate seven more 1 K screen RAM (video 
matrix) areas, for a total of eight, and 
set up a way to choose between any 
one of these color sources as we 
draw each of a cell's eight horizontal 
rows. 

While we're at it, why not add a spe- 
cial 256-byte area that has enough 
free nybbles to allow each horizontal 
screen row (40 cells wide) to have its 



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The origina! Illuminatus picture accompany- 
ing this article only took nne an hour or so 
to rough out using various commands and 
features of the OCP Advanced Art Studio. 
I can't begin to estimate how much time it 
would have taken to do it if I'd had to draw 
it all freehand with a mouse. 

To begin with, the actual pyramid shape 
was created with the triangle option. It ac- 
tually took me longer to position the cursor 
exactiy halfway between the left and right 
margins than it did to draw the pyramid. 

The bricks were done with the Fill and 
Pattern Edit commands. The brick wall pat- 
tern was slightly edited for color. I 
changed tne color of the red bricks to yel- 
low and the white mortar to black. I used 
the Line and f^agnify commands to isolate 
the apex of the pyramid from the rest of the 
pyramid in order to keep from filling the 
whole thing. Magnify was used again to 
smooth out the resulting rough sides of the 
pyramid and to give if a more realistic 
stepped appearance. 

The oval portion of the eye was done by 
cutting and pasting arc segments of a cir- 
cle until I was satisfied with it; then the en- 
tire oval was cut and pasted inside the 
apex. From there, it was just a matter of us- 
ing the Fill and Magnify features to do the 
detailing. 

I'm rather proud of the drop shadow 
text effect. I've never seen it done else- 



AN ARTIST'S EXPLANATION 

where, and it's easy to do with the Exclude 
option on the Art Studio's color menu. 
ThinkO of the picture as having several 
planes. There is a background plane (the 
screen color), a midground plane (the ar- 
ea where the text is written), and a fore- 
ground plane (the text itseif). In the case of 
my picture, the background color is black, 
the midground is brown, and the fore- 
ground is light gray, I selected black and 
brown to be excluded on the Color menu, 
then used the Cut, Clear, and Paste option 
to move the text {the foreground) a fev/ pix- 
els up and to the left. The drop shadow ef- 
fect is the result of the black and brown col- 
ors being excluded in the cut-and-paste op- 
eration, 

I estimate I spent about 20 hours in to- 
tal work on this picture, mainly trying vari- 
ous color combinations of text and back- 
ground, and tweaking the pixels of the eye 
and the star field, 

The FLI version was created from the orig- 
inal multicolor picture. Since FLI cannot 
use the leftmost 12 columns of pixels and 
the bottom 8 rows of pixels, I used the Cut 
and Paste options to erase the rightmost 
six and topmost four pixels, I then centered 
the picture so that four pixels on the left 
and four on the bottom would be erased by 
the FLI editor, effectively producing a bal- 
anced, centered picture. The rest of the FLI 
detailing was in adding 3-D shading to 



each brick and some detailing in the back- 
ground and corners of the pyramid apex. 

The FLI pixel tweaking added another 
three hours or so of work to the picture. 

Had I intended this to be an FLI picture 
from the start, t would have done several 
things differentiy. For example, I would 
have used the Pattern Edit feature to cre- 
ate a somewhat larger brick which would 
have allowed me to add individual detail- 
ing and shading to each brick. Also, I 
would have used the Paintbrush command 
to place individual bricks in rows. 

The eye in the apex would have been 
modeled on the eye and pyramid of the 
Great Seal of the United States, I also 
might have chosen a larger font with serifs 
to better add shadowing and detailing to 
the letters. 

There are several aspects to FLI graph- 
ics that i find intriguing, not the least of 
which is that it stretches the envelope of 
what the 64 can do. From a strictly pedes- 
trian standpoint, it allows a degree of de- 
tailing that multicolor mode is incapable of 
displaying. 

—CHRIS TUCKER 

Chris Tucker lives in Vermont. He is interested in 
space sciences, science action, stiortwave radio, 
and computers and international networks as 
tools of communication and education. He can 
be contacted on O-Link as Ci^ris43. 



JANUARY 1992 COMPUTE G-9 




^^issyaufi^fiK^fe^ 




Since no FLI paint programs exist, Ciiris Tucl<er created 
llluminatus in multicolor mode. 



This FLI version has tDeen enhanced around tlie bricks and 
background. See "An Artist's Explanation" for more details. 



own background color? That's exactly 
what Flexible Line Interpretation does. 
This way, we can call up any of eight 
sets of two foreground colors and one 
unique background color per row. 
This makes it possible to use all 16 avail- 
able colors in each cell. This is similar 
to the concept of Page Flipping for 
bitmap screens but with multiple color 
maps instead. 

While FLI will allow greater freedom 
of color usage, it is not a cure-all for 
the 64's color cell limitations. There are 
still certain restrictions that prevent com- 
plete freedom of color placement with- 
in each ceil. We can now create and 
point to multiple copies of the screen 
RAM or video matrix by manipulating 
the VIC II register at 53272 ($D018). 
We also can look at up to 200 individ- 
ual custom background color registers 
in the newer FLI editors. {Some older ed- 
itors still use the standard register at 
53281 .) However, we still cannot move 
or duplicate the fixed-location color 
RAM (55296-56295). This restriction lim- 
its us to only two new foreground col- 
ors in each horizontal row of the cell. 
The other two colors must be taken 
from the color RAM and background 
register. 

How the background color is han- 
dled depends on the editor in use. 
Most newer editors allow for a different 
color on each screen row as noted 
above, while older editors use a com- 
mon background color for the entire 
screen. Once the color RAM value is 
set to any particular color other than 
the background color, that color be- 
comes the global value for the celt, 
meaning it will be in effect for the en- 
tire 4x8 cell. 

G-10 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



From the artist's point of view, once 
this value is set, that color must be 
used as the third foreground color in 
any horizontal row in that cell. You can 
always change this global color to any 
other nonbackground value. How this 
color is set or cleared depends on the 
editor you are using. Each of the three 
editors that I have do it a slightly differ- 
ent way 

The Bottom Line 

While you can now have all 16 colors 
per cell, you are still limited to one back- 
ground and three foreground colors 
per row, and one of these three must 
be common to the entire cell. Any at- 
tempt to get around this within various 
editors will result in the old familiar col- 
or blowout or in no response at all. 

Space will not permit me to elabo- 
rate on all the different ways these col- 
or priorities can be handled. I'd like to 
note here that most older editors that 
use a common background color for 
the entire screen have been modified 
to be compatible with the newer multi- 
ple-background editors. While they 
don't actually use the 25e-byte area for 
extra colors (it remains all black or 
$00), they will recognize it to allow 
disk file load/save compatibility with 
the newer editors. If you run across an 
editor that saves 68-block files rather 
than 69, then most likely you have an 
older, unmodified editor. 

There are a few more limitations 
that are very important. For starters, the 
first 12 columns (3 cells) on the left 
side of the screen must be left blank, 
usually by setting them to the back- 
ground color of the screen. The reason 
for this is that we need a certain 



amount of time to execute the needed 
switch from one video matrix to anoth- 
er before scanning the remainder of 
each line. That switch takes place 
while the scan for each line is still with- 
in these first 12 columns. Any attempt 
to use these 12 columns during this 
switch will result in garbage dots at 
these locations unless all dots are col- 
ored alike (usually black) or "blanked 
out" in these leftmost ceils. 

This means you'll have to exercise a 
bit of artistic license here by adding an 
equally sized right border to your pic- 
ture or using some other means of hid- 
ing or balancing this offset, (There are 
supposedly some editors that allow up 
to eight colors in these columns, al- 
though at present they are only availa- 
ble in a European PAL version,) 

The reason there are presently no 
full-blown FLI drawing programs is main- 
ly due to the critical timing needed to 
ensure that the video matrix switch will 
always take place In these first 12 col- 
umns. This means no program features 
like fancy sprite pointers; plotted 
squares, circles, or other shapes: drop- 
down windows; and so on. 

There is one final timing-related limi- 
tation. In most editors set up for NTSC 
(American) systems, the top and bot- 
tom horizontal rows may be unusable. 
This does not usually cause serious 
problems, but you should be aware 
that the situation exists. I've included a 
set of diagrams to illustrate many of the 
above points for both the standard mul- 
ticolor and FLI formats. 

Making the Most of FLI 

As you can see, FLI is not some revo- 
lutionary new method that is going to 



INTRODUCING 



DDnnpuTE 



cannpuTE 





About COMPUTE/NET 
Product Ordering 
Feedback Board 
Coming Events 
Monthly Contest 



Welcome to the grand opening of 
COMPUTE/NET. A wealth of 
information awaits you. Back issues 
of COMPUTE, hard-to-find computer 
books, super software, dazzling 
pictures, challenging games, prizes, 
a complete bulletin board, and 
much more are here. You can even 
talk to the editors and authors of the 
magazine. Lots of surprises are 
planned, so keep your eyes on us. 



FINDUSONQ-LINK 




FREE Q-LINK STARTER KIT 
FREE TIME. ORDER TODAY! 



Just call our toll-free number or 
return the coupon, and we'll send 
you the Q-Link Starter Kit and 
software free, waive your first 
month's membership fee, and credit 
you with one hour of "Plus" time to 
try the service. Your S9.95 monthly 
fee gives you unlimited access to 
all of our "Basic" services online, 
including a searchable encyclope- 
dia. AND one free'hour of "Plus" 
services. After your free hour, 
you'll pay only S4.80/hour-just 8 
cents per minute-for additional use 
of the service. 



Q-Link is a registered service mark of 
Quantum Computer Services, Inc. 

•Long-distance cliargcs may apply. 
Surcliarges apply if you arc a resident of 
Alaska, Hawaii, or Canada. AJlow four to 
six weeks for delivery. 



n YESl Send me my FREE Q-Link software, waive my 
first month's membership fee, and credit me with one 
I-REE' hour of Plus time to explore the service and try 

COMPUTE/NET. 



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Call 1-800-782-2278, Ext. 2414 today 



FLISO 

The present crop of FLi editors is limited 
for file most part to zoom mode ttiat lets 
you edit pictures on a dot-by-dot basis. 
There are three editors presently available 
in the graphics section of QuantumLink's 
public domain libraries. They may also be 
found on various BBSs as well. 

FLI Graph 2.2 has the most options, 
including the ability to import Koala and oth- 
er standard multicolor format files into the 
editor. It also iets you choose a new back- 
ground color when loading. Unfortunately, 
it's not very user-friendly. 

Fit Editor V3.2 has the most advanced 
editing options of the three, with the abil- 
ity to change the background color on eve- 
ry line. It also has a unique color tracking 
feature. 

Perhaps the nicest offering on any of 
these editors is the spilt screen used in FLI 
Editor (no version number). This feature al- 
lows you to keep track of an actual-size im- 
age of the screen area you are currently 
editing. As any computer artist will tell you, 
that is a very handy feature. Unfortunately, 
this editor does not offer many of the oth- 



FTWARE 

er features mentioned above. 

Other handy FLI utilities that can be 
found in the Q-Link libraries and on BBSs 
are two Koala-FLI converters, a viewer for 
FLI images, and the SR-FLt Creator pro- 
gram by Jon Purkey (known as Gullible on 
Q-Link) that creates self-running fifes of 
your FLI masterpieces. It also offers the 
added advantage of optional file compres- 
sion. This is a handy feature that can re- 
duce the size of a standard 69-block FLI 
file to as little as 10 blocks. The reason 
that the original file is so large is that 
each 1K of data takes four disk blocks, 
and you need 40 blocks for the 10K of the 
standard multicolor file (8K for the bitmap 
and 2K for the color info [video matrix], col- 
or RAM, and background color). 

In addition, we need another 7K, or 1K 
for each additionai video matrix file used 
with FLI, This adds 28 more blocks to our 
FLI file, plus 1 more block for our custom 
background registers, for a total of 69 
blocks. Since much of this information is re- 
dundant or repetiti^/e, FLI pictures lend 
themselves well to file compression. 



Since it is upwardly connpatible with 
standard multicolor files, the logical 
vi/ay to use it would be to do most of 
the groundwork in a standard paint pro- 
gram like KoalaPalnter or OCP Ad- 
vanced Art Studio and then import the 
image into an FLI editor for the final 
touch-ups not possible in standard 
multicolor. 

As the sample pictures included 
with this article illustrate, the differenc- 
es between regular and FLI multicolor 
are more subtle than dramatic, with re- 
sults depending on the artist and sub- 
ject. Above all, this illustrates that, 
while the 64 may be ancient by today's 
computer standards, it still has capabil- 
ities that we have not yet fully explored 
or exploited! This has been proven re- 
peatedly by innovative programmers 
like the creators of FLI. As you can piain- 
ly see. Flexible Line Interpretation is a 
very appropriate name for this new 
way to paint on your 64! 



make an Amiga or Super VGA ma- 
chine out of your 64, It is a very handy 
tool for the artist who is looking for a 
way to get that extra mile from existing 
hardware and who wants to exercise 
more creative control over his or her im- 



ages. Since there are no commercial 
paint programs available for FLI, its pri- 
mary use will likely be in utilizing the en- 
hanced color options to improve or 
clean up areas in detailed images 
where color collisions are a problem. 



Bill Pitts, an industrial electrician in War- 
ren, Ohio, has been a graphics sysop 
on QuantumLink for more than four 
years. Additional information about FLI 
can be found in Q-Link's graphic are- 
as. Questions may be addressed to 
Pitts (Sysop WP), Chris Tucker 
(Chris43), or other online artists. □ 




S-13 COtt^PUTE JANUARY 1992 



YOUR PRODUCTIVITY! 



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REVIEWS 



RAMLINK AND 
RAMDRIVE 

Random access memory 
(RAM) devices exist eitlier to 
instantly load software or 
quickly save and load data. 
Until recently, all external 
RAM expansion units (REUs) 
tiad handicaps of one kind 
or another. 



B^.^"' 



lOW 





Most REUs have volatile 
memory. That means they 
lose any data in memory 
whenever the computer's 
power is turned off. Power it- 
self can be a problem since 
the 64's power supply isn't 
rugged enough to supply 
power to many REUs. Anoth- 
er problem is that most pro- 
grams have to be adapted in 
some way to take advantage 
of an REU. 

Creative Micro Designs 
has developed two units, 
RAMLink and RAMDrive, 
which overcome most of 
these problems. Since the 
software that accompanies 
these units is virtually identi- 
cal, I'll describe the similari- 
ties between the devices be- 
fore stating their differences. 
The CMD systems create par- 

G-14 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



titions and subpariitions. 
These may be accessed via 
direct mode or from within 
adapted versions of certain 
programs, such as The 
Write Stuff word processor or 
CMD's gateway program. 

Partitions default to native 
mode. This format means 
the unit will accept data files 
from most applications and 
can store the programs them- 
selves, such as SpeedScript 
and all of its files. 

Emulation modes imitate 
the 1541, 1571, and 1581 to 
increase compatibility for 
some drive-specific soft- 
ware. Direct access mode is 
useful if an REU needs to be 
accessed by a program 
that cannot work directly 
i with the CMD unit. For 
^» example, I use a 1571, 
ii* a CMD unit, and a 
^/. 1750 REU in direct 
mode. CMD's 

GEOS adaptation 
for its RAM units, 
gateway, recogniz- 
es each of these 
units as a separate drive. 

Since each partition acts 
like a disk drive, most files 
can be loaded to and saved 
from these partitions, and 
the speed is virtually instan- 
taneous. Programs stored 
within a CMD unit are instant- 
ly available once you press 
Return. 

When a program such as 
GEOS switches layers in and 
out, the rapid interchange 
gives the illusion of a very 
large computer memory Sav- 
ing and loading is so fast 
that you may want to check 
the directory just to make 
sure that the file was actual- 
ly saved. 

CMD partitions in RAM- 
Link and RAMDrive can han- 
dle a wide range of pro- 
grams. They will accept 
most newer unprotected pro- 
grams from Timeworks and 
DOSterm, most text-based 
Dungeons and Dragons 



games, Superbase V3. and 
the Stereo Sid Playerversion 
10.1 or newer. I also store 
Print Shop graphics and a 
number of SpeedScript pro- 
grams. The Fleet System 2+ 
word processor recognizes 
its spelling dictionary and 
most of its thesaurus when 
they are stored in a CMD 
RAM device. 

Usually if a program can 
be transferred from a 1541 
to a 1571, it can stored in 
and run from a CMD unit. 
Two programs that work par- 
ticularly well with CMD prod- 
ucts, gateWay and The 
Write Stuff, take advantage 
of the large storage space 
and quick access. This 
means GEOS can be imme- 
diately available, with all ap- 
plications and accessories 
appearing at the click of a 
mouse button. 

The Write Stuff will store 
files in subpartitions and will 
allow the user to move 
among partitions from within 
the program, TWShas numer- 
ous features, which include 
several pages of onscreen 
help files and a large diction- 
ary. There is practically no 
waiting time when any of 
these features are called. 

CMD devices recognize 
the ![/laverlckV5 disk copier, 
but 1 can't vouch for most car- 
tridges, The Turbomaster 
speedup CPU is not yet com- 
patible, but may soon be 
adapted to work with CMD 
units, The Commodore 1700 
series of REUs will work with 
CMD units, including those 
that have been expanded to 
two megabytes. CMD has in- 
cluded a wedge that abbre- 
viates most drive commands 
and speeds up floppy disk ac- 
cess when a special CMD 
chip is inserted in the floppy 
drive. Without the special 
drive chip, floppy saves and 
loads are the same as those 
of a stock 64/128. Since I 
had already installed CMD's 



JiffyDOS in my computer 
and 1571 drive (which also 
eliminated the usual 1571 
problems), I had to set my 
computer's JiffyDOS switch 
to off for the wedge in the 
RAM device to work. 

The floppy disk access is 
as fast as it was previously. 
The wedge is still available 
and works for both the flop- 
py and RAM device, It also 
uses the built-in disk copier 
that allows one floppy to be 
copied to another via the 
RAM device with only one 
change of disks in the flop- 
py drive. 

With the included soft- 
ware, it's easy to create par- 
titions, change their modes, 
and copy files between par- 
titions and another drive. 
Since a disk is used for sys- 
tem initialization, it should be 
easy to make upgrades of 
the operating system. 

The default device num- 
ber for CMD drives is 16. 
This can be changed 
through software, however, 
to any desired number. The 
Write SfL/ff expects a default 
of 12, and gateWay (GEOS) 
requires 8 or 9. A pressure- 
sensitive spot on CMD units 
makes it easy to assign de- 
vice 8 or 9 to the RAM de- 
vice. This feature lets you 
load and save files to and 
from the CMD unit from most 
programs. I load Print Shop 
from my floppy drive, de- 
press the Swap 8 location on 
my RAM unit, and load pic- 
ture files from the RAM 
drive. A reset button helps 
64 owners clear their ma- 
chine without turning off the 
computer Users of gateWay 
will be able to reset and re- 
call GEOS with no data loss. 

If the CMD units interfere 
with the operation of any soft- 
ware, they each have an en- 
able/disable switch that iso- 
lates them from your system. 
I haven't discovered any prob- 
lems with software, though. 



RAMLink 

RAMLink is housed in a 6 x 
2x5 inch metal case with 
two openings on the top for 
an RED and a cartridge. 
CMD offers an optional 
RAMCard that can be used 
alone as a RAfvl disk or in 
conjunction with other REUs 
for a maximum capacity of 
16MB. 

In addition to the enable/ 
disable toggle switch com- 
mon to both CMD devices, 
there is a normal/direct 
switch that allows the at- 
tached REU to be treated 
separately if it contains a di- 
rect-access partition. The 
memory of the attached 
REU remains permanent 
when the computer is 
turned off. This is because 
RAfylLink has its own AC 



power supply. An optional 
backup battery is available 
that will power RAfv/lLink for 
several hours. 

I have used the battery 
while switching the AC cord 
between wall outlets and 
found that memory contents 
were retained. Three outlets 
on the back of the unit are 
for the AC supply, a battery 
backup, and parallel connec- 
tion to a CfvlD hard drive. 

I have 2MB in my unit 
plus the 512K contained in 
my 1750. The type of mem- 
ory chips (SIMfvl) installed in 
my unit would allow expan- 
sion to 4MB plus my REU. A 
different size of SIMM 
would permit expansion to 
16MB. Mixing two SIMM 
types will not work. The 
CMD operating system is 



able to use the maximum 
range of memory. 

The Final Cartridge III, 
which according to its U.S. 
distributors is not designed 
to work with any other car- 
tridge or REU, works quite 
well with RAMLink and my at- 
tached 1750 REU. The Final 
Cartridge will perform all nor- 
mal disk operations on my 
floppy drive. While it will iden- 
tify the contents of the de- 
fault partition on RAMLink, it 
will not perform disk opera- 
tions on the RAM device. 
My other cartridges function 
normally when attached to 
this unit. 

RAMDrive 

This unit can either be insert- 
ed into the cartridge port or 
share an Aprospand car- 



CMD 



1 E-B 

■ Aim 

"five 



^%$ AND 

$ MONEY 

Yes, save time and money! Subscribe to the Gazette 
Disk and get all the exciting, fun-filled Gazette pro- 
grams for your Commodore 64 or 128— already on 
disk! 

Subscribe today, and month after month you'll 
get all the latest, most challenging, and fascinating 
programs published in the corresponding issue of 
COMPUTE. 

New on the Gazette Disk! In addition to the 
programs that appear in the magazine, you'll also 
get outstanding bonus programs. These programs, 
which are often too large to offer as type-ins, are 
available only on disk— they appear nowhere else. 

As another Gazette Disk extra, check out 



"Gazette Gallery," where each month we present the 
very best in original 64 and 128 artwork. 

So don't waste another moment. Subscribe to- 
day to COMPUTE'S Gazette Disk and get 12 issues 
for only $49.95. You save almost 60^ off the single- 
issue price. Clip or photocopy and mail completed 
coupon today. 

Individual issues of the disk are available for 
$9.95 (plus $2.00 shipping and handling) by writing 
to COMPUTE, 324 West Wendover Avenue, Suite 
200, Greensboro, North Carolina 27408. 



YES 



I 



start my one-year subscription 
to COMPUTE'S Gazette Disk right away 
for only $49.95.* 

n Payment enclosed (check or money order) 
D Charge D MasterCard D Visa 



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Mail to COMPUTES Gazette Disk, P.O. Box 3250, Harlan, lA 51593-2430 

■ Resdenis ol ^C and NY, please add appropriate sates tax tor your area. Canadian 

Ofdefs. add 7^o goods and services tax- 



Tbe 

GRAPEVINE 
GROUP- „ 

Inc. O 
^ COMMODORE UPGRADES 



NEW POWER SUPPLIES 



A super-heavy, repairable C -64 power supply wilh an 
; outpul of 4 3 amps (that's over 3i as powertui as Ihe 
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atlditional irenory and packet ' Cost is S37.9S and 
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• 4 3 amp supply lor C-128 Same features ss 
above— J39.9a (includes bonus pacitage) 

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supply (or C-64. (Over 120.000 sold ) $24,95 



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CUMMODDRE OlAGNOSTICiAM II 



Originally developed as a software package, then 

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become a fsniastic seller- With over 38,000 sold 

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' Success rate from diagnosis-lo-repair is 98% Includes 

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CDMPUTER SAVER; This C-64 Protection System 

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EMERGENCY STARTUP K TS 



Repair your own Commodroe/Amiga and save lots ol 
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: test diskette with 9 programs . . Send for full details. 



REPLACEMENT/UPGRADE CHIPS £ PARTS 



•6510CPU 

I 6526 CfA -v. 

16581 StD «♦'*■-■■ 

6567 Video iS*'^---. 

I PLA 906114 

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4164 (C-64/RA!vl) 80 

! C-12S ROMs 'Jpgrade (set 3) 24.95 

C-64 Keyboard (new) 1 9,95 

Commodore Cables Clll 

Super Graphics Software 57.50 

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j CBM to I Bl^ Printer Cable Adapter 34.95 



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*5 3 CHESTNUT ST., SUFFERfJ, NY 10901 H 
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REVIEWS 



circle Reader Service Number 128 



tridge holder with a Comfnodore series 
REU of any size. The geoRAM car- 
tridge will not work with RAMDrive. No 
cartridges other than the 1700 series 
REUs will work in conjunction with this 
unit. It has a built-in battery and AC 
power source, putting no additional 
load on the 64. Its maximum capacity 
is two megabytes, While it has no nor- 
mal/direct switch, its controls are other- 
wise similar to those found on RAIVl- 
Link. 

What makes this device unique is 
that once its battery is charged, it will 
operate for several days without connec- 
tion to any power source. Although I 
leave the AC source connected while 
RAfvlDrive is in use, I can easily carry 
this metal-cased unit between home 
and work in my jacket. 

There are at least three aspects to 
RAMDrive's portability. It is much small- 
er and lighter than RAf^Link. Its built- 
in battery allows for memory retention 
over several days, while RAfvlLink's bat- 
tery is for short-term blackouts or acci- 
dentally interrupted power supplies. 

RAMDrive can easily be connected/ 
disconnected from cartridge ports with- 
out any loss of data and in most cases 
without the need of a special jumper 
wire. RAMLink requires that a jumper ca- 
ble be connected between a chip with- 
in the computer and RAf^/ILink to syn- 
chronize timing. Only some 64/128 
computers will need this adjustment 
with RAMDrive. A software test will tell 
the user whether this installation is re- 
quired. Although I am a very timid tech- 
nician, I performed the installation in 
about half an hour with no special 
tools. Many users of RAMDrive will not 
need to do this with their computers. 

Customer Service 

One of the devices' designers from Per- 
formance Peripherals told me that to 
make the CMD devices work they had 
to make the 64 do what it wasn't de- 
signed to do. They quickly discovered 
that the wide variety of chips in the 64 
and 128 added to the difficulties in mak- 
ing RAMLink and RAMDrive work with 
all 64 or 128 computers. My 64 was 
especially stubborn with RAMDrive, but 
the designers modified another 
RAMDrive and sent it to me by courier. 
It worked with no problems. 
I made innumerable calls to the 



CMD office for technical advice and 
discussions. The help was not only 
effective but friendly. Only a tiny minor- 
ity of you will have computer compati- 
bility problems. If you do have difficul- 
ties, CMD will fix tfrem. In one case the 
CMD staff even worked on a custom- 
er's computer in their lab. Now that's 
service! 

1 use GeoWorks Ensemble at work 
on an IBM-compatible AT with a 40MB 
hard disk. It's a wonderful program 
that takes full advantage of the ma- 
chine. That 286 cost us nearly S2,000 
when we bought it two years ago. f am 
running G£OS {CMD's gateWay) on 
my 64 with a CMD RAM device. I have 
faster response time for all activities on 
my Commodore than I do with the 
more expensive IBM clone and soft- 
ware. For many 64 or 128 owners, a 
CMD RAM unit may be a more effec- 
tive upgrade than the purchase of a 
more expensive machine, 

JOHN ELLIOTT 

Commodore 64 and 128 
RAMDrive with 512K— $199.95 
RAMDrive wilfi llvlB— $249,95 
RAfvlDrive wim 2MB— S299.95 
RAIvlLinl< v^ithout internal RAIVI— $179.95 
RAIvlLink with RAI^Cartd— 5219,95 
Call for RA(V1 prices up to 4MB. 
RAMLink battery backup tjnit— $24.95 

CREATIVE MICRO DESIGN 

RO. Box 646 

E. Longviow, MA 01028 

(800) 638-3263 

(413) 525-0023 

Circle Header Service Number 311 

ELVIRA, MISTRESS 
OF THE DARK 

Hollywood's influence on the computer 
software field is far-reaching. Every 
time you turn around, another game 
based on a movie pops up on the soft- 
v/are shelves. With Elvira, Mistress of 
ttie Dark, the video vixen stars in an ad- 
venture game that has nothing to do 
with her dud movie of the same title and 
everything to do with the atmosphere 
and invitingly haunting images that El- 
vira evokes. 

Elvira has established herself as a 
hostess of the macabre, and her com- 
puter game reeks of the horror genre in 
a delightfully disgusting way. Lots of 
gruesome images, fearsome monsters, 



and campy humor await the 
role-playing adventurer in 
need of a challenging 
game. 

In Elvira, you must help 
the hostess with the mostest 
rid her inherited castle of her 
insane, evil Aunt Emelda's 
ghost. The only way to do 
this is to find the six keys 
that wilt unlock a chest that 
contains the Scroll of Spiritu- 
al Mastery. This scroll is the 
only means of resurrecting 
the departed Emelda. 

After collecting the l<eys, 
you must also unearth the 
chest and destroy the scroll 
so that no one will try to 
bring Emelda back to life 
again. Elvira is an enjoyable 
game, but it's so large that 
many players may give up be- 
fore tiiey finish the quest. 



Elvira's icon-driven inter- 
face is effortless to use. The 
center window displays a 
first-person view of your sur- 
roundings. Objects like 
doors and weapons may be 
selected right in this window. 
A list of commands on the 
right side of the picture win- 
dow and directional arrows 
and inventory icons on the 
left side complete the inter- 
face. All are clickable. Under- 
neath the picture window is 
space for your inventory or 
game messages. You play El- 
vira by clicking command 
icons, objects in your inven- 
tory, directional arrows, or ob- 
jects in the main window. 

Elvira is not a simple 
game, but its interface 
makes it much more playa- 
ble than it might have been, 



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The best part of tlie game 
is ttre design ot the castle 
and its surrounding loca- 
tions. Particularly interesting 
are the hedge maze, gar- 
den, and moat 

Elvira's inherited castle is 
easily the best representa- 
tion of a stony fortress in a 
computer game. From the 
dungeon to the ramparts, 
the castle is large and de- 
tailed. You'll forget you're in 
a computer game. Particular- 
ly nasty areas are the dun- 
geon and the ramparts. 
Watch out for monsters, and 
always be ready with an ef- 
fective potion. 

Potions and spells are a 
large part of Elvira. In your 
journeys throughout the cas- 
lie grounds, you'll find many 
strange plants and other in- 
gredients. Every now and 
then, return to the castle's 
kitchen, and Eivira herself 
will tell you which potions 
may be mixed effectively 
with the ingredients in your in- 
ventory. You can learn all 
about the potions m 
Emelda '$ Book of Recipes 

G-1B COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



and Spells that comes with 
the game. It acts as copy pro- 
tection because you need a 
piece of red plastic to read 
the spells. The book also re- 
veals the many possible com- 
binations of ingredients. 

Some spells affect mon- 
sters and other evil charac- 
ters you may encounter. Oth- 
ers protect you or restore life 
points. Your character has a 
few role-playing characteris- 
tics (strength, resilience, dex- 
terity, skill, and life) that may 
be affected by one or more 
potions. Experiment, but 
save your game often. 

After a complete journey 
through the game, I can ver- 
ify that not all spells are nec- 
essary, and you may inter- 
change specific spells in 
some instances. Some 
spells increase knowledge 
and reveal information des- 
perately needed to complete 
portions of the game. Save 
your position often, and nev- 
er use a spell in combat un- 
less absolutely necessary. 

The graphics in Elvira are 
most impressive. Although a 



little bland in some areas of 
the castle, most of the 
screens are suitably de- 
tailed. The death scenes are 
particularly fun because 
there are so many ways to 
die in this game. In all cas- 
es, your character's picture 
pops up onscreen to reveal 
a gruesome form of death. 

!n combat sequences, 
you must block your attack- 
er's blows and return them 
when you have the advan- 
tage. Animation is smooth, 
and you'll pick up the rhythm 
in no time. Keep those po- 
tions ready! 

Elvira is perfect for the 
graphic adventurer in need 
of a bizarre twist, fvlapping is 
not necessary in the game, 
but a good sense of spatial 
orientation is important. The 
castle is large and full of sur- 
prises. The game is packed 
on three double-sided disks 
to eliminate excessive disk 
swapping. 

Elvira is also perfect for 
the fans of the fright flick 
femme fatale who want a 
game that offers a complex 



but fair challenge. Still push- 
ing the 64 computer beyond 
its preconceived limits, Elvi- 
ra mixes fantasy and fun in 
a ghoulishly delicious potion 
that entices players to drink, 

RUSS CECCOU\ 

Commodore 64 and 128 — S39.95 

FLAIR SOFTWARE 

Distributed by Bethesda Softworlts 

15235 Stiady Grove Ra.. Ste, 100 

Rockville, MD 20850 

(301 ) 926-8300 

Ctrcle Reader Service Number 312 



Gazette is looking for utilities, 
games, applications, education- 
al programs, and tutorial arti- 
cles. If you've created a pro- 
gram that you think otiier read- 
ers might enjoy or find useful, 
send it on disk to 

Gazette Submissions Reviewer 
COMPUTE Puijiicalions 
324 W. Wendover Ave. 
Ste. 200 
Greensboro, NC 27408 

Please enclose an SASE if you 
wish to have the materials re- 
turned. 



MACHINE LANGUAGE 



Jim Butterfield 



SMOOTH 
OPERATORS 

The logical instructions of the 
65xx microprocessors deal 
directly with its fundamental ele- 
ments: bits. 

The three instructions are 
AND (logical AND), ORA (log- 
ical OR), and EOR (exclusive 
OR). All three work with the A 
register and a specified mem- 
ory location, placing the re- 
suits of the operation into A. 
All three are capable of manip- 
ulating one or several bits with- 
in the 8-bit byte, leaving the oth- 
er bits untouched. Another 
instruction, BIT is capable of 
testing selected bits but will 
not change data. 

Though logical operators 
can be used to calculate 
checksums, determine game 
strategy, or form complex de- 
cision values, programmers 
most often use these instruc- 
tions to select or change data 
bits by means of a mask value. - 
To use a mask, select the bits 
you want to change and set 
up a mask value of ones and 
zeros to specify those bits. 
AND turns bits off, ORA turns 
bits on, and EOR flips bits. 

AND: A 1 in the mask 
leaves the corresponding da- 
ta bit alone; a bit forces the 
corresponding data bit to 
(turns it off), 

ORA: A leaves the data 
bit alone, and a 1 forces it to 
1 (turns it on). 

EOR: A bit leaves the 
data bit alone, but a 1 bit 
causes the data bit to flip from 
to 1 or 1 to 0. 

The AND and ORA instruc- 
tions destroy data. Whatever 
the bits were before, they are 
forced to one or zero and the 
previous information is gone. 
But EOR flips bits, and such 
bits could be flipped back to 
their original state if desired. 

AND, which sets bits to 0, is 
often used to extract bits for 
testing. This is especially true 



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LDX #$00 
LDA S045D,X 
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STA $0450,X 

CPX #S12 
BNE $2002 
RTS 



of I/O (Input/Output) ports, 
where each of the eight bits of 
a port or register may have an 
individual meaning, AND is al- 
so frequently used to eliminate 
the higher bits of an ASCII char- 
acter in order to convert it to 
a number; an ASCII digit from 
to 9 {hexadecimal $30 to 
$39) can be reduced to its 
value with AND #$0R 

ORA will do the reverse of 
this; it can convert a binary val- 
ue in the range to 9 into an 
ASCII decimal digit. It's also a 
valuable instruction for turning 
on a bit in an output port. 

EOR is good for use as a 
counter, or it can be used to 
create oscillating effects, 
such as making parts of the 
screen blink. 

The following program per- 
forms the three operations on 
screen data. To work on a 64 
or a 128 in 40-column mode, 
the program assumes that the 
screen is located at hex 0400. 

Keep in mind that screen 
memory uses a special code 
for data. The alphabetic char- 
acters A to Z are represented 
as values 1 to 26; that's dif- 
ferent from ASCII code. Numer- 
ic digits to 9 are the same as 
ASCII (hex $30 to $39), as is 
the space character (hex 
$20). Watch for screen binary 
zero, the @ character. 

The BASIC program given 
below prints a number of iden- 
tical lines to the screen then 
POKEs a tiny program into 
memory The program is mod- 
ified during the run, but it 
starts like this: 



As the BASIC program runs, 
the logical operation changes 
to ORA and then to EOR, and 



the address of the line is ad- 
justed upward to match follow- 
ing screen lines. The BASIC 
program runs the whole logi- 
cal set nine times. Lines mod- 
ified by AND and ORA won't 
change after the first time. 
The bits have been set off or 
on, and they stay that way. 
But the bits affected by EOR 
will flip back to their original 
values and then flip again, 
and so on. You'll quickly no- 
tice that the high bit of the 
screen display (mask $80) cre- 
ates reverse video when it's 
turned on so that EOR cre- 
ates a flash effect. 

100 PRINT CHR$(147); 

"LOGIC OPERATORS!" 
110 DATA ORIGINAL.AMD- 

$0F,OR--$3O 
120 DATAEOR-$1,EOR-$30, 

EOR-$80 
130 FOR J=1 TO 6 
140 READ X$ 
150 PRINT "ABCDEFGHI 

123456789";TAB(20);X$ 
160 NEXT J 
200 DATA 162.0,189,80,4,41,15, 

157,80,4,232,224.18,208, 

243,96 
210 FOR J=8192TO8207 
220 READ X:POKE J,X 
230 NEXT J 
300 FOR J=1 TO 9 
320 POKE 81 95,80:P0KE 8200, 

80;POKE 8197,41:P0KE 

8198,15 
330 SYS 8192 
340 POKE 819S,120:POKE 8200, 

120:POKE8197,9:POKE 

8198,48 
350 SYS 8192 
360 POKE 3195,160:POKE 8200, 

160:POKE8197,73:PaKE 

8198,1 
370 SYS 8192 
380 POKE 8195,200:POKE 8200, 

200:POKE 8197.73:P0KE 

8198,48 
390 SYS 8192 
400 POKE 8195,240:POKE 8200, 

240:POKE 8197.73:PQK£ 

8198,128 
410 SYS 8192 

420 FOR K=1 TO 500:N£XT K 
500 NEXT J D 



Logical operations 
AND, ORA, and 
EOR deal directly 
with tiie 

65xx's fundamental 
elements: bits. 



JANUARY 1992 COMPUTE G-19 



GEOS 



Steve Vander Ark 



Come In 

out of the cold 

and let a 

splash ol graphics 

liven the 

winter doldrums. 



BRIGHTEN UP 
YOUR WINTER 

Winter sure gets dreary once 
the holidays have careened 
past. Here in Michigan, the 
stretch from New Year's to the 
end of February seems to con- 
sist of little more than scraping 
the windshield and shoveling 
the driveway. What January 
needs is a little pick-me-up — 
something to add a little piz- 
zazz to computing. 

This is the perfect time for 
a splash of graphics. There 
are quite a few good sources 
for graphics to perk up your 
documents, and just because 
graphics aren't in geoPa/nf for- 
mat doesn't mean you can't 
use them for GEOS. 

You can convert just about 
any kind of graphic image in- 
to GEOS using one conver- 
sion utility or another. Commer- 
cially available packages in- 
clude Graphics Integrator 2 
from Inkwell Systems (P.O. 
Box 1997, Imperial Beach, Cal- 
ifornia 91933)and Solutions Un- 
limited's Icon Factory (Briwall, 
P.O. Box 129, Kutztown, Penn- 
sylvania 19530). Either of 
these programs will convert be- 
tween Commodore formats. 
Graphics Integrator also in- 
cludes a routine to convert to 
GEOS from Doodle, while a 
separate utility called Grafix 
Link does the conversion for 
Icon Factory. 

GEOS users do have the op- 
tion of making the conversions 
from within GEOS itself using 
a program called Graphics 
Storm (Storm Systems, 464 
Beale Street, West Quincy, 
fv!assachusetts 02169) or Im- 
port Runner, two similar pro- 
grams written by Joe Buckley. 
Each of these conversion pro- 
grams has its own distinctive 
features; both will convert Doo- 
dle graphics format and stan- 
dard bitmaps. 

Import Runnerw'iW also con- 
vertregularorcompressedmuf- 



ticolor images as well as 
MacF^intand RLE files. Graph- 
ics Storm also handles clip art 
from The Newsroom, The Print 
Shop, and PrintM aster. Be- 
tween the two, there are few 
graphic files that can't be con- 
verted into the GEOS uni- 
verse. Both programs can be 
found on Q-Link. 

Armed with conversion pro- 
grams like these, you're ready 
to track down a few new graph- 
ics. Some sources are pretty 
well known. Wewsroom clip art 
disks, for example, are certain- 
ly some of the best buys. 

The Print Shop graphics 
abound as well, not only in 
The Print Shop collections 
themselves but also in numer- 
ous collections by other art- 
ists. You'll find them on BBSs 
and in user group iibraries; Q- 
Link also has a nice selection. 
You owe it to yourself to track 
down the collections by Kathy 
Wright (KathyWS/Syshelp KW 
on Q-Link); they are some of 
the best around. 

The Print Shop. PrintMaster. 
or Wetvsroom graphics can be 
grabbed and converted into 
GEOS photo scraps using 
Graphic Storm or the Graph- 
ics Grabber found on the 
DeskPack Plus disk from 
Berkeley 

If you have a disk full of The 
Print Shop graphics you'd like 
to turn into GEOS photo 
scraps. GefGrapft/cV 1.2 from 
Nick Vrtis (5863 Pinetree SE. 
Kentwood, Michigan 49508) 
will nicely automate the proc- 
ess. Vrtis' program displays 
clips by name, allowing you to 
select those you'd like to con- 
vert. The program then con- 
verts the ones you've picked 
until you have a new photo al- 
bum filled with the selected 
clips. 

Screen-sized high-resolu- 
tion images, such as the ones 
created by Doodle, can be eas- 
ily converted to GEOS using 
one of the conversion pro- 
grams available. GEOS itself 



operates in high-resolution 
mode, so the image will not be 
distorted at all. fvlulticolor im- 
ages, those generated by Ko- 
alaPaint, for example, are an- 
other matter They can be con- 
verted, but the results may be 
less than perfect. Since the 
size of the pixels (the dots on 
the screen that make up the im- 
age) and the color information 
are different in the two 
modes, even a fine program 
like Import Runner may not do 
the job perfectly. 

You needn't confine your- 
self to Commodore formats. If 
you have a modem, you have 
access to thousands of imag- 
es in formats designed for oth- 
er computers, images which 
you can download and con- 
vert into GfOS with the help of 
other utilities. 

On IBM bulletin boards 
you'll find scads of graphics in 
a format called GIF. There are 
several utilities which will con- 
vert these into Commodore mul- 
ticolor images, but since a con- 
version from multicolor to 
GEOS is problematic, it's bet- 
ter to convert them directly to 
GEOS. One program, geoGIF 
by Randy Weems, which is 
available on Q-Link, converts 
GIF files into a geoPaint im- 
age. The results can be quite 
spectacular when printed out. 
Another common type of 
graphics image is from the 
Macintosh program called 
MacPaint. These files, identi- 
fied by their MAC suffix, are 
full-page bitmaps just like ge- 
oPaint, so a conversion to 
GEOS is quick and painless. 
The job can be accomplished 
using Import Runner or with a 
program called MacAttack. al- 
so written by the ubiquitous 
and talented Joe Buckley. 

So forget about shoveling 
the driveway. It'll just fill up 
with snow again anyhow. 
Come in out ol the cold and li- 
ven the winter doldrums with 
a splash of graphics. It sure 
beats scraping ice! D 



G-20 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



The Gazette 

Productivity 

Manager 

(Formerly PowerPak) %^ 

Harness the productivity 
power of your 64 or 128! 

Turn your Commodore into 
a powerful workhorse, keep track 
of finances, generate reports 
in a snap, manage your 
money in minutes- 
all with the new 1991 
Gazette Productivity 
Manager! Look at all 
your 64/128 Productivity 
Manager disk contains. 

GemCalc 64 & 128— 
A complete, powerful, user- 
friendly spreadsheet with all 
the features you'd expect 
in an expensive commercial package 
(separate 64 and 128 versions are included). 
Most commands can be performed with a single keypress! 

Memo Card— Unleashes the power of a full-blown 
database without the fuss! Nothing's easier — it's a 
truly simple computerized address file. Just type in 
your data on any one of the index cards. Need to edit? 
Just use the standard Commodore editing keys. 
Finished? Just save the data to floppy What could be 
easier? 

Financial Planner — Answers all of those questions 
concerning interest, investments, and money manage- 
ment that financial analysts charge big bucks for! You 
can plan for your children's education and know 
exactly how much it will cost and how much you need 
to save every month to reach your goal. Or, decide 
whether to buy or lease a new car. Use the compound 
interest and savings function to arrive at accurate 
estimates of how your money will work for you. 
Compute the answer at the click of a key! 

DON'T MISS OUT ON THIS 
POWERFUL WORKHORSE! 




(MasterCard and Visa accepled on orders with subtotal over $20). 



DYES! Please send me Productivity Manager A\t\i{t) 

(SI 4.95 each). 

Subtotal 

Sales Tax (Residents of NC and NY please add appro- 
priate sales tax for your area. Canadian orders, add 
7% goods and services tax.) 

Shipping and Handling (82.00 U.S. and Canada, S3.00 

surface mail, $5.00 airmail per disk.) 

Total Enclosed 

Check or Money Order MasterCard _ VISA 



Crnlll ard No. . 



(RFqulrKl) 



Daytime Telephone Mo. . 
Name 



State/ 
fTTHlnre _ 



Send your order to Gazette 1991 ProducUvity Manager, 
324 W. Wendover Ave., Ste. 200, Greenslwro, NC 27408. 



DIVERSIONS 



Fred D'Ignazio 



AS OTHERS 
SEE ME 



I predict a 

big business lor a 

new liind of 

cosmetics industry 

based on 

electronic, digital 

cosmetics. 



G-22 COMPUTE JANUARY 



Yesterday, I went to the beau- 
ty salon for my monthly facial 
tune-up. After hairdresser Lau- 
ra Dantzler finished trimming 
the five or six hairs remaining 
on the top of my head, I lay 
back in her chair, and she be- 
gan trimming my beard be- 
neath my chin. 

"This sure is an interesting 
perspective," Laura remarked 
as she snipped and clipped, 

"I'll bet." I imagined her 
counting the hairs in my nos- 
trils and the fillings in my 
teeth. I visualized the Neander- 
thal pose I struck — all nose, 
buck teeth, cavernous eye- 
brows, and massive forehead. 

Embarrassing images such 
as these led me to speculate 
on images others may have of 
us, including dentists, aerobics 
instructors, gynecologists, mor- 
ticians, and proctologists. 

As Laura chopped at the jun- 
gle beneath my chin, it 
dawned on me that the "me" 
who preens and poses in the 
mirror each morning might not 
be the image that others see. 

Like any vain human being, 
I wish other people v/ould see 
me as 1 see myself — or even 
better! Because of this natural 
and powerful human longing, 
I predict a big business for a 
new kind of cosmetics indus- 
try — an industry based on elec- 
tronic, digital cosmetics. 

Today people spend bil- 
lions of dollars on cosmetics to 
become prettier, sexier, and 
more handsome. The persona 
who walks out of the bathroom 
might be wearing a deliberate 
mask and creating an intention- 
al illusion, but it is part of the 
consensual virtual reality that 
everyone shares. 

Now think about life in the 
next century We will do a lot 
less physical interacting with 
each other and a lot more vir- 
tual Meracbng. Instead of com- 

1992 



muting to work and play, we 
will telecommute. 

Many of us have already ex- 
perienced telecommuting and 
are accustomed to working in 
virtual offices, peopled by of- 
fice mates who may physical- 
ly be thousands of miles apart. 
Today the cosmetics side of 
things doesn't get in the way 
Our interaction is chiefly via 
voice, voice mail, eiectronic 
mail, and wide-area network- 
ing. It's strictly a text-and-talk 
kind of life, so how we look is 
delightfully unimportanL 

Beware, however, of what 
happens when telecommunica- 
tions merges with television. - 
Think about the video confer- 
ences of high-powered corpo- 
rations. Can members sit 
around a virtual "tele-table" in 
undershorts, hair a mess, a 
can of beer in one hand and 
a Twinkle in the other? 

I don't think so. Video tele- 
conferences and picture 
phones will be an Inescapable 
part of our work and leisure 
lives sometime in the next dec- 
ade. But I bet they'll have an 
escape hatch built In. Unlike 
the f\/la Bell television phones 
of yesteryear, the new picture 
phones will be nine-tenths com- 
puter and only one-tenth tele- 
phone and television. The com- 
puter will massage all images, 
data, and sound. 

So if you don't want to look 
fike you really are— all nostril 
hairs, beard stubble, and 
skimpy eyelashes — you can 
call up cosmetic clip art from 
a library of persona-enhanc- 
ing facial templates online in 
your CD-ROM optical library 
For example, I might be a 
v/imp of a guy with glasses, 
thinning hair, and an understat- 
ed bony body but when I at- 
tend my corporate video con- 
ferences in 1997, I will appear 
with Mel Gibson's head on Ar- 
nold Schwarzenegger's body 
and sound like James Earl 
Jones. Similarly a female attor- 
ney who needs a quick "do" 



to attend a high-powered stock- 
holder's meeting can assem- 
ble her persona from electron- 
ic body parts and appear with 
a Candice Bergen head, a Ma- 
donna body and a Katherine 
Hepburn voice. 

Today's computer networks 
are only a muted, shadowy re- 
flection of the multimedia, vid- 
eo networks of the future. Peo- 
ple who hang around electron- 
ic malls, game arcades, and 
forums today have only their 
words to introduce them- 
selves or to judge others. 

Think about electronic par- 
ties held on future networks. 
People will have gigantic CD- 
ROfvl libraries to mix-and- 
match body parts from movie 
actors, musicians, circus per- 
formers, politicians, cartoon 
characters, or historical fig- 
ures. Composite persons will 
come to these parties with bod- 
ies that resemble anything 
from King Kong to Attila the 
Hun; faces from Chewbacca 
to Freddie Kruger; and voices 
that mimic Dolly Parton, Judy 
Garland, or M. C. Hammer, 

Things sound idyllic, don't 
they? Perhaps. But you'd bet- 
ter be on guard for "cosmetic 
viruses." For example, you 
might think you are transmit- 
ting an image of yourself with 
Oprah Winfrey's head atop 
Ann-Margret's body (a recent 
virtual composite person on 
the cover of TV Guide). But 
your colleagues at the video 
teleconference may be receiv- 
ing your image as Pee Wee 
Herman's head atop Rosanne 
Barr's body, and they might 
hear you speaking with the 
voice of Strawberry Shortcake. 

After a hectic and mystify- 
ing day at the virtual office of 
the future, staffed by dozens 
of mix-and-match telepresenc- 
es, the rallying cry might be for 
a little sense, a little sanity. 
Wanting just one unedited 
shot, office buddies may cry: 
Will the real Fred D'Ignazio 
please stand up? i^ 



BEGINNER BASIC 



Larry Cotton 



MUSIC PATTERNS 

Happy 1992! We're nearing 
the finale of our series on 
RND, the BASIC keyword 
which creates randomness. 

Sound and graphics can 
be enhanced by judicious use 
of the RND statement. This 
month, I'll try to prove it by re- 
writing one of my first pro- 
grams, Music Patterns, which 
appeared m COMPUTEI's Ga- 
zette {February 1985). This 64 
program creates colorful semi- 
random patterns accompa- 
nied by randomly generated 
tones. We begin with a classic 
randomizing statement to pre- 
vent the program'salways start- 
ing with the same pattern; 

1DX=RND{-TI) 

One statement, DEF FN, 
and one function, FN. work 
particularly well with RND. 
DEF FN and FN are always 
used together to create pro- 
grammer-defined functions. 
These functions are usually 
written as formulas or equa- 
tions. DEF FN and FN save 
you from having to type the 
same formula over and over. 
Enter these lines, which will 
be the next ones in our new 
Music Patterns program: 



20 DEFFNA(X)= 

20 
30 DEFFNB(X)= 
40 DEFFNC(X)= 
50 DEFFND(X)= 
60 DEFFNE(X)= 

1024 



dNT(110*RND(1))+ 

:IHT(14*RND(1))+1 
=INT(11*RND(1))+1 
=INT(25-RND(1))+1 
INT(959*RND(0))+ 



Run this program now; then, 
in the immediate mode, type 
the following. 

PRINT FN A(X) 

Run the cursor up and repeat 
this a few times. You'll see sev- 
eral numbers from 20-129, in- 
clusive. Thus a random state- 
ment must be defined only 
once, but it can then be exe- 



cuted using FN as many 
times and as late in the pro- 
gram as desired. 

Next, we dimension a one- 
dimensional array. 

70 DIlVl T(26) 

This sets aside 26 pigeon- 
holes which we now will fill, 

80 F0R1=1T026:READT(I):NEXT 

The data will appear later in 
the program, but we can en- 
ter it now, (As in the past, I 
know what the line numbers 
are since I've written the 
whole program. You don't nor- 
mally program this way.) 

430 DATA81, 95,1 05,127,1 60,170, 
171,174,185,192,205,206, 
209,214,215,219,221 

440 DATA223,226,230, 233,236, 
251,252,254,255 

What are these data? They're 
CHRS codes for some of the 
keyboard characters appropri- 
ate for the patterns. If you en- 
ter PRINT CHR$(81) (in imme- 
diate mode), you'll see what 
character the first data item 
would produce. (If you'd like 
to use other characters, feel 
free to change this data.) Af- 
ter the program is run, the ar- 
ray T(1) through T(26) will be 
filled with these CHRS codes. 
We're going to choose one of 
these characters randomly lat- 
er and then poke it to the 
screen in interesting patterns 
accompanied by randomly 
generated musical tones. 

Speaking of tones, let's set 
up SID in our usual way. 

90 F0RI=54272T054295:P0KE1,0: 
NEXT: P0KE54296,15: 
P0KE54277,16:POKES4275,8 

Generous use of constants 
{variables which don't vary) 
significantly speeds up the ex- 
ecution of a BASIC program. 
Let's define those which will 
be used the most. 



100 FR=54273:VC=54276:SC= 
1024:!VIN=1063:IVIO=1064:IVIA= 
1983: 
C0=4G:L0=39:LI=41 

110 VN=65:V0=64:C=54272 

By studying these constant val- 
ues, the experienced BASIC 
programmer can get clues 
about what's going on. 

FR and VC are obviously 
memory registers; they're too 
big to be pokeable numbers. 
They happen to be two SID 
registers — one to determine 
Voice 1's pitch (frequen- 
cy)and the other to turn 
Voice 1 on and off. 

SC, MN, MO, and MA are al- 
so too big to be pokeable; 
they are memory registers for 
screen locations. CO, LO, 
and LI are of pokeable size, 
but they also should remind 
you of screen width. Since 
the screen is 40 columns 
wide, these must be limits of 
some sort, (They are. We 
don't want characters poked 
offscreen') 

VN and VO are also pokea- 
ble values. You may recall 
that the square wave is 
turned on by poking a 65 and 
off by poking a 64. The most 
ambiguous constant is C, 
which could be a SID regis- 
ter, or it could be the number 
that's added to the screen 
memory location to add color 
to the poked characters. It 
happens to be the latter. 

Later, you'll see what all 
these constants do. Now, let's 
prepare the screen and pre- 
sent a short message. 

120 PRINTCHRS(147)CHRS(5): 
POKE53280,0: POKE532B1,0 

130 FORT=1TO10:PRINT:NEXT 

140 PR!NnAB(4)"PRESS SPACE 
BAR FOR NEW PAHERN" 

150 FORT=1TO10O0:NEXT 

160 PRINTCHR$(147) 



You should know what all 
these lines do. Next month 
we'll finish Music Patterns and 
our study of RND, D 

JANUARY 1992 COMPUTE G-23 



Sound and graphics 
can be 

enhanced by the 
judicious 
use of the RND 
statement. 



PROGRAMMER'S PAGE 



Randy Thompson 



Format disks In 

seconds, 

reveal secret 

messages 

In your 64, speed 

up your 

programs, and more. 



READER TIPS 

Here are more programming 
tips from our readers. 

Fast Format 

If you ever need to format a 
disk ttiat tias been formatted 
before, tiere's a quick way to 
get the job done. Wlien you is- 
sue tfie format command, 
don't include thie disk (D. For 
example, tfie usual way to for- 
mat a disk is to issue a com- 
mand sucti as the following. 

OPEN 15,8,15, "NO: 
DISKNAIV!E,ID":CLOSE 15 

To perform a fast format, you 
cfiange the syntax to look like 
the following. 

OPEN 15,8,15, "NO: 
DiSKNAME ":CLOSE 15 

If you decide to use this short- 
er command, the disk drive for- 
mats your floppy disk in 
about two seconds, and the 
disk ID remains the same. 

STEVE MILLER 
BAYVILLE, NJ 

Secret Messages 

Type in and run the following 
64 program to see a secret 
message and a listing of all of 
the BASIC commands and er- 
ror messages. 

10 FOR 1=40964 TO 4G974 

20 PRINT CHR$(PEEK(I)); 

30 NEXT 

40 PRINT 

50 FOR 1=4111810 41767 

60 PRINT CHR$(PEEK(I)); 

70 NEXT 

If you own a 1581 disk drive, 
try running this program for 
yet another hidden message. 

10 OPEN 1,8,15 
20PRINT#1,"(Vl-R"CHR$(50) 

CHRS(167) CHR$(45) 
30 FOR 1=1 TO 45 
40GET#1,A$:IVI1$=IVI1$+A$ 
50 NEXT 



60PRINT#1,"IVI-R"CHRS(96) 

CHR$(1B7)CHRS(2B) 
70 FOR 1=1 TO 26 
80GET#1,A$:IVI2$=IVI2S+A$ 
90 NEXT 
100 CLOSE 1 
110 PRINT IVI1$CHR$(13)IVI2$ 

HENNir^G VAHLENKAMP 
MATAWAN. NJ 

DIM for Faster Programs 

Believe it or not, you can ac- 
tually speed up your pro- 
grams by dimensioning nonar- 
ray variables. For example, 
type in and run the following 
program, 

10 TI$="0DOOOO" 

20 DIM A$(1000),B(1000), 

C%(1000) 
30 A=1:B=75:C$="0 LEE" 
40 PRINT TI/60;"SECONDS" 

Now enter the line 

15 DIM A,B,C$ 

and run the program again. 
Notice the difference? The pro- 
gram is noticeably faster withi 
line 15. 

In line 20, BASIC dimen- 
sions the variables A$(), B{), 
and C%() by allocating array 
tables in computer memory 
just above the program code. 
Nonarray variables are al- 
ways stored in memory be- 
tween the program code and 
BASIC'S array tables, so 
when BASIC encounters line 
30, it must take the time to 
move up Its array tables to 
make room for the three new 
variables A, B, and 0$. 

By adding line 15, you 
force BASIC to allocate 
space for A, B and C$ before 
the array tables are built. This 
saves the computer from hav- 
ing to move the array tables. 
In this simple example, you 
could simply switch lines 20 
and 30 to speed up the pro- 
gram, in a much larger pro- 
gram, however, you might 
find it easier to use DIM to en- 
sure the optimum order of var- 



iable definitions. 

DAVID LEE 
WAVERLY. TN 

How Much Is a Period 
Worth? 

How much is a period worth? 
Nothing, Or more accurately, 
0. Wherever you use the digit 
all by itself, you can replace 
it with a period. BASIC even in- 
terprets the period faster 
than it does the digit 0. In oth- 
er words, the program 

10 POKE 53281,.: POKE 
53281 ,1:G0TD ID 

executes faster than the follow- 
ing program. 

10 POKE 53281,0: POKE 
532B1,1:GOTO10 

RANDY THOMPSON 
EUGENE, OR 

Easy-Load Filenames 

Try this the next time you 
save a program to disk: Imme- 
diately after entering a file- 
name in a Save command (be- 
fore you enter the closing quo- 
tation mark), hold down the 
Shift key and press the 
space bar; hold down the 
Commodore key and type 
DUDE: hold down the Shift 
key and press @; and then 
type the terminating ",8 and 
press Return, When you list 
the disk directory, the comput- 
er shows the filename with a 
,8,1 extension. Now, all you 
have to do to load and run 
the program is move the cur- 
sor to the first column of the 
line containing the filename 
and press Shift-Run/Stop. 

STACY OLIVAS 
GRAHAM. WA 



Send your programming tips 
and tricks to Programmer's 
Page, COMPUTE's Gazette, 
324 West Wendover Avenue, 
Suite 200, Greensboro, North 
Carolina 27408. We pay $25- 
$50 for each tip or trick we 
use in the magazine. D 



G-24 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



PROGRAMS 



IMPROVED FRE 

By Louis Giglio 

Improved FRE is a small utility for ttie 
64 that provides a quick, useful free- 
memory function. Thie FRE command 
provided by the 64's BASIC interpreter 
is awkward to use, can be stow, and 
doesn't always provide the information 
you need. Unlike FRE, Improved FRE ac- 
curately reports free memory, program 
size, variable workspace size, array work- 
space size, string workspace size, and 
total RAM available for programs and 
data. In addition. Improved FRE 
doesn't force the potentially time-con- 
suming task of garbage collection. 

To understand these benefits, it is im- 
portant to understand how BASIC uses 
memory. A BASiC program is stored in 
memory starting at the bottom of the BA- 
SIC workspace. Directly above the pro- 
gram is a region of memory used to 
store variables created by the program. 
Just above this area is the section 
used to store array data. (These areas 
are created when the program is run, 
as variables are assigned and arrays 
are dimensioned.) 

BASIC keeps information about 
strings in the variable and array storage 
areas, but the actual string data is 
stored in the string workspace, which 
expands from the top of memory down- 
ward. This is because BASIC strings 
are dynamic objects that have no fixed 
size. The region above the array work- 
space and below the string workspace 
is free memory 

If a string variable such as A$ = "AP- 
PLE" is redefined as A$ = "ORANGE", 
the new string will be added to the 
string workspace. This will leave the old 
string inactive, but still resident in the 
computer's memory. 

The garbage collection process over- 
writes strings which are inactive with ac- 
tive strings, freeing up additional mem- 
ory. In programs where a lot of string 
manipulation has occurred, the proce- 
dure can be time consuming. 

In addition to forcing garbage collec- 
tion, FRE has other drawbacks. For in- 
stance, if the amount of free memory is 
greater than 32,768 bytes, FRE returns 
a negative number instead of the actu- 
al amount of free memory. Improved 
FRE does not suffer from either of 
these limitations. 



Typing It In 

Improved FRE is a machine language 
program in the form of a BASIC load- 
er. To avoid typing errors, type it in us- 
ing The Automatic Proofreader. See 
"Typing Aids" elsewhere in this sec- 
tion. Be sure to save a copy before you 
exit The Automatic Proofreader. 

Counting Bytes 

To use the program, load and run it. A 
message will indicate that the machine 
language program has been installed. 
Now, you may go ahead and enter or 
load other programs. 

Improved FRE commands are is- 
sued with the seldom-used USR func- 
tion. For example, X=USR(n), where n 
is any BASIC variable or expression hav- 
ing an integer value in the range from 
to 5, is a valid command, The value 
of n will determine the type of informa- 
tion returned by the USR function. The 
meanings of the values are listed in the 
table printed below. 

Function Return value (bytes) 
call 

USR(O) Free memory 

USR(1) Program size 

USR(2) Variable workspace size 

USR(3) Array workspace size 

USR(4) String workspace size 

USR(5) Total RAM available for 
program and variables 

As an example, to determine the size 
of your BASIC program, you could use 
the command PRINT USR(1). 

Keep in mind that even after perform- 
ing a NEW. USR(1) will report a pro- 
gram size of two bytes. This is be- 
cause a BASIC program is stored with 
two zero bytes attached to its end. 

Memory Conflicts 

The program resides in the 64's cas- 
sette buffer and modifies the USR vec- 
tor at 785 ($0311). Other programs 
that use these areas will probably not 
work with Improved FRE. 

IMPROVED FRE 

0eei:16 08 2A 00 3F 20 49 4D 3C 

0809:50 52 4F 56 45 44 20 46 E6 

0811:52 45 28 29 00 IF 08 14 D3 

0819:00 43 4B B2 30 00 32 08 7C 

0821:1E 00 81 20 49 B2 38 32 2A 

0829:38 20 A4 20 31 30 31 34 D4 



0331:00 


48 


08 


28 


00 


87 


20 


42 


77 


0839: 3A 


97 


20 


49 


20 


42 


3A 


43 


07 


0841;4B 


B2 


43 


4B 


AA 


42 


00 


4E 


6D 


0849:08 


32 


00 


82 


00 


7E 


08 


30 


58 


0851:00 


8B 


20 


43 


4B 


B3 


Bl 


32 


3B 


0359:34 


38 


30 


32 


20 


A7 


20 


99 


34 


0861:22 


45 


52 


52 


4F 


52 


20 


49 


90 


0869:4E 


20 


44 


41 


54 


41 


20 


53 


30 


0871:54 


41 


54 


45 


4D 


45 


4E 


54 


4B 


0879:53 


22 


3A 


90 


00 


93 


08 


46 


B0 


0881:00 


97 


20 


37 


38 


35 


20 


36 


14 


0889:30 


3A 


97 


20 


37 


38 


36 


20 


68 


0891:33 


00 


AF 


08 


50 


00 


99 


20 


87 


0899:22 


50 


52 


4F 


47 


52 


41 


4D 


61 


08Al:20 


49 


4E 


53 


54 


41 


40 


40 


9F 


08A9:45 


44 


22 


3A 


80 


00 


D4 


08 


0B 


08B1:5A 


00 


83 


20 


33 


32 


20 


31 


4D 


08B9:36 


31 


20 


31 


38 


33 


20 


32 


E2 


0801:32 


34 


20 


30 


20 


32 


30 


38 


43 


08C9:2C 


31 


39 


20 


31 


36 


35 


20 


IF 


08D1:35 


31 


00 


F8 


08 


64 


00 


83 


AD 


08D9;20 


31 


33 


33 


20 


32 


35 


31 


A5 


08E1:2C 


31 


36 


35 


20 


35 


32 


20 


35 


0BE9: 31 


33 


33 


20 


32 


35 


32 


20 


7F 


08F1:31 


36 


35 


20 


34 


39 


00 


10 


34 


08F9:09 


6E 


00 


83 


20 


31 


33 


33 


01 


0901:2C 


32 


35 


33 


20 


31 


36 


35 


57 


0909:2C 


35 


30 


20 


31 


33 


33 


20 


30 


0911:32 


35 


34 


20 


37 


36 


20 


31 


EE 


0919:39 


38 


00 


40 


09 


78 


00 


83 


87 


0921:20 


33 


2C 


32 


32 


34 


20 


31 


A4 


0929:2C 


32 


30 


38 


20 


31 


39 


20 


20 


0931:31 


36 


35 


20 


34 


35 


20 


31 


D2 


0939:33 


33 


20 


32 


35 


31 


00 


64 


2D 


0941:09 


82 


00 


83 


20 


31 


36 


35 


18 


0949:2C 


34 


36 


20 


31 


33 


33 


20 


F0 


0951:32 


35 


32 


20 


31 


36 


35 


20 


CB 


0959:34 


33 


20 


31 


33 


33 


20 


32 


DB 


0961:35 


33 


00 


88 


09 


80 


00 


83 


61 


0969:20 


31 


36 


35 


20 


34 


34 


20 


B8 


0971:31 


33 


33 


20 


32 


35 


34 


20 


0D 


0979:37 


36 


20 


31 


39 


38 


20 


33 


83 


0981:2C 


32 


32 


34 


20 


32 


00 


AB 


95 


0989:09 


96 


00 


83 


20 


32 


30 


38 


60 


0991:20 


31 


39 


20 


31 


36 


35 


20 


E8 


0999:34 


37 


20 


31 


33 


33 


20 


32 


ID 


09Al:35 


31 


20 


31 


36 


35 


20 


34 


46 


09A9:38 


00 


OF 


09 


A0 


00 


83 


20 


8E 


09B1:31 


33 


33 


20 


32 


35 


32 


20 


49 


09B9:31 


36 


35 


20 


34 


35 


20 


31 


5B 


0901:33 


33 


20 


32 


35 


33 


20 


31 


E2 


0909: 36 


35 


20 


34 


36 


00 


F3 


09 


AF 


09Ul:AA 


00 


83 


20 


31 


33 


33 


20 


94 


09D9:32 


35 


34 


20 


37 


36 


20 


31 


B7 


09E1:39 


38 


20 


33 


20 


32 


32 


34 


lA 


09E9:2C 


33 


20 


32 


30 


38 


20 


31 


73 


09F1:39 


00 


17 


0A 


B4 


00 


83 


20 


F0 


09F9:31 


36 


35 


20 


34 


39 


2C 


31 


AB 


0A01:33 


33 


20 


32 


35 


31 


20 


31 


10 


0A09:36 


35 


20 


35 


30 


20 


31 


33 


26 


0A11:33 


20 


32 


35 


32 


00 


3B 


0A 


75 


aA19:BE 


00 


83 


20 


31 


36 


35 


20 


F7 


0A21:34 


37 


20 


31 


33 


33 


20 


32 


A6 


0A29:35 


33 


20 


31 


36 


35 


20 


34 


50 


0A31:38 


20 


31 


33 


33 


20 


32 


35 


A9 


0A39:34 


00 


5E 


0A 


08 


00 


83 


20 


41 


0A41:37 


36 


20 


31 


39 


38 


20 


33 


4D 


0A49:2C 


32 


32 


34 


20 


34 


2C 


32 


46 


0A51:30 


38 


20 


31 


39 


20 


31 


36 


37 


0A59: 35 


20 


35 


35 


00 


82 


0A 


D2 


FD 



JANUARY 1992 COMPUTE 



G-25 



PROGRAMS 



0A61 


•00 


83 


20 


31 


33 


33 


2C 


32 


5E 


0A69 


35 


31 


2C 


31 


36 


35 


2C 


35 


11 


0A71 


36 


2C 


31 


33 


33 


2C 


32 


35 


E8 


aA79 


32 


2C 


31 


36 


35 


2C 


35 


31 


31 


0A81 


00 


A6 


0A 


DC 


00 


83 


20 


31 


CD 


BASg 


33 


33 


2C 


32 


35 


33 


2C 


31 


AC 


0A91 


36 


35 


2C 


35 


32 


2C 


31 


33 


BE 


0A99 


33 


2C 


32 


35 


34 


2C 


37 


36 


E2 


0AA1 


2C 


31 


39 


38 


00 


CB 


0A 


E6 


EC 


0AA9 


00 


83 


20 


33 


2C 


32 


32 


34 


98 


0AB1 


2C 


35 


2C 


20 


32 


30 


38 


2C 


9F 


0AB9 


34 


31 


2C 


31 


36 


35 


2C 


35 


E0 


BACl 


35 


2C 


31 


33 


33 


2C 


32 


35 


B8 


0AC9 


31 


00 


EF 


0A 


F0 


00 


83 


20 


C3 


0AD1 


31 


36 


35 


2C 


35 


36 


2C 


31 


81 


0AD9 


33 


33 


2C 


32 


35 


32 


2C 


31 


F8 


0AE1 


36 


35 


2C 


34 


33 


2C 


31 


33 


07 


0AE9 


33 


2C 


32 


35 


33 


00 


13 


0B 


07 


0AF1 


FA 


00 


83 


20 


31 


36 


35 


2C 


EE 


0AF9 


34 


34 


2C 


31 


33 


33 


2C 


32 


BE 


0B0I 


35 


34 


2C 


33 


32 


2C 


32 


32 


50 


0B09 


38 


2C 


33 


2C 


31 


36 


35 


2C 


68 


0B11 


34 


00 


38 


0B 


04 


01 


83 


20 


44 


0B19 


31 


36 


34 


2C 


33 


2C 


33 


32 


81 


0B21 


2C 


31 


34 


35 


2C 


31 


37 


39 


41 


0B29 


2C 


33 


32 


2C 


34 


33 


2C 


31 


23 


0831 


38 


38 


2C 


32 


30 


31 


00 


5D 


BD 


0B39 


0B 


0E 


01 


83 


20 


32 


35 


35 


lA 


0B41 


2C 


32 


30 


38 


2C 


37 


2C 


31 


4B 


0B49 


36 


39 


2C 


32 


34 


32 


2C 


31 


65 


0B51 


36 


30 


2C 


33 


2C 


33 


32 


2C 


06 


0B59 


31 


30 


33 


00 


30 


0B 


18 


01 


DB 


3861 


83 


20 


31 


38 


34 


2C 


39 


36 


E5 


0B69; 


2C 


31 


36 


32 


2C 


31 


34 


2C 


86 


0B71 


31 


30 


38 


2C 


30 


2C 


33 


2C 


BA 


0B79- 


35 


36 


2C 


31 


36 


35 


00 


A4 


7B 


0681 


0B 


22 


01 


83 


20 


32 


35 


31 


63 


0B89 


2C 


32 


32 


39 


2C 


32 


35 


33 


E3 


0B91 


2C 


31 


33 


33 


2C 


33 


2C 


31 


5B 


0B99: 


36 


35 


2C 


32 


35 


32 


2C 


32 


BD 


0BA1 


32 


39 


00 


C7 


0B 


2C 


01 


83 


2A 


0BA9: 


20 


32 


35 


34 


2C 


31 


33 


33 


06 


0BB1: 


2C 


34 


2C 


39 


36 


2C 


31 


34 


FC 


0BB9: 


34 


2C 


31 


32 


37 


2C 


32 


35 


42 


0BC1. 


35 


2C 


30 


2C 


30 


00 


00 


00 


C7 



Louis Giglio is a 64 programmer who 
lives in Odenton, IVIaryland. D 



' MULTI-SCREEN 64 



By Bryan Flick 

We've all seen those programs that use 
raster interrupts to put text and bitmap 
graphics onscreen at the same time or 
let you have 16 instead of the normal 8 
sprites. But they've always restricted 
where you could put the text or sprites, 

Wouldn't it be great if we could print 
text anywhere on the screen with a 
bitmap backdrop to add some other ef- 
fects? Wouldn't it be nice to line up 16 
sprites in a row for large moving titles? 
Multi-Screen 64 allows you to do just 
this and more. 

Multi-Screen does this by using two 

G-26 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



shadow registers. These shadow reg- 
isters are each 47 bytes long and are 
arranged exactly like the VIC chip, 

Now, suppose you want text and a 
bitmap screen on at the same time. You 
would first turn on one set of registers 
to the text screen and the second set 
to the bitmap screen. Both appear on 
the screen simultaneously! Not really, 
but it appears that way. Every Veo sec- 
ond, one set of shadow registers is cop- 
ied into the VIC chip. During the next 
Veo second, the other set of shadow reg- 
isters is copied in. This happens so 
fast that they appear to be onscreen at 
the same time. 

Typing it In 

Multi-Screen 64 is written entirely in ma- 
chine language. To enter this short pro- 
gram without errors, use MIX. our ma- 
chine language editor, to type it in. See 
"Typing Aids" elsewhere in this sec- 
tion. When MLX prompts, respond 
with the following values. 

Starting address: COOO 
Ending address: C067 

When you've finished typing, be sure 
to save a copy of the program before 
exiting MLX. 

Turn your computer off and on, or 
press your reset button, before loading 
Multi-Screen 64. Load it with the ,8,1 ex- 
tension. When you get a READY 
prompt, type NEW. This won't erase Mul- 
ti-Screen; it'll just fix some pointers 
used by BASIC. Now type SYS 49152 
to enable Multi-Screen. 

How to Use 

Your 64 or 128 in 64 mode is now set 
up so you can easily take advantage of 
these extra features in your own pro- 
grams. To make it easier to use these 
features, the first line of your program 
should always be the following. 

10 VI =531 53: VZ=53Z()1 

VI is the variable that points to the 
first set of shadow registers. V2 points 
to the second set. The Multi-Screen 
shadow registers work exactly like the 
VIC chip, but you must poke different 
memory values. Use the Offset Table 
printed here for help regarding these lo- 
cations in the shadow registers. 



A Border Shuffle 

Now let's write a simple demonstration. 
Suppose you want a black border. Ac- 
cording to the table, the offset to 
change the border color is 32. This 
means that you must poke the figure at 
the start of the shadow registers plus 
32. 

To get a black border (color 0), 
type POKE V1+32,0. The border will 
change colors, but it won't be black. 
This is because you didn't change the 
second set of shadow registers. Multi- 
Screen is now flipping between a 
black border and the usual light blue 
border 60 times a second. This hap- 
pens so fast that the two colors appear 
to blend together, making one unique 
color. While most color combinations 
flicker too much to be useful, a couple 
(such as black and dark gray, and red 
and purple) are quite stable. To make 
the border black, you must also 
change the second set of shadow reg- 
isters. Do this by typing POKE 
V2-h33,0. The border is now black. 

Text and Graphics 

For our second demonstration, we'll 
mix text and hi-res graphics. Accord- 
ing to the 64 Programmer's Reference 
Guide, the following fines will turn the 
bitmap screen on at memory location 
8192. POKE 53265, PEEK(53265) OR 
32 enables hi-res mode, and POKE 
53272, PEEK(53272) OR 8 puts hi-res 
at 8192. 

To find out where to poke our regis- 
ters, subtract each number after 
POKE and PEEK by 53248. Doing this 
gives us 17 for the first POKE (53265- 
53248=17) and 24 for the second 
(53272-53248=24). This means that 17 
is the register to poke to enable the hi- 
res screen and register 24 puts the 
bitmap screen at 8192. The table veri- 
fies this. So to enable hi-res mode at 
that location, type the following. 

POKE V1+17,PEEK(V1+17) OR 32 
POKE V1+24,PEEK(V1+24) OR 8 

Now a bitmap and text screen are on 
simultaneously. You can type as you 
would with the normal screen editor, 
and you can perform hi-res functions 
as you would normally, For instance, to 
clear the hi-res screen, type FOR 
1=8192 TO 16191:POKE l,0:NFXT If 



you have trouble seeing your cursor 
and text, type PRINT CHRS(5) to set 
the text color to white. Note that all char- 
acters have different background col- 
ors. This is because the hi-res screen 
is getting its color data from the text 
screen. You can change this with the fol- 
lowing two lines. 

POKE V1+24,(PEEK(V1+Z4) AND 15) OR 48 
FOR 1=3072 TO 4071:POKE l,16:NEXT 

Now the bitmap is getting its coior da- 
ta from location 3072. This completes 
the effect of the two screens being on 
simultaneously. To see a design on the 
hi-res screen, enter lines 50-130 from 
page 126 of the Programmer's Refer- 
ence Guide. 

You'll notice that this interesting back- 
drop won't be erased by pressing the 
CIr/Home key. Try typing something or 
listing the program. You'll notice that 
the backdrop does not move. It be- 
comes apparent that you can do 
some effects that would be impossible 
without Multi-Screen. You can even 
have a multicolored bitmap screen on 
with a regular text screen. POKE 
53270, PEEK (53270) OR 16 turns on 
multicolor mode. Again, subtract the 
number after POKE and PEEK by 
53248, to get 22, Now, POKE 
V1-h22,PEEK(V1+22) OR 16 makes the 
hi-res screen turn to multicolored hi- 
res. These examples show how power- 
ful Multi-Screen is. For more features 
and programming tips, see the demon- 
stration programs. 

Different Banks 

You can also switch to different video 
banks. The VIC-II chip can only access 
16K at a time, so if you have a hi-res 
screen that's not in the current bank, 
you must switch banks. Do this with 
the following line, 

POKE V1-1,(PEEK(VM) AND 252) 
OR X, where x is a number from to 3 
which changes banks according to the 
following table. 

X Bank VIC Chip Range 

3 00000- 163B3 

2 1 16384-32767 

1 2 32768-49151 

3 49152-65536 

So if you have a bitmap screen at loca- 



tion 40960, you'd type POKE VI- 
1,(PEEK(V1-1) AND 252) OR 2 to 
switch to video bank 1, since 40960 
lies between 32788 and 49151. The 
ViC chip is usually in bank 0. If you 
would like to change the bank for the 
second set of shadow registers (the 
above sets the first set of registers), sub- 
stitute V2 for VI. 

Demonstration Programs 

Included are three programs to type in 
and examine. These demonstrations 
are written entirely in BASIC. To avoid 
typing errors, enter them with The Au- 
tomatic Proofreader. See "Typing 
Aids." 

Demo 1 mixes hi-res and text graph- 
ics, Demo 2 puts 16 sprites onscreen, 
and Demo 3 shows how two colors 
can be mixed to form unique combina- 
tions. Press 1 in the final demo to step 
through the choices for the first color, 
and 2 for the second color. Press Q to 
quit. 

I recommend that you examine 
these three programs to pick up sever- 
al programming tricks. They are fairly 
short and easy to understand. 

How It Works 

As I said before, Multi-Screen 64 
works by flipping between two sepa- 
rate screens. It does this 60 times a sec- 
ond using an IRQ (interrupt). A variable 
is used to determine which screen is 
currently being displayed; then it flip- 
flops. Then a new set of shadow regis- 
ters is copied in. All this happens be- 
fore you can blink. Since it happens so 
quickly, your eye retains both images. 

Offset Table 

- Sprite X Coordinate 

1 - Sprite Y Coordinate 

2 - Sprite 1 X Coordinate 

3 - Sprite 1 Y Coordinate 

4 - Sprite 2 X Coordinate 

5 - Sprite 2 Y Coordinate 

6 - Sprite 3 X Coordinate 

7 - Sprite 3 Y Coordinate 

8 - Sprite 4 X Coordinate 

9 - Sprite 4 Y Coordinate 

10 - Sprite 5 X Coordinate 

11 - Sprite 5 Y Coordinate 

12 - Sprite 6 X Coordinate 
13 -Sprite 6 Y Coordinate 
14 -Sprite 7 X Coordinate 
15 - Sprite 7 Y Coordinate 



16 - Sprites 0-7 X Most Significant Bit 

17 - Control Register 1 

18 - Not Available 

19 - Not Available 

20 - Not Available 

21 - Sprite Enable 

22 - Control Register 2 

23 - Sprites 0-7 Y Expansion 

24 - Memory Control 

25 - Not Available 

26 - Not Available 

27 - Sprite Background Priority 

28 - Sprites 0-7 MCM 

29 - Sprites 0-7 X Expansion 

30 - Not Available 

31 - Not Available 

32 - Border Color 

33 - Background Color 

34 - Background Color 1 

35 - Background Color 2 

36 - Background Color 3 

37 - Sprite Multicolor Register 

38 - Sprite Multicolor Register 1 

39 - Sprite Color 

40 - Sprite 1 Color 

41 - Sprite 2 Color 

42 - Sprite 3 Color 

43 - Sprite 4 Color 

44 - Sprite 5 Color 

45 - Sprite 6 Color 

46 - Sprite 7 Color 



MULTI-bC 

c000;ad 


KEE 

00 


N b 

DD 


4 

8D 


A0 


CF 


8D 


00 ID 


C008:CF 


A2 


2E 


BD 


00 


D0 


9D 


Al DB 


Cai0:CF 


9D 


Dl 


CF 


CA 


10 


F4 


A9 42 


C018:00 


8D 


60 


C0 


78 


A9 


29 


8D 5F 


C020:14 


03 


A9 


C0 


8D 


15 


03 


58 CO 


C028:60 


AD 


60 


00 


D0 


19 


AD 


A0 44 


C030:CF 


8D 


00 


DD 


A2 


2E 


BD 


Al C5 


C038:CF 


9D 


00 


D0 


CA 


10 


F7 


A9 46 


0040:01 


8D 


60 


C0 


4C 


31 


EA 


AD 68 


C048:D0 


CF 


8D 


00 


DD 


A2 


2E 


BD 6B 


C050:D1 


OF 


9D 


00 


D0 


CA 


10 


F7 2C 


C058:A9 


00 


8D 


60 


C0 


4C 


31 


EA EA 


C060:00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 El 


DEMO 1 
















FQ 5 COPYRIGHT 1992 


- COMPUTE 


(SPACE)PUBLICATIONS 


INTL 


(SPACE}LTD 


- ALL 


RIGHTS R 


ESERVED 












PP 10 SYS 


49152 










BJ 20 V1=53153:V2=53201 




MG 30 POKE 
fi 


Vl + 32 


0: 


=OKE Vl + 33, 


RA 40 P( 

e 

QA 50 PC 


3KE 


V2 + 32 


0:POKE V2+3 3, 


3KE 


Vl+17 


PEEK(V1+ 


L7) 


R 


32 














EA 60 POKE 


Vl + 24 


PEEK(V1+ 


24) 


B 


8 















JANUARY 1992 COMPUTE G-27 



PROGRAMS 



FS 70 



QX 80 



AB 93 



GK 


lea 


SK 


110 


PS 


120 


FB 


130 


SX 


140 


KM 


150 


JP 


160 


SO 


170 


SJ 


180 


KG 


190 


CA 


192 


DH 


195 


MR 


200 


PS 


210 


CD 


220 



POKE Vl+24, (PEEK(Vl+24) 

{SPACE)AND 15) OR 48 

FOR 1=3072 TO 4071: POKE 

{SPACE)I,48:NEXT 

FOR 1=8192 TO 16191:POKE 

1,0: NEXT 

FOR X=0 TO 319 STEP .5 

Y=INT(90+80*SINtX/10)) 

CH%=X/8:RO%=Y/8 

LN=Y AND 7 

BY=8192+RO%*320+CH%*8+L 

U 

BI=7~{X AND 7) 

POKE BY, PEEK (BY) OR 2|B 

NEXT 

PRINT CHR$(147) ; 

FOR 1=0 TO 100:C=I AND 

(SPACE} 31 

POKE 646, C 

IF C>=16 THEN PRINT CHR 

S(18); 

PRINT "THIS IS LINE #"; 

I 

NEXT 

END 



DEMO 2 

PQ 5 COPYRIGHT 1992 - COMPUTE 
{SPACE} PUBLICATIONS INTL 
{SPACEJLTD - ALL RIGHTS R 
ESERVED 
PP 10 SYS 49152 
BJ 20 V1=53153:V2=53201 
JK 30 FOR 1=832 TO 894:POKE I, 

255:NEXT 
BG 40 POKE Vl+32,fl:POKE Vl+33, 


JB 50 POKE V2+32,0:POKE V2+33, 


QD 55 POKE Vl+21,255 
PC 56 POKE V2+21,255 
JH 60 FOR 1=0 TO 7: POKE 2040+1 

,13 
HP 70 POKE Vl+39+I,I+2:POKE V2 

+39+1,1+2 
AK 80 NEXT 
GG 90 POKE V1+29,0:POKE V2+29, 


HO 95 POKE V1+23,0:POKE V2+23, 


HH 100 POKE V1+28,0:POKE V2+28 

,0 
EM 110 FOR 1=0 TO 15:X=24+I*20 

:Y=123 
AK 120 GOSUB 1000 
SK 130 NEXT 

CM 149 PRINT CHR$(5) ;CHRS(147) 
;TAB{8);"Y0U NOW HAVE 1 
6 SPRITES," 
GD 150 PRINT TAB(10) ;"ON-SCREE 

N, AT ONCE! !" 
MX 160 END 
HS 1000 A=0:J=1:1F J>=8 THEN A 

= 48 
DK 1010 J=J AND 7 
AJ 1020 POKE V1+A+J*2,X AND 25 

5 
HA 1030 B=PEEK(V1+A+16) :C=2|J 
FS 1040 IF X>=256 THEN 1060 

G-28 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



CF 1050 POKE V1+A+16,B AND (25 

5-C) :GOTO 1070 
DM 1060 POKE V1+A+16,B OK C 
RR 1070 POKE Vl+A+J*2+1,Y 
XF 1080 RETURN 

DEMOS 



FQ 



PP 
BJ 
PJ 
MK 
HP 

JB 
HR 
RX 
XJ 



5 COPYRIGHT 1992 - COMPUTE 
{SPACE}PUBLICATIONS INTL 
(SPACE} LTD - ALL RIGHTS R 
ESERVED 

10 SYS 49152 

20 V1=53153:V2=53201 

30 C1=0 

40 C2=0 

100 PRINT CHR${5) ;CHR$(147) 



110 PRIST "1ST C0L0R=";C1 ■ 
120 PRINT "2ND C0L0R=";C2 

122 PRINT 

123 PRINT "PRESS 1 TO INCRE 
MENT 1ST COLOR" 

XA 124 PRINT "PRESS 2 TO INCRE 

MENT 2ND COLOR" 
EP 125 PRINT "PRESS Q TO QUIT" 
ES 130 POKE V1+32,C1:P0KE Vl+3 

3, CI 
XE 140 POKE V2+32,C2:P0KE V2+3 

3,C2 
QB 150 GET A$ 
JF 160 IF A$="l" THEN Cl'Cl+1 

(SPACE}AND 15:G0T0 100 
SK 170 IF AS="2" THEN C2=C2+1 

{SPACE}RND 15:G0T0 100 
RO 175 IF AS="Q" THEN END 
XX 180 GOTO 150 



Bryan Flick lives in Stroudsburg. Penn- 
sylvania. 



PADLOCK 



By Albert and Emil Heyrovsky 

If you have programs that you would like 
to keep private, then Padlock for the 64 
is just the utility for you. This utility en- 
codes programs with a given code 
word. If someone doesn't know that 
word, the program is impossible to run. 
You gain access to the file on/y after enter- 
ing the correct word. There is no other 
way to unlock the coded information, so 
you'd better remember the password. 

Typing It In 

Padlock is written entirely in machine 
language, but it loads and runs like a 
BASIC program. Use MLX, our ma- 
chine language entry program, to type 
it in. When MLX prompts, respond 
with thie following values. 

Starting address: 0801 
Ending address: OEOO 



After you've entered the program, re- 
member to save a copy before exiting 
MLX. 

Locking Your Files 

When you run Padlock, you'll see sev- 
eral prompts. 

Source: This is the name of the file 
you wish to encode, fvlake a note of its 
name before you run Padlock, since 
the program has no privisions for read- 
ing a directory. 

Destination: This is the new name for 
the encoded version. For maximum se- 
curity, be sure to delete the unencod- 
ed version of your file after you make 
the coded copy, 

SYS $: This is the SYS address in 
hexadecimal notation with which to run 
your program. If your program is in BA- 
SIC or if it is a machine language pro- 
gram that runs from BASIC, enter 
A496. Other common SYS addresses in- 
clude 49152 ($0000), 828 ($33C), 
32768 ($8000), and 24576 (36000). 

$0001: Enter the value at address 
$0001 . This value will be 37 in hex un- 
less you have reconfigured the comput- 
er's memory locations. 

Code Word: This is your secret 
word (up to 20 characters in length) 
that is needed to activate the encoded 
version of your program. You are strong- 
ly advised to write down the password 
or keep an unencoded version of your 
file hidden safely away as a backup. If 
you forget the password, the file is in- 
accessible. If you enter the wrong pass- 
word, the data will be incorrectly decod- 
ed. If you make a mistake, you'll have 
to reload the file in order to type in the 
correct word. 

Padlock and your source program 
don't have to be on the same disk. 
When you run Padlock, you'll be prompt- 
ed to insert source and destination 
disks. Press Return at the prompts. 
Load the encoded file as you would 
any BASIC program. You'll be asked 
for a password when you run it. 

How It Works 

The encoding system employed in Pad- 
lock uses the code word that you sup- 
ply to perform an exclusive OR (EOR) 
function on a byte-by-byte basis with 
the data in the program. It also per- 
forms another EOR function with the 
sum of the ASCII values of the code 



word. This sum is increased with eve- 
ry new byte to take the encoding proc- 
ess even further. When decoding, the 
EOR process works identically, but 
this time in reverse. Commercial and 
military encrypting machines use vari- 
ations of this logical procedure to en- 
code and decode messages when se- 
curity is required. 



PADLOCK 



QB01 

0809 

0811 

0819 

0821 

0829 

0831 

0839 

0841 

0849: 

0851: 

0859: 

0861: 

0869: 

0871: 

0879: 

0881: 

0889! 

0891; 

0899; 

08R1; 

08A9; 

08B1' 

08B9: 

08C1 

08C9 

08D1 

08D9 

ssei 

08E9 
08F1 
08F9 
0901 
0909 
0911 
0919 
0921 
0929 
0931 
0939 
0941 
0949 
0951 
0959 
0961 
0969 
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0981 
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0999 
09A1 
09A9 
09B1 
09B9 



9B 08 
31 00 
A2 00 
86 9D 
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00 CB 
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27 0A 
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08 C8 
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8E 20 
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40 2E 
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00 60 
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85 01 
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:A5 FC 
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67 01 
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; 00 00 



C7 07 

00 00 
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19 03 
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BD 54 
17 D0 

20 16 

01 B9 
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03 20 
91 F3 
08 C9 

04 C9 
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01 01 
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9E 32 
A9 36 

D0 BE 
8D 18 
BD DF 
F7 EE 
2A 08 

08 9D 
F5 A0 
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6B 08 
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16 E7 
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20 B0 
60 20 
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Bl FB 
4 5 FE 
09 00 
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00 01 
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33 A5 
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00 8 5 
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30 36 56 

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09 9D 84 
27 08 28 
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03 B9 DF 
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99 0D FE 
09 99 60 
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86 FD 9C 
A9 CI 35 
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16 E7 9A 
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C9 14 AA 
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A4 D3 E3 
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D0 06 45 
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88 10 37 
09 85 F3 

00 35 lA 
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08 C9 12 
08 E9 02 
08 E9 55 
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08 8D 48 

01 A9 8A 
01 4C 96 
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BA A9 33 
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01 4C EF 
E6 FC AC 



20 
CI 



09C1: 

0909: 

09D1: 

09D9: 

09E1: 

09E9: 

09F1: 

09F9: 

0A01: 

0A09: 

0A11: 

0A19: 

0A21: 

0A2 9: 

0A31: 

0A39: 

0A41: 

0A49; 

0A51: 

0A59: 

0A61: 

0A69: 

0A71: 

0A79: 

0A81: 

0Aa9: 

0A91: 

0A99: 

0AA1: 

0AA9: 

0AB1: 

0AB9: 

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0B11: 

0B19: 

0B21: 

0B29: 

0B31; 

0B39; 

0B41; 

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0B51; 

0B59; 

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0B79 

0B81 

0B89 

0B91 

0B99 

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0BC9 

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0BE1 

0BE9 



38 B0 B7 
FB 85 FB 
8 5 FC 18 
FB A5 FC 
A9 00 E5 
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00 85 2D 
2E 60 A2 
16 E7 CA 
3A 44 52 
4F 03 00 
53 59 D3 
55 43 45 
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47 4E 49 
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D3 A9 03 
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38 
AD 

A5 FB 
69 09 
2D 85 
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AD 13 
19 01 
69 
85 
2D 
A5 



A5 2E 69 
10 BD CD 
10 F7 60 
4F 57 



0D 
20 
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0D 05 



20 

0D 4D 
59 54 



93 

2E 



44 



86 
0A 



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14 



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85 

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20 



18 
97 



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20 



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CD A6 FB 

CE 9D EF 

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EF CD A5 

20 F9 FD 

00 FE 20 

BE CD 4C 

A9 00 A2 

F4 90 06 



29 
0A 
60 
03 



01 E5 38 
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45 44 94 
45 54 0B 
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05 08 F6 
2E 2E 64 
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02 BD 23 
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02 B5 85 
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03 A9 03 
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CC 85 32 
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0A 85 SD 
20 62 64 
40 5D E9 
BD 4C 75 
CF CA 6B 
42 Fl A7 
FB A2 Fl 
fi2 38 91 
4A F3 3D 
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DE ft0 35 
20 BE 4B 



0BF1:CD 

0BF9:A9 

0C01:D0 

0C09:Bl 

0C11:97 

0019 

0O21:4F 

0C29:CA 

0C31:20 

0C39:A6 

0C41:9D 

0C49:A2 



4C 9D OE 
09 85 FB 
02 C6 AF 
FA SD 8F 
91 FA A5 
09 A5 FB C5 
CD E6 FA 
D0 DD F0 
42 Fl F0 
FC BD Al 
EF CF CA 
F0 A0 CF 



A9 DG 

A0 00 
C6 AE 
06 45 
FA C5 
AF D0 
D0 02 
D9 20 
FB 20 
05 20 
D0 F4 
20 F9 



85 FA 71 
A6 AE 98 
A6 FF 14 
97 E6 B8 
AE D0 30 
03 4C 0E 
E6 FB 39 
29 CE 16 
EF CD 45 
A8 CE 7E 
A5 FC 6D 
FD A2 87 



Albert and Emil Heyrovsky live in 
Prague, Czechoslovakia. □ 

TRIBLOX 

By Mark Neri 

TriBlox is a highly addictive game of fall- 
ing blocks for the 64. In this arcade- 
style game, you must rotate and posi- 
tion groups of blocks to get three blocks 
of the same color in a row. 

Entering the Program 

TriBlox is written entirely in machine lan- 
guage, but it can be loaded and run 
like a BASIC program. To type in the pro- 
gram, use MLX, our machine language 
entry program. See "Typing Aids" else- 
where in this section. When MLX asks 
for the starting and ending addresses, re- 
spond with the following values. 

Starting address: 0801 
Ending address: 0E80 

When you are finished typing, be sure 
to save a copy of the program before 
exiting MLX. 

Playing the Game 

After you load and run TriBlox, you'll 
see a bin in the center of your moni- 
tor's screen. This is the area where the 
game is played. To the left of the 
screen is your score and the level-se- 
lection meter. 

To begin a game, move the joystick 
left Of right to select which level you 
want to play A black needle on the yel- 
low meter indicates which level is cur- 
rently selected. When the needle is po- 
sitioned toward the left, the game plays 
slower. As you move it to the right, 
game speed increases. Once you 
have selected a level, press the joys- 
tick button to begin play. 

When the game begins, groups of 
three blocks, stacked vertically, will 

JANUARY 1992 COMPUTE G-29 



PROGRAMS 



drop from the top of the screen. Each 


08F9:20 34 03 D0 E6 A9 00 85 F7 


block in 


the 


group 


has its 


own color. 


0901:A7 A4 FB F0 0C 06 PA 2A 37 


Pressing 


the 


joystick button will rotate 


0909:26 A7 C6 FB CA D0 F2 AS D8 
0911:60 48 Bl FE 85 FA A9 08 FE 


the colors in a group of blocks. 


Moving 


0919:85 FB 63 A4 FE D0 02 06 4A 


the joystick left 


or 


right wi 


1 move 


the 


0921:FF C6 FE C0 E7 D0 DE A4 B5 


blocks from side to 


side. P 


jllinq down 


0929:FF C0 07 D0 D3 A9 37 85 BA 


on the joystick will cause the blocks to 


0931:01 58 4C 0D 08 A4 A8 F0 49 


fall more 


quickly. 












0939:22 A5 F7 38 E5 A8 B0 03 7E 
0941;C6 F8 38 85 F7 A5 FC E5 8A 


A group of blocks will stop 


fal 


ing 


0949 :A8 B0 02 C6 FD 85 FC Bl 3A 


when it encounters either the bottom of 


0951:F7 88 91 FC 98 D0 F8 C4 42 


the bin or another block. The object of 


0959;A9 F0 0A Bl F7 06 FD C6 76 


the game is to 


aet tr- 


ree 


match 


ino 


0961:F8 C6 A9 10 EC 60 78 E6 98 


blocks in a row, either vertically, horizon~^ 


0969:01 4C 16 03 60 00 0B 08 73 
0971:C7 07 9E 32 30 36 31 00 DC 


tally, or " 


aiagonaiiy 


. wnen 


yo 


u align 


0979:00 00 20 F3 0A E9 41 A2 EB 


three blocks of the 


same color, those 


0931:1B 95 01 CA D0 FB C0 17 62 


blocks will disappear, and the blocks 


0939:16 85 15 20 76 5A 47 5E B6 


above them 


will 


drop down 








0991:08 2A 80 02 A9 08 33 85 3D 


You are awarded point 


s for Bach 


0999:68 58 21 Al 0E 67 48 AS 7B 


block that you eliminate. 


The number of 


09A1:05 A9 06 20 5F 09 BB 60 5A 
09A9:85 86 42 24 74 61 A3 38 53 


points depends 


on 


the 


difficulty level 


09B1:80 04 09 39 07 85 AS 76 CF 


that you 


have selected 


. Paste 


■ levels 


09B9:08 35 0A 4C 0A 0A 9A 26 0B 


earn more points per 


block. 


As 


you 


09C1:02 0A A8 32 6A 8B 81 08 19 


play the game for a while, your skill at 
neuvering the blocks will increase. 


ma- 
The 


09C9:06 07 26 CC 07 03 18 65 0C 
09D1:07 18 69 10 85 El ID 03 91 
09D9:69 64 08 A5 0A F0 BE A5 EA 


computer takes note of this. After 


you 


09E1:38 45 03 0C C0 09 83 44 F7 


eliminate a certain num 


-ber of blocks. 


09E9:09 34 7B A0 00 54 05 A0 03 


your leve 


increases. 


and the blocks fall 


09F1:28 D0 IS A5 06 90 04 07 CA 


faster. When the blocks stack uo to the 


09F9:20 BF 0A E4 6C 70 C0 F0 33 


top of th 


e b 


in, 


the 


game 


s over 


To 


0A01:05 C6 16 4C 04 09 00 57 6C 
0A09:8D 00 lA 69 44 27 lA 91 42 


play again, press the joystick button. 


0A11:4F ID 91 77 ID 91 C6 IC 96 




















0A19:91 08 79 56 IC AS 16 A9 D9 


TRiBLOX 


















0A21:20 A0 29 0A 5E 12 A0 51 01 
0A29:D0 IS 14 A4 79 Dl 07 D0 A9 


S801:0B 


08 


70 


17 


9E 


32 


34 


30 


6E 


0A31:06 E6 03 C0 89 16 61 10 B5 


IJ8G9:37 


00 


00 


00 


20 


20 


20 


20 


96 


0A39:02 D0 48 03 30 0F A4 2E 73 


0811:20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


A0 


C4 


B9 


06 


0A41:C9 00 D0 6E 17 F0 17 A5 SB 


0819:3C 


08 


99 


F8 


00 


B9 


FD 


08 


F6 


0A49:04 A6 05 a4 06 85 05 86 CA 


0821:99 


33 


03 


83 


D0 


Fl 


A0 


09 


4C 


0A51:06 84 C0 39 18 68 17 4C 12 


0S29;B9 


0C 


08 


99 


FF 


03 


88 


D0 


Al 


0A59:2F 99 01 85 17 A0 78 Bl CI 


0831 :F7 


A9 


BE 


85 


2D 


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13 


85 


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0839;2E 


4C 


00 


01 


07 


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05 


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36 


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65 


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94 


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61 


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38 


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32 


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20 


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70 


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00 


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19 


48 


38 


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80 


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12 


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68 


29 


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69 


30 


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99 


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36 


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09 


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83 


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17 


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10 


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60 


F4 


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89 


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88 


96 


0D09: 


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13 


92 


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03 


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12 


05 


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3D 


C6 


E3 


29 


0D19: 


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25 


8F 


F7 


72 


E6 


02 


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34 


3A 


00 


30 


30 


BA 


C0 


CS 


96 


0D29: 


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2A 


15 


8F 


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12 


72 


43 


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90 


3C 


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91 


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G-30 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



0D59: 


28 


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55 


43 


72 


49 


92 


33 


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93 


23 


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81 


42 


9C 


93 


24 


FF 


0D81: 


43 


43 


43 


BF 


93 


24 


0F 


A9 


67 


0D89: 


82 


a9 


38 


39 


Fl 


28 


01 


88 


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39 


02 


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69 


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43 


73 


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50 


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11 


8F 


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90 


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07 


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02 


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0E79 


100 


39 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


E3 



Mark Neri, the author of Castalia (May 
1991), lives in Longwood, Florida. □ 



SYNTHESIZER 



By Todd Piltingsrud 
Synthesizer was designed for those 
who simply enjoy experimenting with 
the 64's sophisticated SID chip. Since 
Synf/ies/zer displays the SID chip as it 
appears to the computer, the serious us- 
er can also use the program to design 
complex sound effects for use in other 
programs. 

Synthesizer is a full-function SID 
chip editor that is operated with a mock- 
up of a real keyboard, which is com- 
posed of the upper two rows of the 64's 
keyboard. This keyboard appears at the 
top of your screen when the program is 
run. A joystick in port 2 controls the 
movement of the cursor. 

Entering the Program 

Synthesizer is a two-part program. The 
main part is written In BASIC. To help 



avoid typing errors, enter it with The Au- 
tomatic Proofreader. See "Typing 
Aids" elsewhere in this section. Be 
sure to save a copy of the program be- 
fore exiting Proofreader 

The second part of Synthesizer is a 
machine language routine. To enter it, 
use MLX, our machine language entry 
program. See "Typing Aids" again. 
When MLX prompts, respond with the 
following values. 

Starting address: COOO 
Ending address: C6C7 

Be sure to save this program with the 
name SYNTH ML before exiting MLX. 
The main program automatically loads 
this file, and it looks for that name. 

Making Sounds 

To edit the settings, use the joystick to 
move the musical note sprite to the de- 
sired setting on the screen; then press 
and hold the fire button. Move the joys- 
tick up or down to change the setting. 

Modes 

Synthesizer \^aB four keyboard modes: 
Polyphonic, Solo, Bi-Voice, and Tri- 
Voice. To select a keyboard mode, sim- 
ply press the space bar. The first key- 
board mode, Poty, uses all three voic- 
es played in succession to make 
chords. This keyboard mode can be 
used to mimic instruments that can 
play more than one note at a time, 
such as the piano or organ. 

The second keyboard mode, Solo, 
uses only Voice 1 and can be used to 
simulate instruments that can play on- 
ly one note at a time, such as the flute 
or trumpet. 

The third mode, Bi-Voice, combines 
Voices 1 and 2 and slightly offsets the 
frequency of Voice 2 to give a rich, 
deep choir effect. The last mode, Tri- 
Voice, is the same as Bi-Voice except 
that it uses all three voices and slight- 
ly offsets the frequencies of Voices 2 
and 3, producing an even richer, deep- 
er choir effect. 

Voices 

The SID chip has three voices. Their dif- 
ferent settings are displayed in three 
vertical rows in the middle of the 
screen. The first setting in each voice 
is the waveform. While normal pro- 



grams for the SID chip have only the 
four basic waveforms (Triangle, 
Sawtooth, Pulse, and Noise), Synthesiz- 
er adds another four waveforms. 
These additional waveforms are actual- 
ly combinations of the original four. 

Waveforms 

Synthesizer starts with the first two ba- 
sic waveforms. Triangle and Sawtooth, 
and then combines these two in the 
third. Synthesizer labels this new wave- 
form as TrSa. 

The fourth waveform is the normal 
Pulse waveform and the fifth is a com- 
bination of the Pulse and Triangle wave- 
forms. This new waveform created by 
Synthesizer is labeled PuTr. 

The sixth waveform is a combination 
of the Pulse and Sawtooth waveforms 
and is labeled PuSa. The seventh wave- 
form is a combination of the Pulse, Tri- 
angle, and Sawtooth waveforms. This 
last combination is labeled PuTS. 

Finally, the eighth waveform is the 
normal Noise waveform. By combining 
different waveforms, complex sound ef- 
fects can be created. 

Pulse Rote 

The next setting on each voice is 
pulse rate. Holding the fire button 
down and pushing either up or down 
will change the value of this setting by 
20. To fine-tune this setting, move the 
joystick to the right; this will increase 
the pulse rate value by 1. 

Octaves 

In addition to all the normal functions 
of each voice, there is also an Octave 
function displayed at the bottom of 
each voice. This function can have val- 
ues from -5 to 7, giving each voice 
more than a seven-octave range. The 
lower octave numbers are merely 
there so that the user can slow down 
the frequencies enough to hear how 
complex some of the waveforms really 
are. For example, set the octave to -5 
and the waveform to PuTr for a fascinat- 
ing breakdown of this waveform. 

Equal Voices 

For ease of editing the three voices, an 
extra keyboard function has been add- 
ed. Pressing the Equal {=) key will 
equalize all three voices by whatever 
voice the cursor is positioned on, 

JANUARY 1992 COMPUTE G-31 



PROGRAMS 



Filter 

The next feature is Filter, found at ttie 
bottom left of tfie screen. To use tfie fil- 
ter, you must first turn it on. To do this, 
move thie cursor to the voices setting 
and hold the fire button down until the 
desired voices have been selected for 
filtering. After selecting the voices to 
be filtered, choose a cutoff frequency, 
mode, or resonance setting to hear the 
desired effect. 

Modulafioti 

The last feature is Modulation, located 
on the bottom right of the screen. Mod- 
ulation is similar to the Vibrato or 
Sweep functions found on other pro- 
grams and can be used to create sim- 
ilar effects. 

The r\ylodulation feature uses the 
waveform and frequency settings of 
Voice 3 to produce a value which is 
then put into any three locations in the 
SID chip that the user chooses. The 
waveform controls the mode of this in- 
teresting feature. 

Setting the waveform of Voice 3 to Tri- 
angle will cause the modulator to pro- 
duce a value which oscillates from to 
255 and back again. This is useful for 
creating vibrato effects. 

When the waveform setting is set to 
Sawtooth, the value starts from and 
goes up to 255 and then starts back at 
again. This is useful for creating 
sweep effects. 

When the waveform is set to Pulse, 
the value switches immediately be- 
tween and 255. 

Finally, when the waveform is set to 
Noise, the Modulation feature gener- 
ates random numbers between the val- 
ues of and 255. 

Frequeniy 

The frequency setting is actually the fre- 
quency setting of Voice 3. This figure 
determines the speed at which the 
Modulation feature generates its num- 
bers. Holding down the fire button and 
pressing up or down with this setting 
will increase or decrease the value by 
100. To fine-tune this setting, simply 
press the joystick right or left; this will 
increase or decrease the frequency val- 
ue by 1 . 

When using this feature, the user 
may want to turn off Voice 3 to silence 
any unwanted sounds that the voice 

G-32 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



Sound effects for Synthesizer. 





Explosion 


Bell 


Flute 


Synthi 


Airpis 


ne 


Synth2 


Synth3 


Kybrd 


Tri 


Solo 


Solo 


Tri 


Bl 




Poly 


Poly 


Voices 


= 


1 


1 


= 


1&2 


3' 


= 


= 


Wave 


Noiz 


Tria 


Tria 


Sawt 


Puis 


Tria 


Tria 


Tria 


Puis 


• 


• 


» 


• 


• 


• 


« 


• 


Ring 


off 


on 


off 


off 


off 


off 


on 


off 


Sync 


off 


off 


off 


off 


off 


off 


off 


off 


Attk 








4 


2 


15 










Dcay 


15 


12 













15 


14 


Sust 








15 


15 


15 










Rels 


15 


12 


5 


4 


15 










Octv 


2 


3 


6 


2 


1 




3 


4 


Filter 


on 


Off 


off 


off 


on 




off 


on 


Cutoff 


1460 


• 


• 


• 


1380 




• 


1420 


Voices 


1 23 


none 


none 


none 


1 2 




none 


1 23 


Mode 


Lp 


« 


* 


• 


Lp 




• 


Lp 


Res 


15 


• 


* 


« 


15 




• 


15 


Modulat 


Off 


on 


on 


off 


on 




off 


Off 


Freq 


• 


4000 


100 


• 


100 




« 


• 


Addl 


25 


25 





25 


2 




25 


25 


Add2 


25 


25 


25 


25 




9 


25 


25 


Adds 


25 


25 


25 


25 


25 


25 


25 




* Turn voice 3 off. 
















= All voices the same. 
















• Not applicable. 

















may produce. To do this, press the f1 
key. This key turns the output of Voice 
3 on and off. 

Solo and Bi-Voke 

The Solo and Bi-Votce keyboard 
modes were designed specifically 
with the use of the modulator in mind. 
Since these modes do not use Voice 3, 
using them will not interfere with the out- 
put of the modulator. 

Modulation Demo 

For an example of the power of the 
Modulation feature, use the space bar 
to set the keyboard mode to either So- 
lo or Bi-Voice. Then set the waveform 
setting of Voice 1 to Triangle and 
press the Equal key. Next, move the cur- 
sor to the frequency setting of the mod- 
ulator and set it to about 60. Then set 
the first address to and the second 
to 7; these are the low frequency set- 
tings of Voices 1 and 2. Now, press a 
key on the Synthesizer keyboard. The 
modulator is putting new values into 
the low frequency settings of Voices 1 



and 2, causing a vibrato effect. 

To turn the modulator off, simply set 
all three addresses to 25; this is a val- 
ue outside the SID chip's range and 
has no effect on the chip's output. 

Use the list of sound effects for Syn- 
thesizer printed above to experiment 
and learn more about one of the 64's 
most complex and fascinating fea- 
tures: the SID chip, 

SYNTHESIZER 

RP 1 COPYRIGHT 1992 - COMPUTE 
{SPACE}PUBLICATIONS INTL 
{SPACE}LTD " ALL RIGHTS R 
ESERVED 

GR 5 IFPEEK (49152) O169THENP0K 
E53265,a:LOAD"SYNTH ML",B 

,1 

AP 10 SYS49152:KBS(fl)="POL¥":K 
BS (1)="S0L0":KB5 (2)="BI- 
V0ICE"!KB$(3)="TRI-V0ICE 

II 

GB 13 WV$(1)="TRIA":WV$ (2) ="SA 
WT" :WV$ (3) ="TRSA" :WV$ (4) 
="PULS":WVS(5)="PUTR" 

QK 14 Wvt(6)="PUSA":WVS(7)="PU 
TS":WV$(8)="HOIZ"iXP=14i 
YP=7 



HA 15 

JJ 20 

FD 25 

FK 27 

PJ 30 

JH 35 

PH 40 

FC 45 



HE 


50 


MS 


55 


FD 


60 


RR 


70 


HJ 


75 


HB 


80 



DIMK{76) ,M(31) :F0RT=1T02 

4:READA,B:K(B) =A;NEXT:PO 

KE53 248,125:POKS5 324 9,90 

S=54272:M(5)=15:M(4)=17: 

M(25)=4:KB=197:M{3)=5:M( 

24}=31:M(23)»240:M(22)=2 

00 

M(28)=25:M(29)=25rM{30)= 

25:B=24:B$=" ={CLR)(Fl}" 

:FORT=STOS+24 :P0KET,3:NE 

XTT 

FORT=0TO2:POKE4 924 8+T*3, 

H(28) +T:NEXT 

POKES+22,H(22) : POKES +2 4, 

M(24) :POKE53264,0:GOSUB3 

20:POKE53265,27 

DATA 8583,62,9094,31,963 

4,68,10207,32,10814,50,1 

1457,63,12139,34,12860,6 

5 

DATA 13625,35,14435,70,1 

5294,36,16203,66,17167,5 

4,18188,38,19269,60 

DATA 20415,29,21629,61,2 

2915,45,24278,26,25721,2 

3,27251,73,23871,75,3058 

8,0 

DATA 32407,1 

REM ** WHICH KEYBOARD HO 

DE? ** 

IFM(31)=1THEN125 

IFM(31)=2THEN230 

IFM(31)=3THEN175 

IFPEEK(56320| 0127THEN43 



PP 85 GETAS:IFA$=""THEN80 

QB 90 IFASC(AS)>950RASC(A5)<19 

THEN280 
HR 95 F=K(ASC(AS)-19)/M(25+V/7 

) :IFF=0THEN280 
MX 100 H = INT (F/256) :L=F-(256*H 

) 
BR 105 POKES+4+V,M{V+4) AND254: 

P0KES+V,L:P0KES+1+V,H 
SP 110 POKES+4+V,M{V+4)ORl:V=V 
+7: IFV=21THENV=0 

GR 115 GOToaa 

AX 120 REM ** SOLO ** 

HA 125 GETAS:IFPEEK(56320)<>12 

7THEN430 
DP 130 IFA$=""THEN155 
PE 135 IFASC(AS)>9S0RASC(flS)<l 

9THEN280 
FM 140 F-K(ASC(A5)-19)/M(25) :l 

FF=0THEN280 
SP 145 H=INT (F/256) :L=F-(256*H 

) 
KF 150 POKES, L:P0KES+1,H:P0KES 

+4,M(4) 
GA 155 IFPEEK{KB) <>64THEm25 
MP 160 IFPEEK(KB) =64THENPOKES+ 

4,M(4) AND2S4 
PA 165 GOT0125 
QB 170 REM ** TRI-VOICE ** 
GD 175 GETA$; IFPEEK(563201 012 

7THEN430 
FG 180 IFAS'=""THEM210 
SJ 185 IFASC(AS)>950RASC(A$}<1 

9THEN280 
SA 190 FORV=3T014STEP7:F=K(ASC 

(AS)~19)/M(25+V/7) :IFF- 



0THEN2B0 
CD 195 H=INT (F/256) :L=F-(256*H 

) : IFL~14<aTHENL=L+14 
RM 200 P0KES+1+V,H:P0KES+V,L-V 

:NEXT:V=0 
CH 205 FORV=0TO14STEP7:POKES+4 

+V,M{V+4)OR1:NEXT:V=0 
HH 210 IFPEEK(KB) 064THEN175 
CA 215 IFPEEK(KB)=64THENFORV=0 
TOl4STEP7:POKES+4+V,M(V 
+4) AND254:NEXT:V=0 
RF 220 GOT0175 
AD 225 REM ** Bl-VOICE ** 
HF 230 GETAS:IFPEEK(56320)<>12 

7THEN430 
AX 235 IFA$=""THEN260 
KM 240 IFASC(AS)>950RASC(A$)<1 

9THEN280 
PG 245 FORV=0TO7STEP7:F=K(ASC( 
AS)-19)/M(25+V/7) :IFF-0 
THEN230 
FS 250 H=INT (F/256) :L=F-(256*H 

) :IFL<7THENL-L+7 
GQ 255 P0KES+V,L-V:P0KES+1+V,H 
:NEXT:V=0:POKES+4,M(4)O 
R1:P0KES+11,M(11)0R1 
HB 260 IFPEEK(KB)<>64THENGOT02 

30 
GQ 265 IFPEEK(KB)=64THENFORV=0 
T014STEP7:POKES+4+V,M{V 
+4) AND254:NEXT:V=0 
XE 270 GOTO230 
CJ 275 REM ** KB MODE, EQOALIZ 

E, RUN ** 
FF 280 F0RT=1T04: IFA$<>MIDS(BS 

,T , 1 ) THENNEXT : GOTO60 
CS 281 ONTGOT0295,283,287,282 
FQ 282 PRINT"{H0ME}{2 DOWN)" 
EJ 283 SYS50078,128,M(24) ,24:H 

(24)=PEEK(780) 
DX 284 1FM(24) AND128THENPRINTT 

AB (29) "{7}qFF":GOTO60 
GQ 285 PRINTTAB(29) "(3 SPACES} 

": GOTO 60 
QC 287 RUN 

AJ 288 GOSUB320:GOTO60 
BA 290 REM ** KEYBOARD MODE ** 
JB 295 FORV=0TO14STEP7:POKES+4 
+V,H(V+4) AND2 54:NEXT:V= 
0:H{31) =M(31)+1 
MP 300 POKES+14,M(14) :P0KES+15 
,M(15) :IFM(31)=4THENH(3 
1)=0 
FM 305 PRINT'MHOME) {2 DOWK} 

EWHT}"TAB(20)KBS(H(31) ) 
"{5 SPACES} ":GOTO60 
PC 315 REM ** EQUALIZE VOICES 

{SPACE}** 
BG 320 FORV=0TO14STEP7:M(V+2)= 
M(E+2) :M(V+3) =M(E+3) :H( 
V+4)=M{E+4) :M(V+5) =H(E+ 
5) 
MP 323 M{V+6)=M(E+6) :H(25+V/7) 

=H(25+E/7> 
MK 325 POKES+2+V,M{E+2) :POKES+ 
3+V,M(E + 3) :P0KES + 5l-V,M{ 
E+5) :POKES+6+V,M(E+6) 
DH 326 POKES+4+V,M(E+4) :NEXT 
XB 327 REM ** PRINT VALUES ** 



CK 330 PRINT" (HOME) {2 DOWN} 

{WHT}"TAB(20)KB${M(31)) 
HD 335 FORV=0TO14STEP7;T=7+V/7 

*13:PHINT"(RED}iH0HE} 

{5 DOWN}" 
EH 337 PRINTTAB(T+l)WV${{M(E+4 

)AND240)/16) 
FS 340 PRINTTAB(T) "{5 SPACES} 

{5 LEFT}"H(E+2)+M(E+3)* 

256"{PUR}" 
ED 345 IF(H{E+4)AND4)=0THENPRI 

NTTAB(T)" OFF":GOTO3 50 
QR 347 PRINTTAB(T)" ON " 
RD 350 IF(M(E+4)AND2)=0THENPRI 

NTTAB(T)" OFF":GOTO360 
AR 355 PRINTTAB(T)" ON " 
EX 360 PRINT"<3>"TAB(T) (H(E+5) 

AND240)/16"{LEFT} " 
CR 365 PRINTTAB(T)M(E+5)AND15" 

(LEFT} " 
JE 370 PRINTTAB(T) (M(E+6) AND24 

0)/16"{LEFT} " 
DP 375 PRINTTAB(T)M{E+6)AND15" 

{LEFT} " 
XJ 380 PRINT"{BLl)}"TAB{T)6-(L0 

G(H(E/7+25))/LOG(2)) : NE 

XT:V=0 
RP 385 PRINT"{CYN}{3 DOWN}"TAB 
(14)M(21)+M(22)*B"{YEL} 

"TAB(31)M(14)+H{15)*256 
PS 390 IFM(23)AND1THENPRINTTAB 

{15) "{CyN}l{UP}" 
MB 392 IFM(23)AND2THENPRINTTAB 

(17) "{CYN}2{UP}" 
JK 394 IFH(23) AND4THENPRINTTAB 

(19) "{CYN}3{UP}" 
KM 395 PBI8T"{YEL}"TAB(31)M(28 

) 

QE 400 IFM(24) AND16THENPRINTTA 
B(15)"{CYN}LP{UP}" 

SE 401 IFH(24) AND64THENPRINTTA 
B(ia)"{CYN}HP{UPi" 

HA 402 1FM(24)AND32THENPRINTTA 
B(21) "{CYN}BP{UP)" 

JP 405 PRINT"{YEL}'^TAB(31)M(29 

) 
JM 410 PRINT"{CYN}"TAB{14) (H(2 

3)AND240)/16"{YEL}"TAB( 

31)M(30) 
JC 415 PRINT"{CYN}''TAB(14)M(24 

) AND 15 
KA 420 RETURN 
DX 425 REH{2 SPACES}** MOVE, V 

DICES ** 
GQ 430 IFYP>16THEN570 
JQ 435 POKE53248,13+XP*8:POKE5 

3249,34+YP*8 
BP 440 J=PEEK(56320) :IFJ=127TH 

BN60 
BA 443 IF(JAND16)=0THEN634 
EA 445 IF(JAND1)=0ANDYP<>7THEN 

YP=YP-1 
GA 500 IF(JAND2)=0THENYP=YP+1: 

IFYP-16THENYP=19:GOT057 


BD 550 IF (JAND4) =0ANDE<>0THENE 

=E-7:XP=XP-13 
BC 555 IF(JAND8)=0ANDE<>14THEN 

E=E+7:XP=XP+13 
KF 560 IFXPO40ANDXPO8THENPOK 

E53264,0:XP-14+E/7*13 

JANUARY 1992 COMPUTE G-33 



PROGRAMS 



KS 561 IFXP=40THENPOKE53264,1: 

XP = 8 
BM 562 GOT0435 
JS 563 REM ** FILTER AND MOD * 

AM 570 IFXP<>8THEN6a0 

KC 571 REM ** MODULATION ** 

AB 572 IF¥P=23THENYP=22 

RF 573 POKE53248,13+XP*8:POKE5 

3249,34 + !fP*a 
PC 574 J=PEEK(56320) :IFJ=127TH 

EN60 
SS 575 IF(JAND16)=0THEN634 
JP 576 IF(JAND1)=0THENYP=YP-1: 

IFYP=18THENXP=14+E/7*13 

:YP-15:GOTO560 
GK 580 IF(JAND2).0ANDYP<>22THE 

NYP=YP+1 
MP 585 IF(JAND4)=0THEN600 
KX 595 GOT0573 
KD 597 REM ** FILTER ** 
CX 600 XP=26:POKE53264,0 
HM 605 POKE5324a,13+XP*8:POKE5 

3249,34+YP*8 
GA 607 JaPEEK(56320) :IFJ=127TH 

EN60 
DR 608 IF(JAND16)=0THEN634 
EH 610 IF(JAtlDl)=0THENYP = YP-l: 

TFYP=13THENXP=14+13*E/7 

:YP=15:GOT0 56fl 
MR 615 IF(JAND2)=0ANDYP<>23THE 

NYP=YP+1 
JD 620 IF(JAND8)=0THENPOKE5326 

4, 1:XP=8:GOT0572 
DR 630 GOTO605 
JF 633 REM ** COMPUTE ** 
HR 634 POKE214,¥P-2: IFYP>I6THE 

N655 
CG 640 REM ** COMPUTE, VOICES 

(SPACE)** 
AE 645 ONYP-6GOTO6a5,720,74S,7 

47,770,805,773,810,850 
GC 650 REM ** COMPUTE, FILTER 

{SPACE}OR HOD ** 
MF 655 IFXP=8THRN675 
KB 660 REM ** COMPUTE, FILTER 

{SPACE}** 
PR 665 ONYP-18GOTO880,915,960, 

995,997 
FF 670 REM ** COMPOTS, MODULAT 

ION ** 
EP 675 ONYP-18GOTO1035,1080,10 

81,1082 
JM 680 REM ** WAVEFORM ** 
FB 685 PRINT" (RED}" 
DO 690 J=PEEK{56320) :IF(JAND1) 

=0AND(M(E+4)AND128)=0TH 

ENH(E+4)=M(E+4)+16 
KG 695 IF(JAND2)=0AND(M(E+4) AN 

D240)>16THENM(E+4)=H(E+ 

4)-16 
AM 700 PRINTTAB{8+13*E/7)WVS{I 

KT (M(E+4)/16) ) "(l!P}":PO 

KES+E+4,M(E+4) AND254 
XB 705 IFJ=127THEN60 
JF 710 GOTO690 
FF 715 REM ** PULSE ** 
SQ 720 P=H(E+2)+M(E+3)*256:PRI 

NT" {RED}" 
HP 724 J=PEEK(56320) :IF(JAND1) 

=0ANDP<4076THENP=P+20 



GX 


72 5 


MX 


727 


CE 


730 



EX 735 



RE 
SK 
FA 

JF 
XR 



740 
743 
745 

747 
750 



RX 755 



KH 757 



RF 
GQ 
HK 
AP 
KR 
FS 



760 
765 
770 
773 
774 
775 



HK 780 



SA 785 



XA 790 



EX 


795 


XX 


800 


SR 


805 


XJ 


810 


JH 


815 


JX 


820 


KF 


825 


PG 


330 



EE 835 



CP 


840 


QK 


845 


HJ 


850 


SR 


855 


BJ 


856 


QP 


860 


SD 


865 


CA 


870 


CS 


87 5 


GB 


860 


XP 


88 5 


CF 


890 



IF (JAND2) -0ANDPM9THENP 
-P-20 

IF ( JANDS) =0ANDP<4095THE 
NP=P+1 

PRINTTAB(7+13*E/7)P" 
{LEFT} (UP}'':P0KES+E+2, 
PAND255:P0KES+E+3,INT (P 
/256) 

1FJ=127THENM(E+2)=PAND2 
55:H(E + 3) =INT (P/256) :G0 
TO60 
GOT0724 

REM ** RING OR SYNC ** 
PRINT" ( PUR} " :E0=4 :G0T07 
50 

PRINT"(PUR}":E0=2 
SYSS007a,EO,H(E+4) ,E+4; 
M(E+4) -PEEK (7 80) : POKES + 
E+4,M(E+4)AND254 
IF (H (E+4) ANDEO) =0THENPR 
INTTAB(8+13*E/7)"OFF 
(UP)":GOTO760 
PRINTTAB (8+13*E/7) "ON 
(UP)" 
GOTO60 

REM ** A,S ** 
PRINT"<3}":EO=5:GOT0774 
PRINT"{3>":EO=6 
P={M(E+EO)AND240)/16 
J=PEEK(S6320) :IP(JANDl) 
=0ANDP<>15THENP=P+1 
IF ( JAND2) =0ANDP<>0THENP 
= P-1 

PRINTTAB {7+13*E/7 ) P" 
{LEFT} (UP}":POKES+E+EO 
, (H(E+EO) AND15)+P*16 
IFJ=127THENM(E+EO)=(M(E 
+EO[AND15)+P*16:GOTO60 
GOT0775 
REM ** D,R ** 
PRINT"{3}":EO=5:G0TO815 
PRINT"-{3}":EO = 6 
P=H(E+EO) AND15 
J=PEEK(56320) :IF{JAND1) 
=0ANDP<>15THENP=P+1 
IF ( JAND2) -0ANDPO0THENP 
= P-1 

PRINTTAB t7 + 13*E/7) P" 
{LEFT} fUP}":POKES+E+E0 
, (M(E+EO) ftND240) +P 
IFJ=127THENM(E+E0)={M(E 
+E0) AND240) +P:G0T06a 
GOT08 2a 

REM ** OCTAVE ** 
PRINT"{BLU}":P=6- (LOG (H 
(E/7+25) )/L0G(2)) 
J= PEEK (56 320) :IF(JAND1) 
=aANDP<>7THENP=P+l 
IF(JAND2) =0ANDP<>-5THE» 
P = P-1 

PRINTTAB (7+13*E/7) P" 
(UP}" 

IFJ=127THENH (E/7+25) =2| 
{6-P) :GOTO60 
G0TO8S5 

REM ** CUTOFF FREQ •* 
PRINT "CCYN}":P=M( 21) +M( 
22)*8 

J=PEEK(56320) :IF(JAND1) 
=0RNDP<20 2 8THENP=P+20 
IF ( JAND2) =0ANDP>19THENP 



= P-20 
PD 893 IF(JANDa)=0ANDP<2047THE 

NP=P+1 
GK 895 PR1NTTAB(14)P"{LEFT} 

{UP}" 
KF 897 M(21)=PAND7:M(22)=INT (P 

/a) :POKES+21,M(21) : POKE 

S+22,M(22) 
FR 900 IFJ=127THEN60 
CE 905 GOT0885 
HA 910 REM ** VOICES ** 
DF 915 PRINTTAB (15) "(CYN} 

{D0WNJ(5 SPACES) (UP}":P 

-M(23) AND7 
XS 920 P=P+l:P0KES+23, (H(23) AN 

D2 48)+P:IFP=8THENP=0 
JB 930 IFPANDlTHENPRINTTAB(15) 

"(CYN}1(UP)" 
QJ 935 IFPAND2THENPRINTTAB(17) 

"(CYN}2(UP}" 
DR 940 IFPAND4THENPRINTTAB (19) 

"{CYN} 3 (UP}" 
JF 950 M(23) = (M(23)AND248)+P:G 

OTO60 
XF 955 REM ** MODE ** 
QK 960 PRINTTAB (15) "(CYN) 

{DOWN} (8 SPACES} {UP}":P 

=M(24) ANDH2 
KS 965 P=P+16: IFP=128THENP=0 
GP 967 POKES+24, (H(24)AND143)+ 

P 
BC 970 IFPAND16THENPRINTTAB(15 

) "(CYN}LP(UP)" 
AA 975 IFPAND32THENPRINTTAB(18 

) "{CYN)BP(UP)" 
FE 980 IFPAND64THEMPRINTTAB(21 

)"(CYN}HP{UP}" 
GJ 985 H(24)=(M(24)AND143)+P:G 

OTO60 
DQ 990 REM ** RESONANCE, VOLUM 

E ** 
PD 995 E0=23:A=15:S1=16:P={M(E 

0) AND240)/16;GOTO998 
KH 997 EO=24:A>240:SI=1:P=M(EO 

)AND15 
SH 998 PRINT"(CYN}" 
CK 1000 J=PEEK(56320) :IF(JAND1 

) =0ANDP<>15THENP=P+1 
As 1005 IF(JAND2) =0ANDP<>0THEN 

P = P-1 
DS 1010 PRINTTAB{14)P"{LEFT} 

(UP}":P0KES+EO, (M(EO)A 
KDA}+P*SI 
HA 1020 IFJ=127THENM(EO)=(M(EO 

)ANDA)+P*SI:GOTO60 
DX 1025 GOTO1000 

EK 1030 REM ** MODULATION FREQ 
* * 

RA 1835 PRINT"(YEL}":P-M(14)+M 

{15)*256 
GG 1040 J=PEEK(56320) :IF(JAND1 

) =0ANDP<65436THENP=P+1 

00 
EQ 1045 IF(JAND2)=0ANDP>99THEN 

P=P-100 
FF 1047 IF(JAND4)=0ANDP>0THENP 

= P-1 
QR 1050 IF{JAND8)=0ANDP<65535T 

HENP=P+1 
BC 1055 PRINTTAB (31) P"{LEFT} 



G-34 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 





{2 


SPACES} {UP}" 




1 


C160: 


9C 


20 


20 


20 


D2 


49 


4E 


47 


DF 


AB 1060 


M(15)= 


INT(P/256> :M<14) 


C168: 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


EB 




= p- 


INT(P/256)*256: 


POKE 


C170: 


20 


D2 


49 


4E 


47 


20 


20 


20 


El 




S+14,M(14) :P0KES+I5,H( | 


C17e: 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


02 


49 


8A 




IS) 














C180: 


4E 


47 


0D 


20 


20 


20 


D3 


59 


23 


AK 1065 


IFJ 


=127THEH60 






C188: 


4E 


43 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


EB 


QC 1070 


GOTO1040 










C190: 


20 


20 


20 


D3 


59 


4E 


43 


20 


IS 


DC 1375 


REM 


** 


ADDl, 


2,3 ** 






C198: 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


10 


DB 1080 


E0 = 


0:GOTO1085 






C1A0: 


D3 


59 


4E 


43 


0D 


20 


20 


20 


AB 


SG 10B1 


E0 = 


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C1A8: 


96 


01 


54 


54 


4B 


20 


20 


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F2 


FM 10B2 


E0 = 


2 












C1B0: 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


01 


54 


AB 


SC 1085 


PRINT" 


{YEL}" 


;P=H(28-!-E0 1 


C1B8: 


54 


4B 


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20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


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C1C0: 


20 


20 


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54 


4B 


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14 


RS 1090 


J=PEEK(56320);IF(JAND1 | 


C1C8: 


20 


20 


20 


C4 


43 


41 


59 


20 


Ae 




)=0ANDP<25THENP=P+1 




C1D0: 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


54 


ED 1095 


IF(JAND2) 


=0ANDP>0THENP | 


C1D8: 


C4 


43 


41 


59 


20 


20 


20 


20 


2F 




= P- 


1 












C1E0: 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


04 


43 


41 


5E 


XG 1100 


PRIfiTTAB(31)P"(LEFT} 




ClESt 


59 


0D 


20 


20 


20 


D3 


55 


53 


B0 




(UP)" 












C1F0: 


54 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


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ME 1115 


IFJ 


=127THENH(28+EO)=P 


: 


C1F8: 


20 


20 


D3 


55 


53 


54 


20 


20 


B0 




POKE49248+EO 


*3,P:GOT06 | 


0200: 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


D3 


39 



















C203: 


55 


53 


54 


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20 


20 


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D2 


FC 


AJ 1120 


GOTO1090 










C210: 


45 


40 


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20 


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99 


















C218: 


20 


20 


20 


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D2 


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40 


53 


53 


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C220: 


20 


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■# 1 11 III iffi 
















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ID 20 


ID 


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36 


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ID 20 


ID 


3A 


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92 


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00 


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12 


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45 


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0D 


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20 


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55 


46 


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52 


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54 


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55 


0C 


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4F 


46 


46 


20 


06 


52 


45 


87 


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49 


DD 


4F 


DD 


50 DD 


40 


43 


C2D8 


:51 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


F6 


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2A 


DD 


5E 


DD 


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A5 


lA 


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:20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


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06 


0A 


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20 


20 


20 


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20 20 


20 


B0 


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:52 


45 


51 


0D 


9F 


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01 


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45 


59 42 


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7E 


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49 


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53 


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52 


44 


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20 


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20 


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49 


43 45 


31 


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0300 


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20 


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20 


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87 


C0D8;20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 20 


D6 


11 


C308 


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01 


44 


44 


31 


0D 


9F 


20 


39 


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49 


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32 


20 20 


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88 


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33 


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10 



0390:00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 13 

0398:00 00 00 00 00 00 20 FD SE 

O3A0:AE 20 9E 87 8E B7 03 20 Dl 

C3A8:FD AE 20 9E B7 8R 48 20 61 

O3B0:FD AE 20 9E B7 68 49 00 C2 

03B8:9D 00 D4 60 00 00 00 00 AF 



Todd Piltingsrud is a music major at 
Concordia College in Morehead, Minne- 
sota. He always wanted a good synthe- 
sizer progrann, so he wrote his own. □ 



LISA 



By Bruce M. Bowden 
Little Isometric Artist, better known as 
LISA, is a way to draw three-dimension- 
al diagrams which can be rotated and 
saved for future viewing on your 64's 
high-resolution screen. 

To begin. LISA requires a set of ver- 
texes (corner points) and information 
about which of these points are to be 
connected to form a screen image. 
When the wire-frame image is drawn, 
you'll have the option of rotating it, see- 
ing what it looks like at various angles, 
and saving the image as a straight 
bitmap, which may be loaded into The 
Print Stiop and other drawing programs 
for further manipulation. 

3-D Coordinates 

LISA uses a mathematical description 
of an object that consists of three co- 
ordinate lines or axes. These lines in- 
tersect with each other at one point, 
called the origin. Each line or axis is at 
right angles, or perpendicular, to the 
other two. The axes, typically labeled 
X, y, and z, are lines with distance val- 
ues on them, relative to the origin, 
which has a distance of 0, Negative val- 
ues are on one side of the origin, and 
positive values are on the other. 

To imagine the coordinate system 
and how LISA uses it, pretend that 
you're standing near the corner of a 
room, with a wall to your left and a 
wall in front. The point of intersection of 
the two walls and the floor is the origin, 
or zero point, of our system model. The 
edge where the front wall meets the 
floor models the positive part of the x- 
axis. The edge where both walls meet 
models the positive part of the y-axis. 
And the edge where the left wall and 
floor meet models the positive part of 
the z-axis. Remember that there are al- 

JANUARY 1992 COMPUTE 3-35 



PROGRAMS 



so negative parts to each axis, extend- 
ing off in the opposite directions from 
tfie origin. Actual three-dimensional 
coordinate systems can then be ab- 
stracted from the model and applied 
as follows. 

If you want to describe where a 
point is located in the room, simply 
give its distance from the origin along 
the three axes. The directions might be 
two feet from the origin in the x direc- 
tion, then five feet in the /direction (up 
from the floor), and then four feet in the 
z direction (parallel to the left wall). The 
coordinates of this point, using a 
scale in feet, could be represented by 
2, 5, and 4. 

In general, then, once a convenient 
origin and axes have been created, 
any figure which can be specified as 
points connected by lines is easy to de- 
scribe. Just figure how far across (x), 
how far up (y), and how far out (z) 
each of the points is. (I'm sure you'll re- 
member all about Cartesian coordi- 
nates from high school math classes.) 

Entering the Program 

LISA is a two-part program, with one 
part written in BASIC and the other in 
machine language. To help avoid typ- 
ing errors, use The Automatic Proof- 
reader lo enter the main program; see 
"Typing Aids" elsewhere in this sec- 
tion. Be sure to save a copy of the pro- 
gram when you've finished typing. 

The second part of the program is a 
graphics package written entirely in ma- 
chine language, so use MLX, our ma- 
chine language entry program, to type 
it in. When prompted by MLX, respond 
with the values given below. 

Starting address: CDOO 
Ending address: C6C7 

The main program automatically loads 
the machine language program, so be 
sure to save this second program with 
the name LISA.fvlL. Make sure that 
both programs are on the same disk. 
When you load and run LISA, it will set 
up arrays and variables before display- 
ing the menu screen. Each option on 
the menu has a letter in parentheses 
that shows which key must be 
pressed to make that selection. We'll ex- 
plain each of the options, but out of the 
order in which they appear onscreen. 

G-36 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



Options 

Option G chooses the graphics 
screen. If pressed before any graphics 
have been drawn, it will probably dis- 
play garbage. Press any other key to re- 
turn to the text screen. 

Option D selects the demonstration 
figure. Press D, and after a moment's 
delay for generating data, the graphics 
screen will appear, and a design will 
be drawn. This demo design resem- 
bles a flying saucer or igloo with an 
open hatchway. Because this figure 
has a symmetrical shape, the hatch- 
way serves as a reference when rotat- 
ing the figure. 

Whenever a calculated drawing 
(one which isn't simply a picture file 
that has been loaded) is being dis- 
played, press either cursor key to ro- 
tate the drawing, After a moment's de- 
lay for recalculation, the object will be 
redrawn in its new position. Pressing 
any other key will return you to the text 
screen and main menu. 

Option S saves the figure. Make 
sure your disk has at least 32 free 
blocks in order to save the picture. Be- 
cause the demo picture is the first 
saved, its name is SLJDEOO. Subse- 
quent saves will result in SLIDE01, 
SLIDE02, and so on. After the save op- 
eration, you'll be returned to the text 
screen. 

Option N is for creating a new fig- 
ure. For demonstration purposes, let's 
draw a cube. A cube has eight corners 
(vertexes) and twelve edges. Our 
cube will measure 1x1x1 and have 
point 1 at the origin. 

Draw a Cube 

If you haven't done so already, load 
and run the program and then press N. 
When asked how many points you are 
entering, enter 8 and press Return. 
Now the program goes through and 
asks for the x, y, and z values for each 
of the points. The first point will be at 
the origin, so its coordinates are 0, 0, 
0. Enter a at each request. 

The program now moves on to point 
2. Remember that the numbers which 
you use to label each point are 
arbitrary. What matters is how the 
points are connected when we supply 
the edge data. When I sketched out 
my diagram of a cube before entering 
the data into the program, I labeled the 



point with the coordinates 1, 0, as 
point 2. So enter 1 for x, for y, and 
for z. Now continue through with the fol- 
lowing coordinates. 



Points; 1, 


1, 


Point 4: 0, 


1, 


Point 5: 0, 


0, 1 


Point 6: 1 , 


0, 1 


Point 7: 1 , 


1, 1 


Point 8: 0, 


1, 1 



After these points have been entered, 
you'll be asked how many edges there 
are. Since a cube has 12 edges, reply 
by entering 12. According to the 
scheme by which I've numbered my 
points, point 1 is connected to point 5. 
So when asked for the starting point for 
edge 1, enter 1; then enter 5 for the 
ending point. (See the accompanying 
figure.) 

Notice that the edge number is arbi- 
trary, too. For example, I could just as 
easily have responded that edge 1 is 
the edge which connects point 7 to 
point 8. The edge number simply 
shows the order in which each edge 
will be drawn. 

If I indicate that point 1 is connect- 
ed to point 5 by responding to the on- 
screen prompts, the remaining edges 
are as follows. 

Edge 2; 2, 6 
Edge 3; 3, 7 
Edge 4: 4, 8 
Edge 5; 1, 2 
Edge 6: 2, 3 
Edge 7: 3, 4 
Edge 8: 4, 1 
Edge 9; 5, 6 
Edge 10; 6, 7 
Edge 11: 7, 8 
Edge 12; 8, 5 

With the edge data entered, some scal- 
ing and centering calculations are 
done, and the figure appears on the 
screen. Because of the initial point of 
view, the figure looks more like a hex- 
agon than a cube. The cubical shape 
will become apparent when you use 
the cursor keys to rotate the shape. 

In this example we had three edges 
of the cube against the three axes, and 
each was of unit size, but our drawing 
could've been anywhere in space and 



of any size, The program will shift and 
scale the data so that the figure always 
fits and is centered upon the screen. 

Other Options 

Option E will allow you to edit the data 
you've entered. 

Option A allows you to set the num- 
ber of radians (there are pi radians per 
180 degrees) by which the figure can 
be turned each time. The default value 
is a twelfth of a rotation. Enter a nega- 
tive number to abort. The program will 
take the input and modify it so that a ro- 
tation is completed in a whole number 
of turns. For example, enter 2, and 
you'll be informed that the program 
will be using three steps per rotation. 
Press any key to return to the main 
menu. 

Option M will let you make a slide- 
show set of your figure with rotation. If 
you followed the steps in option A 
above, now place a blank disk in the 
disk drive and press M. You'll be noti- 
fied how many blocks the slides will 
take— 96 in this case. Press a key and 
watch the different viev/s being drawn 
and saved. Because SLIDEOO was 
saved earlier, the slide numbers will be 
01 through 03. 

Option L will load a saved picture. If 
you saved the demo figure earlier, 
press L now to reload it. You'll be 
prompted for the name of the picture. 
Enter SLIDEOO, and the graphics 
screen will appear so that you can 
watch the picture load. You'll then be 
returned to the main menu. 

Finally, option H is used for calling 
up a quick reference screen whenever 
you need help. 

To quit the program, merely press 
the Run/Stop key. 

Additional Notes 

LISA was written with clear program- 
ming in mind. The BASIC code is well 
documented to help programmers use 
LISA routines in their own projects, In 
addition, the machine language pro- 
gram is a package of useful routines 
for high-resolution graphics; go to the 
graphics screen, clear the graphics 
screen, draw a line, return to text 
mode, save the graphic, load the graph- 
ic. These routines have SYS addresses 
referenced in the BASIC remarks. 
To change the text screen colors, 



change line 40 so that new color val- 
ues are being poked into border and 
background addresses 53280 and 
53281. To change the graphic screen 
colors, add a line to the program, fol- 
lowing the part where the machine 
code has been loaded, which pokes 
the background color value into ad- 
dress 49173 and the drawing color in- 
to address 49174. The line might look 
like the following. 

25 POKE 49173, colorl :POKE 49174, 
DOlorZ 

The color values are the standard Com- 
modore colors, ranging from to 15. 




LISA 



GD 10 REM COPYRIGHT 1991 - COM 
PUTE PUBLICATIONS INTL L 
TD - ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 

QF 20 IF DK=0 THEN DK=1:L0AD"L 
ISR.ML",8,1 

PP 30 i: = INT(32768/256) :X=INT ({ 
32768/256-Y)*256+.5) :POK 
E55,X:POKE56,Y:Ct-R 

FC 40 DIM PT (300,2) ,LN (300,2) , 
RP(300,3) :POKE53 2 80,6:PO 
KE53281,6:PRINT"CCLR}" 

RR 50 PI=3.14I59265:NP=l:NL-lt 
CS=SQR(3)/2:SN=.5:AN=PI/ 
5:MD=0:PC=0 

BJ 60 : 

KP 70 IF MD=1 THEN MD=0:SYS 49 
152+6:REM TEXT MODE 

SF 30 PRINT"{CLRl (WHTl{N}":AS= 
" LISA - LITTLE I^SOMETRIC 
ARTIST":GOSUB 1760:PR1N 
T"{CYNl" 

MX 90 PRINT;AS-"COPYRIGHT 1991 



AS 


100 


GF 


110 


KQ 


120 


ss 


130 


FC 


140 


BH 


150 


JX 


160 



BB 170 



XK 


180 


Rft 


190 


AM 


200 


KA 


210 


HR 


220 


HG 


230 


CC 


240 


MF 


250 



HE 260 

RB 270 

HA 280 

RR 290 

XX 300 

AS 310 

BB 320 



SG 330 
DH 340 
XX 350 



BQ 360 



PE 


370 


KA 


380 


ss 


390 



':GOSUB 1760 

A$=" COMPUTE PUBLICATION 
S INTL, LTD":GOS0B 1760 
A$="ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 
":GOSUB 1760:PRINT:PRIN 
T 

A5="PLEASE CH0OSE:":G0S 
DB1760:PRINT 
AS="(N)EW FIGURE" :GOSUB 
1760iA$=" (G)RAPHIC SCRE 
EN":GOSUB1760 
hS = "(.S)AVE PICTURE" :GOS 
UB 1760:AS="SET (A)NGLE 

OF TURN":GOSUB 1760 
R$="(L)OAD PICTURE" :GOS 
UB 1760:A$=" (M)AKE SLID 
E SET":GOSUB 1760 
A$="(E)DIT":GOSUB 1760: 
AS=" (H)ELP";GOSUB 1760: 
A5="(D)EH0":G0SUB 1760 
GET AS: IF AS="" THEN 17 


FL=0:BS="NGHDSAMEL" 
FOR X=l TO LEN(BS) :IF A 
S=MID$(B$,X,1) THEN FL= 
X 

NEXT: IF FL=0 THEN 170 
ON FL GOTO 230,570,630, 
810,850,910,1020,350,52 


REM 

REM INPUT A NEW FIGURE 
INPUT"{CLR}{DOWK} (CYN}H 
OW MANY POINTS ARE YOU 
{ SPACE 5 ENTERING", -NP 
FOR X=l TO NP: PRINT" 
{CLR){2 DOWN}":FOR Y-AS 
C("X"> TO ASC("Z") 
PRINT"ENTER THE ";CHRS{ 
Y) ;" VALUE FOR POINT";X 

input' RP(X,Y-ASC("W") ) : 

NEXT Y,X 

INPUT"{CLR] (D0WN}H0W HA 

NY EDGES ARE YOU ENTERI 

NG";NL 

FOR X=l TO NL: PRINT" 

(CLR) (2 DOWN)" 

PRINT"ENTER THE STARTIN 

G POINT FOR EDGE";X;": 

{SPACE5":INPUT LN(X,1) 

print"enter the ending 
{spaceTpoint for edge"; 

X;": "JINPUT LN(X,2) 
NEXT: PRINT "{YEL}": AS ="C 
ALCULATING. . .":G0SUB 17 
60:GOTO 1150 

REM 

REM EDIT THE DATA 
FOR X=l TO NP: PRINT" 
{CLRK2 D0WN1":F0R Y=AS 
C("X") TO ASC("Z") 
PRINT"THE ";CHRS(Y);" V 
ALUE FOR POINT";X; ": "; 
RP(X,Y-ASC("W") ) :NEXT Y 
PRINT: PHINT"^EENTER TH I 
S POINT? (Y/N)";GOSUB 1 
800 

IF A$<>"Y" THEN 420 
PRINT"{2 D0WN}":F0R Y=A 
SC("X") TO ASC("Z") 

JANUARY 1992 COMPUTE G-37 



PROGRAMS 



BQ 400 PRINT"ENTER THE ";CHRS( 
y);" VALUE FOR POINT" ;X 

. 11 « It 4 
' ■ I 

PP 410 INPUT RP(X,Y-ASC("M") ) : 

NEXT Y 
CQ 420 NEXT X:FOR X=l TO NL:PR 

INT"{CLR) (2 DOWN}" 
RJ 430 PRINT"THE STARTING POIN 
T FOR EDGE";X;": ";LN (X 
,1) 
QE 440 PRINT"THE ENDING POINT 
{SPACeJfOR EDGE";X;": " 
;LN(X,2) 
AX 450 PRINT ;PRINT"REENTER THI 
S EDGE? (Y/N)";GOSUB 18 
00 
QR 460 IF A9<>"Y" THEN 490 
KO 470 PRINT: PRINT"ENTER THE S 
TARTING POINT FOR EDGE" 
;X;": ":INPUT LN(X,1) 
PR 480 PRINT: PRINT"ENTER THE E 
NDING POINT FOR EDGE";X 
;": ":INPUT LN(X,2) 
RC 490 GOTO 320 

EQ 500 REM 

CF 510 REM LOAD THE PICTURE 
HS 520 PRINT"{CLR} (2 D0WN}WHAT 
IS THE NAME OF THE PIC 
TURE?": INPUT A$ 
QC 530 X=LEN{A$} :P0KE 53050, X: 
FOR Y=l TO X:POKE 53050 
+Y,ASC(MIDS (A$,Y,1) ) :NE 
XT 
PA 540 IF HD-0 THEN HD=1:SYS 4 

9152+3 
FF 550 SYS 49152+18:PC=0:GOTO6 
00 

RH 560 REM 

EQ 570 REM GO TO THE GRAPHIC S 

CREEN 
JJ 580 IF HD=0 THEN MD=1:SYS 4 

9152+3: IF PC THEN 1500 
SM 590 GOSUB 1800 
MP 600 IF MD=1 THEN MD=0:PRINT 
"(CLR)":SYS 49Z52+6:REM 
TEXT MODE 
HP 610 GOTO 70 

JE 620 REM 

QE 630 REM POST HELP SCREEN 
HJ 640 PRINT" {CLR}fWHT}":AS''"M 
ftIN MENU HELP";GOSUB 17 
60:PRINT"TCVN)" 
SC 650 A$= "CREATE A NEW FIGURE 
BY CHOOSING 'N' AT": GO 
SUB 1760 
AC 660 A5="THE MAIN MENU AND E 
NTERING POINT RND":GOSU 
B 1760 
PK 670 AS="EDGE DATA WHEN PROM 

PTED.":GOSUB 1760 
GH 680 A$ = "I^F A FIGURE EXISTS 
{SPACE 3 ON THE GRAPHIC": 
GOSUB 1760 
XG 690 AS="SCREEN, IT WILL BE 
{ SPACE }DISPLAYED BY":GO 
SUB 1760 
CK 700 A$="PRESSING 'G' AT THE 
MAIN MENU.":GOSOB 1760 
KM 710 AS="CHOOSING 'D' AT THE 
MAIN MENU WILL": GOSUB 
(SPACE}1760 

G-3a COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



SD 720 A$="CAUSE A DEMO FIGURE 
TO BE CREATED,": GOSUB 
[SPACE 11760 
QH 730 AS="WITH ALL THE NORMAL 
FIGURE OPTIONS":GOSUB 
(SPACE}1760 
HP 740 A$=" AFTERWARD.": GOSUB 1 

760 
XM 750 A$="THE (L)OAD AND (S) A 

VE OPTIONS WORK":GOSUB 

{SPACE)1760 
AH 760 A5="WITH A HIGH-RESOLUT 

ION IMAGE." :GOSUB 1760 
SH 770 A$ = "THE SLIDE SET OPT 10 

N SAVES A'':G0SUB 1760 
PR 730 AS="FULL ROTATION SEQUE 

NCE.":GOSUB 1760:PRINT 
QA 790 GOSUB 1790:GOTO 70 

KB 800 REM 

JP 810 REM RUN DEMO 

FR 820 PRINT: PRINT" (YEL)":A$=" 

GETTING DATA. . ,":GOSUB 

TSPACE}1760:GOSUB 1640 
FJ 830 GOTO 1150 

KG 840 REM 

FB 850 REM SAVE THE PICTURE 
DR 860 IF MD=0 THEN MD=1:SYS 4 

9152+3 
KD 870 SYS 49152+15 
SE 880 IF MD=1 THEN MD=0:PRINT 

"{CLR}":SYS 49152+6:REH 
TEXT MODE 
MS 890 GOTO 70 

CP 900 REM 

SR 910 REM SET THE ANGLE OF TU 

HN 
AP 920 PRINT"{CLR) (2 DOWN) 

(CYNl":AS="WHEN FIRST R 

UN, THIS PROGRAM USES A 

": GOSUB 1760 
SS 930 A$="DEFAULT TURNING INC 

REHENT OF 1/12 OF A":GO 

SUB 1760 
SE 940 A$="COHPLETE ROTATION. 

(SPRCE}PLEASE EITHER EN 

TER":GOSUB 1760 
FF 950 AS="A NEW INCREMENT {IN 
RADIANS), OR A":GOSUB 

{SPACE}1760 
DX 960 A$«"KEGATIVE VALUE TO A 

BORT."! GOSUB 17 60 
PD 970 PRINT: INPUT"ANGLE";X: PR 

INT:PRINT"{YEL}":IF X<0 
THEN 70 
PD 980 IF X>2*PI THEN AS="TOO 

{SPACE}LARGE. . . USING D 

EFAULT";GOSUB 1760:AN=P 

I/6:G0T0 790 
PX 990 X=INT (2*PI/X+.5) : IF X<= 

1 THEN X=2 

FD 1000 AN=2*PI/X;A$="USING"+S 

TR$(X)+" STEPS PER ROT 

ATI0N":GOSUB 1760:GOTO 

790 

DP 1010 REM 

MD 1020 REM MAKE THE SET OF SL 

IDES 
PA 1030 PRINT"{CLR} (2 DOWN} 

{YEL}":IF PC THEN 1050 
CR 1040 A$="THERE IS NO ENTERE 



D FIGURE":GOSUB I760:G 

OTO 790 
CE 1050 IF 2*PI/AN > 20 THEN A 

N = 2*PI/20 
GJ 1060 AS="THIS SLIDE SET WIL 

L TAKE"+STR5 (INT (2*PI/ 

AN+.5)*32) 
BS 1370 A$=AS+" BLOCKS.": GOSUB 

1760:GOSUB 1790 
DQ 1030 SYS 49152+3:FOR SX=1 T 

2*PI/AN 
EE 1090 SYS 49152+15 
HG 1100 GOSUB 1570:GOSUB 1180: 

NEXT 
QG 1110 IF MD=1 THEN HD=0:PRIN 

T"{CLR}":SYS 49152+6:R 

EM TEXT MODE 
PA 1120 GOTO 70 
ED 1130 REM 

PA 1140 REM DRAWING THE FIGURE 
SH 1150 GOSUB 11B0:GOTO 1500 
DR 1160 REM 

GA 1170 HEM CALCULATING THE GE 
OMETRIC CENTER 

QX 1180 AX=0:AY=0:AZ=0 

DQ 1190 FOR X=l TO NP:AX=AX+RP 
(X,l) :AY=AY+RP(X,2) ihZ 
=AZ+RP(X,3) :MEXT 

MA 1200 ax=ax/np:ay=ay/np:az=a 

Z/NP 
DQ 1210 : 
AQ 1220 FOR X=l TO NP:EEM CONV 

ERT TO ISOMETRIC IMAGE 
EC 1230 PT (X,1) = (RP(X,2)-RP(X, 

1)-AY+AX)*CS 
GC 1240 PT (X,2)=RP(X,3)-AZ-SH* 

(RP{X,2)+RP(X,1)-AX-AY 

) 
RA 1250 NEXT 
RA 1260 : 
EJ 1270 MAX=PT (1,1) :MIN=MAX:RE 

M INITIALIZE EXTREHA 
SE 1280 FOR X=l TO NP:FOR Y=l 

{SPACE}TO 2 
RF 1290 IF PT(X,Y)>HAX THEN MA 

X=PT (X,Y) 
CR 1300 IF PT(X,Y)<MIN THEN MI 

N=PT(X,Y) 
CO 1310 NEXT Y,X 
JR 1320 SR-199/(HAX-M1N) :REM T 

HE SCALE RATIO 
RH 1330 AR=152/115:REM THE ASP 

ECT RATIO 
ES 1340 OS=160+HIN*SR*AR:REH X 

-OFFSET TO CENTER THE 

{SPACE) DRAWING 
RA 1350 FOR X=l TO NP:FOR Y=l 

{SPACE)TO 2 
GG 1360 PT(X,Y) ' (PT(X,Y)-MIN 

)*SR 
PD 1370 NEXT Y,X 
KP 1380 IF HD=0 THEN HD=1:SYS 

CSPACE}49i52+3:REH SWI 

TCH TO THE GRAPHICS SC 

REEN 
SH 1390 SYS 49152+12:REM CLEAR 

SCREEN 
HD 1400 FOR X=l TO NL 
BH 1410 XI = INT (PT (LN(X,1) ,1) 



*AR+0S+.5) :Y1 = INT (PT 

(LN(X,l),2)+.5) 
AC 1420 X2 = INT (PT (LN(X,2) ,1) 

*AR+0S+.5) :Y2 = INT (PT 

{LN(X,2) ,2) + . 5) 
JS 1430 V(2)=INT (Xl/256) :V(1)= 

INT ( (Xl/256-V(2)) *256+ 

.5) 
GM 1440 V(4)»INT (Yl/256) :V{3)= 

INT ( (Yl/256-V(4)) *2 56+ 

.5) 
AE 1450 V(6)=INT (X2/256) :V(5)= 

IKT ( (X2/256-V(6) )*256 + 

.5) 
MD 1460 V(8)=INT(Y2/256) :V(7)= 

INT ( (Y2/256-V(8) )*256+ 

.5) 
FB 1470 FOR Y=0 TO 7: POKE 5300 

0+Y,V(Y+l) :NEXT 
AQ 1480 PC=-1:SYS 49152+9:REM 

{SPACE}DRAW THE LINE 
XM 1490 NEXT:RETORN 
DD 1500 GET AS: IF AS="" THEN 1 

500 
EX 1510 IF AS°"{RIGHT}" THEN A 

N = ABS (AN) :GOSUB 1570 

:GOSUB 11S0:GOTO 1500 
DB 1520 IF AS="{LEFT}" THEN AN 
= -ABS (AN) :GOSUB 1570 

:GOSUB 1180:GOTO 1500 
FJ 1530 IF MD=1 THEN MD=0:PRIN 

T"{CLR)":SYS 49152+6:R 

EM TEXT MODE 

GOTO 70 



JR 1540 
DC 1550 
QS 1560 



REM ROTATING THE OBJEC 

T 
KC 1570 FOR X=l TO NP 
HH 1580 XX=RP{X,1) : YY=RP(X,2) 
CP 1590 RP(X,1)=XX*C0S (AN)-YY* 

SIN (AN) 
FC 1600 RP(X,2)=XX*SIN (AN)+YY* 

COS (AN) 

NEXT :MD=1: RETURN 



QX 1610 

AG 1620 

DH 1630 

XF 1640 

ME 1650 

FA 1660 



SE 1670 

PQ 1630 

OH 1690 

QK 1700 

AK 1710 

SA 1720 

GO 1730 



REM GENERATING DATA FO 
R DEMO FIGURE 
NP=1:NL=1:A=10:B=5 
FOR TH=0 TO 3:F0R PH=0 

TO 9:G0SUB 1710 
LN (NL,1)=NP:LN(NL,2)=N 
P+1:LN (NL+1, 1)=NP:LN(N 
L + 1,2)='NP+10:NL=NL+2:N 
P=NP+1 

NEXT PH:NL=NL-1:LN (NL- 
1,1)=NP-1:LN(NL-1,2)=N 
P+9:NEXT TH 

TH=4:F0R PH=0 TO 9:G0S 
UB 1710 

LN(NL,1)=NP:LN(NL,2)=N 
P+1:NL=NL+1:NP=NP+1:NE 
XT PH 

NP=NP-l:NL=KL-l:LN(NL, 
1) =NP:LN{NL,2)=NP-9:RE 
TURN 

RP(NP,1)=A*C0S (TH*PI/1 
0)*COS (PH*PI/5) 
RP (NP,2)=A*C0S (TH*PI/1 
0)*SIN (PH*PI/5) 
RP(NP,3)=B*SIN(TH*PI/1 
0) :RETURN 



AS 1740 
HP 1750 
SA 1760 

CJ 1770 
HB 1780 
SX 1790 

DM 1800 


REM CENTER PRINT 
IF LEN(A$)<38 THEN FOR 
LP=1 TO 20-LEN(AS)/2: 
PRINT OHR$(32) ; :NEXT 
PRINTAS: RETURN 


C1A8 
C1B0 
C1B8 
C1C0 
C1C8 
C1D0 


50 

20 
06 
45 
8D 
3D 


C6 

F7 
8D 
06 
3E 
03 


AD 

C5 
44 
60 
03 
18 


0F 
8D 
C6 
18 
AD 
A9 


CF 
47 
AD 
AD 
42 
00 


80 
C6 

53 
43 
06 
80 


51 
AD 
06 
C6 
6A 
3F 


06 

52 
8D 
6A 
8D 
C3 


CA 
06 
00 
98 
85 
F9 


PRINT:PRINT"(YEL5":A$ 

"PRESS ANY KEy":GOSUB 

{SPACE}1760 

GET AS: IF A$="" THEN 

nnn 


1 


01D8 
O1E0 
C1E8 
C1F0 
C1F3 


AD 
01 
48 
AD 
OF 


46 
80 
C6 
0A 
3D 


06 
3F 
AD 
CF 
4B 


09 
03 
09 
80 
06 


00 
AD 
CF 
4A 
20 


D0 
08 
80 
06 
BF 


05 
CF 
49 
AD 
04 


A9 
8D 
06 
0B 
AD 


31 
27 
96 
74 
D4 


HO 1810 


y 0M 

RETURN 










0200 

0208 


48 
3D 


C6 
4F 


80 
C6 


4E 
AD 


06 
00 


AD 
CF 


49 
8D 


06 
50 


38 

E6 
















0210 


C6 


AD 


0D 


OF 


8D 


51 


06 


20 


62 


LISA.ML 














C218 


B5 


05 


G9 


05 


D0 


01 


60 


AD 


60 














0220 


3F 


03 


09 


00 


F0 


IB 


18 


AD 


41 
















0228 


3D 


C3 


6D 


44 


06 


80 


3D 


03 


D9 


0000 :4C 


7D 


00 40 21 


00 


40 


5B 


E3 


0230 


90 


03 


EE 


3E 


03 


AD 


3E 


03 


95 


C00S:C0 


40 


CE 00 40 


64 


C0 


4C 


A4 


C238 


6D 


45 


C6 


80 


3E 


03 


40 


A3 


B4 


C0I0:54 


C6 


40 A0 06 


06 


07 


00 


5D 


C240 


02 


AD 


44 


06 


8D 


50 


06 


AO 


70 


C018:00 


53 


4C 49 44 


45 


30 


30 


54 


0248 


45 


06 


8D 


51 


C6 


AD 


3D 


03 


14 


C020:80 


20 


7D C0 AD 


15 


00 


8D 


36 


0250; 


8D 


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06 


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3E 


03 


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4F 


4F 


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Da 


A2 84 86 


FC 


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00 


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06 


20 


B5 


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03 


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17 


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FB 


A0 00 AD 


16 


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59 


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20 


F7 


05 


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52 


06 


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3D 


8D 


C038:0A 


0A 


0A 0D 15 


C0 


91 


FB 


IE 


C268: 


C3 


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53 


06 


8D 


3E 


C3 


A9 


AB 


C040!C8 


Ae 


FC E0 87 


F0 


09 


00 


50 


C270: 


01 


80 


3F 


03 


4C 


A3 


C2 


AD 


22 


0048:00 


00 


F3 E6 FO 


4C 


3E 


00 


41 


C278: 


44 


C6 


80 


4E 


06 


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45 


06 


A 6 


C050;ac 


17 


00 AE 17 


C0 


E0 


E8 


47 


0280: 


8D 


4F 


06 


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3D 


03 


8D 


50 


B8 


C058:D0 


E4 


60 20 A7 


00 


A9 


93 


B0 


0288: 


06 


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3E 


03 


8D 


51 


06 


20 


40 


0060:20 


D2 


FF 60 A9 


00 


85 


FB 


01 


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F7 


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52 


06 


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3D 


03 


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A0 


85 FC A9 


00 


AB 


91 


97 


0298: 


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53 


06 


8D 


3E 


03 


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00 


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C070:FB 


C8 


D0 FB E6 


FC 


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FC 


71 


C2A0: 


8D 


3F 


03 


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3F 


C3 


09 


01 


AD 


C078:E0 


C0 


90 F3 60 


AD 


11 


D0 


98 


C2A8: 


F0 


03 


40 


2F 


03 


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4D 


C6 


lA 


0080:09 


20 


09 10 8D 


11 


D0 


AD 


B0 


C2B0: 


09 


00 


F0 


0B 


EE 


4A 


06 


D0 


E8 


0088:16 


D0 


18 29 DF 


8D 


16 


D0 


11 


02B8: 


13 


EE 


4B 


06 


40 


00 


02 


CE 


43 


C090:AD 


18 


D0 18 29 


F0 


09 


0B 


Bl 


0200: 


4A 


06 


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4A 


C6 


C9 


FF 


D0 


AS 


C098:8D 


18 


D0 18 AD 


00 


DD 


29 


D4 


0208: 


03 


OE 


4B 


06 


AD 


3F 


03 


CD 


19 


C0A0:FC 


09 


01 3D 00 


DD 


60 


AD 


01 


O2D0: 


46 


C6 


F0 


10 


13 


AD 


3D 


03 


00 


C0A8:11 


00 


18 29 DF 


8D 


11 


D0 


A4 


C2D8: 


6D 


42 


06 


8D 


3D 


03 


90 


03 


74 


C0B0:18 


AD 


18 D0 18 


29 


F0 


09 


0A 


C2E0- 


EE 


3E 


03 


18 


AD 


3E 


C3 


60 


C2 


C0B8:05 


8D 


18 D0 13 


AD 


16 


00 


25 


C2E8- 


43 


06 


8D 


3E 


03 


4C 


2F 


03 


03 


C0C0;29 


EF 


8D 16 D0 


AD 


00 


DD 


01 


C2F0 


AD 


3D 


C3 


80 


50 


06 


AD 


3E 


25 


0008:09 


03 


8D 00 DD 


60 


20 


6E 


60 


02F8 


03 


80 


51 


06 


AD 


42 


06 


8D 


EB 


C0D0:O1 


18 


AD 42 06 


8D 


4E 


C6 


E2 


0300 


4E 


06 


AD 


43 


06 


8D 


4F 


06 


10 


C0D8:AD 


43 


06 8D 4F 


C6 


AD 


44 


E8 


0308 


20 


F7 


05 


8D 


40 


03 


AD 


52 


ED 


C0E0:C6 


8D 


50 C6 AD 


45 


06 


8D 


3D 


C310 


06 


80 


3D 


03 


AD 


53 


06 


80 


18 


C0E8:51 


06 


20 B5 05 


C9 


03 


F0 


70 


0318 


3E 


C3 


AD 


40 


03 


CD 


3F 


03 


01 


C0F0:1B 


09 


05 F0 17 


18 


AD 


47 


DD 


0320 


F0 


08 


A9 


00 


8D 


3F 


03 


40 


94 


C0F8:C6 


C9 


00 D0 03 


20 


23 


01 


FD 


0328 


2F 


03 


A9 


01 


80 


3F 


03 


EE 


5D 


C100:20 


6E 


01 AD 46 


06 


8D 


40 


F6 


0330 


48 


C6 


D0 


03 


EE 


49 


06 


20 


22 


C108:C6 


40 


41 03 18 


AD 


46 


C6 


31 


C33e 


BF 


C4 


40 


FF 


01 


00 


00 


00 


68 


0110:09 


00 


D0 03 20 


23 


CI 


20 


F3 


C340 


00 


18 


AD 


45 


C6 


eA 


8D 


BC 


8F 


C118:6E 


CI 


AD 47 C6 


3D 


4D 


06 


3B 


0348 


04 


AD 


44 


C6 


6A 


80 


BB 


04 


58 


C120:4C 


03 


01 AD 08 


CF 


8D 


60 


D4 


0350 


18 


A9 


00 


SD 


BD 


04 


AD 


47 


CA 


0128:01 


AD 


00 OF 8D 


03 


CF 


AD 


50 


0358 


.06 


09 


00 


00 


05 


A9 


01 


8D 


21 


0133:60 


01 


8D 00 OF 


AD 


09 


CF 


E3 


0360 


:BD 


C4 


AD 


08 


OF 


8D 


48 


C6 


3A 


0138:8D 


6C 


01 AD 0D 


CF 


8D 


09 


70 


0368 


:AD 


09 


OF 


8D 


49 


06 


AD 


0A 


A6 


C140:CF 


AD 


60 01 8D 


0D 


OF 


AD 


AE 


0370 


:CF 


80 


4A 


06 


AD 


0B 


CF 


8D 


BF 


C148:0A 


OF 


8D 60 CI 


AD 


0E 


CF 


ED 


0378 


:4B 


06 


20 


BF 


04 


AD 


4A 


06 


8F 


O150:8D 


0A 


OF AD 60 


CI 


SD 


0E 


85 


0380 


:8D 


4B 


C6 


AD 


4B 


06 


80 


4F 


FS 


C158:CF 


AD 


08 CF BD 


6C 


01 


AD 


DC 


C388 


:C6 


AD 


0E 


OF 


80 


50 


C6 


AD 


36 


C160:0F 


OF 


8D 0B CF 


AD 


60 


01 


91 


0390 


:0F 


CF 


8D 


51 


06 


20 


B5 


C5 


42 


C168:8D 


0F 


OF 60 00 


00 


AD 


08 


D9 


0398 


:09 


05 


D0 


01 


60 


AD 


BD 


04 


6A 


C170:OF 


8D 


4E 06 AD 


09 


CF 


8D 


34 


C3AB 


:09 


00 


F0 


IB 


18 


AD 


BB 


04 


90 


0178:4F 


C6 


AD 00 OF 


8D 


50 


C6 


E7 


C3A8 


:6D 


42 


C6 


8D 


BB 


04 


90 


03 


3E 


O180:flD 


0D 


OF 8D 51 


06 


20 


F7 


CE 


O3B0 


:EE 


BO 


04 


AD 


BO 


C4 


60 


43 


69 


C188:C5 


8D 


46 06 AD 


52 


C6 


80 


59 


03B8 


:C6 


80 


BO 


04 


40 


21 


04 


AD 


09 


0190:42 


C6 


AD 53 C6 


80 


43 


06 


SB 


0300 


:42 


06 


8D 


50 


06 


AD 


43 


06 


00 


C198:AD 


0A 


OF SD 4E 


06 


AD 


0B 


30 


0308 


:8D 


51 


C6 


AD 


BB 


04 


80 


4E 


79 


C1A0:CF 


8D 


4F 06 AD 


0E 


CF 


8D 


98 


C3D0 


:C6 


AD 


BC 


04 


8D 


4F 


06 


20 


62 



JANUARY 1992 COMPUTE G-39 



PROGRAMS 



C3D8:B5 

C3E0:C5 

C3Ea:53 

C3F0:BD 

C3F8;8D 

C400:C6 

C408:BC 

C410:AD 

C418:C6 

C420:C4 

C428:4C 

C430:F0 

C438:49 

C440:AD 

C448:49 

C450:F0 

C458:C6 

C460:C4 

C468:8D 

C470:C4 

C478:51 

C480:AD 

C488:C5 

C490:BB 

C4 98;aD 

C4A0:A9 

C4A8:A9 

C4BO:D0 

C4Be:4C 

C4C0:A5 

C4C8:C7 

C4D0:00 

C4D8:C5 

C4E0:B2 

C4EB:06 

C4F0:C5 

C4Fe:CA 

C500:C5 

C508:03 

C510:6D 

C518:E4 

C520:49 

C528:AD 

C530:B2 

CS38:EE 

C540:8D 

C548:B3 

C550:C5 

C558 

C560 

C568:B4 

C570:8D 

C578: 18 

C580:C5 

C588:1B 

C590:CA 

C598:C5 

C5A0:A0 

C5A8:FB 

C5B0:0B 

C5B8:CD 

C5C0:04 

C5C8:CD 

C5D0:04 

C5D8:53 

C5E0:C6 

C5E8:C6 

C5F0:6D 

C5F8:B5 

C600:C6 



;03 
:6D 



C5 C9 
AD 52 
C6 8D 
C4 4C 
4E C6 
AD BE 
C4 8D 
52 C6 
8D BC 
AD BD 
AD C4 
0B EE 
C6 4C 
48 C6 
C6 AD 
IC 18 
8D BB 
18 AD 
BC C4 
8D 50 
C6 AD 
45 C6 
8D BE 
C4 AD 
BE C4 

00 8D 

01 8D 
03 EE 
7D C3 
01 29 
ED 4A 
8D B0 
AD B4 
C5 A9 
18 AD 
AD B3 
D0 EE 
eD 30 
EE Bl 
Bl C5 
AD 48 
C6 8D 
B3 C5 
C5 6A 
A2 03 
B2 C5 
C5 CA 
6D B0 
EE Bl 
Bl C5 
C5 29 
B0 C5 
AD 48 
A9 07 
A9 01 
D0 FC 
8 5 FB 
00 Bl 



A5 
00 



51 C6 

60 A9 

50 C6 

60 A9 



C6 

SD 
18 



18 
52 
AD 



53 C6 
C5 C9 
3D 53 



03 F0 
C6 8D 
BC C4 
21 C4 
AD 43 
C4 80 
51 C6 
8D BB 
C4 A9 
C4 C9 
AD 4C 
48 C6 
4A C4 
C9 FF 
BD C4 
AD BB 
C4 90 
BC C4 
4C AD 
C6 AD 
44 C6 
8D 4F 
C4 AD 
53 C6 
CD BD 
BD C4 
BD C4 
4B C6 
00 00 
FE 85 

06 8D 
C5 A9 
C5 4A 
00 8D 
B2 C5 
C5 2A 
A2 05 
C5 SD 
C5 18 
8D Bl 
C6 8D 
B3 C5 
6A 8D 
8D B2 
18 AD 
AD B3 
D0 EE 
C5 8D 
C5 18 
8D Bl 

07 18 
90 03 
C6 29 
38 ED 
E0 00 
80 B2 
AD Bl 
FB 0D 
09 01 
00 00 
Fa 08 
03 60 
F0 05 
05 60 
AD 4E 
C6 90 
4F C6 
8D 53 
03 F0 
C6 38 



17 20 
BB C4 
A9 01 
AD 4 2 
C6 8D 
50 C6 
20 F7 
C4 AD 

00 8D 

01 F0 
C6 C9 
D0 13 
CE 48 
D0 03 
CD 47 
C4 6D 
03 EE 
6D 45 
C4 AD 
BC C4 
80 4E 
C6 20 
52 C6 
80 BC 
C4 F0 
4C AD 
EE 4A 

2 BF 
00 00 



01 
B4 



A0 8D 
4A 4A 
B3 C5 
2A BD 
BD B3 
18 AD 
B0 C5 
AD B3 
C5 CA 
B2 C5 
A2 03 
B3 C5 
CS CA 
B2 C5 
C5 2A 
18 AD 
B0 C5 
AD B3 
C5 IS 
6D 80 
EE Bl 
07 SD 
B2 05 
F0 04 

05 AD 
C5 85 
B2 C5 
85 01 
AD 4F 
B0 03 
AD 4E 
B0 F3 
A9 00 
C6 6D 
03 EE 
6D 51 

06 60 
22 AD 
AD 50 



F7 32 
AD FF 
80 A5 
06 40 
4F 2E 
AD 05 
C5 54 
53 56 
BD 72 
03 B2 
00 C7 
EE E5 
C6 FE 
CE 40 
C6 6C 
44 47 
BC 97 
C6 01 
BB DC 
80 AD 
06 26 
F7 Bl 
8D 4E 
C4 BE 
08 09 
C4 04 
C6 12 
C4 F0 
18 58 
A9 BC 
A9 DB 
Bl CO 
8D 41 
A2 D3 
B2 01 
CS 50 
B2 BA 
90 87 
CS 08 
00 5B 
AD 67 
18 C5 
AD 4B 
D0 BF 
2A B3 
8D 69 
B2 6B 

90 D7 
C5 58 
AD 23 
C5 F2 
C5 AD 
B2 24 
AA 2E 
0A 8E 
B0 E6 
FC 6F 

91 C2 
60 CC 
C6 5B 
A9 lA 
C6 E8 
A9 B3 
BD 33 

50 56 
53 AB 
C6 DD 
20 50 

51 F6 
C6 0B 



C608: 
C610: 
C613; 
C620: 
C623; 
C630; 
C638; 
C640; 
C648; 
C650; 
C658; 
C660; 
C66B1 
C670; 
C678; 
C680; 
C688; 
C690; 
C698; 
C6A0: 
C6Aa: 
C6B0: 
C6B8: 
C6ca; 



ED 4E 
CE S3 
4F C6 
AD 4F 
4E C6 
B0 03 
C6 ED 
00 60 
00 00 
00 00 
85 01 
3 5 FC 
20 BA 



20 
FC 



A0 BF 

IF C0 

08 A9 

00 A5 

A9 3B 

A9 0F 

FF AD 

20 BD 

A0 20 



C6 8D 52 

C6 38 AD 
8D 53 06 
C6 80 53 
ED 50 C6 
CE 53 C6 
51 C6 8D 
00 00 00 
00 00 00 

00 00 A5 
A9 19 35 
A9 0F A2 
FF A9 07 
BD FF A2 
A9 00 85 
A2 40 20 
AD IF C0 
30 8D IF 

01 09 01 
85 FB A9 
A2 08 A0 
3A OF A6 
FF A9 00 
D5 FF 60 



06 B0 
53 06 
A9 01 
06 38 
8D 52 
38 AO 
53 C6 
00 00 

00 00 

01 29 
FB A9 
08 A0 
A6 FB 
00 A 9 
FB A9 
D8 FF 
C9 3A 
C0 EE 
85 01 
CF 85 
00 20 
FB A4 
A2 00 



03 E3 
ED 6C 
60 25 
AD DD 
C6 29 
53 AB 
A9 2C 
00 E5 
00 D5 
FE 60 
C0 DF 
FF 8C 
A4 BE 
A0 45 
FB A8 
EE F9 
90 AF 
IE 63 
60 21 
FC D6 
BA A3 
FC 59 
A0 8B 
00 64 



Bruce Bowden is one of COMPUTES 
programmers. He can be reached on 
QuantumLink as GazetteBMB. n 

BUG-SWATTER 

The machine language listing for Song 
Machine (October 1991) contained sev- 
eral errors. In order to correct them, 
load and run MLX and respond with 
Song Machine's original starting and 
ending addresses. Then select Load 
File from the /WLXmenu and load the cor- 
rupted copy of Song Machine. 

When the MLX Command Menu re- 
turns, select Enter Data. When prompt- 
ed for a starting address, give the ad- 
dress listed below and then enter the 
first block of data. Press Return on an 
empty line to return to the Command 
Menu. Select Enter Data again for the 
second block of data, using its starting 
address, When both blocks of data 
have been entered, save the program 
with a new name before exiting MLX. 

A similar problem occured with Add 
Check (October 1991 ). It can be correct- 
ed in the same manner. 

Starting address: 0CG9 

0C69:00 85 FE 18 A5 30 69 28 2D 
0C71:85 30 A5 31 69 00 85 31 A7 



0C79; 
0C81; 



18 A5 32 
33 69 00 



69 28 85 32 AS 45 
85 33 E8 E0 00 Fl 



0C89:D0 A9 60 A2 00 A0 00 A9 06 
0C91:60 20 D2 FF OS C0 28 00 A6 
0C99:F8 E8 E0 05 D0 EF 60 20 FB 
0OA1:44 E5 A0 00 B9 76 93 20 58 



0CA9:D2 
0CB1:3E 
0CB9:F0 
0001:11 
0CC9:AE 
0CDl:4D 
0CD9:52 
0CE1:D7 
0CE9:D7 
0CF1:02 



D7 
02 



FF C8 C0 
EF 02 AE 
52 AE 
AE D8 
09 02 E0 
84 A2 0F 
A2 00 
E0 00 
02 E0 00 
E0 00 F0 



84 
02 



IE D0 F5 60 D0 

F3 03 E0 01 A6 

02 E0 01 B0 73 

E0 01 B0 0A BF 

01 B0 03 4C IB 

3E 18 04 40 01 

3E 18 04 AE BD 

F0 2C CA 8E DE 

F0 24 AE D8 08 

26 CA 8E D8 R4 



Starting address: igE1 



19E1: 
19E9: 
19F1: 
19F9: 
1A01: 
1A09: 
lAll: 
1A19: 
1A21: 
1A29: 
1A31: 
1A39: 
1A41: 
1A49: 
1A51: 
1A59: 
1A61: 
1A69: 
1A71: 
1A79: 
1A81: 
1A89: 
1A91: 
1A9 9: 
lAAl: 
1AA9: 
lABl: 
1AB9: 
lACl: 
1AC9: 
lADl: 



91 8E 
C8 A2 
03 E8 
4C 5E 
B0 C4 
35 03 
35 03 
F0 20 
A7 02 
8D 7B 
03 AD 
E0 91 
AD AC 

92 80 
70 03 
80 7A 
03 AD 
B2 02 
C9 0D 
6D F5 
6D F6 
03 60 
3 60 
B9 84 
83 03 
AD 83 
8F 09 
03 60 
03 6D 

78 03 

79 03 



83 03 ca 
00 B9 35 

08 CC 34 
91 8E 88 
83 C0 00 

09 56 00 
09 31 F0 
C9 33 F0 
8D 7A 03 
03 AD A9 
AA 02 BD 
AD AB 02 

02 SD 7B 
7C 03 AD 
40 E0 91 

03 AD B0 
Bl 02 8D 
80 7D 03 
F0 AA 18 
02 85 FB 

02 85 FC 
F5 02 
F6 02 

03 99 7F 
D0 F4 40 
03 8D 7E 
0D F0 F2 
F5 02 85 
F6 02 35 
6D F5 02 
6D F6 02 



85 
85 



C8 C8 
03 9D 
03 B0 
03 E0 
F0 BF 
F4 08 
09 09 
37 60 
AD A8 

02 8D 
7D 03 
80 7A 

03 AD 
AE 92 
AD AP 

02 80 
7C 03 
20 D8 
AD 76 
AD 77 
18 AD 
FD AD 
FE A0 

03 C8 
IB 92 
03 20 
18 AD 

30 AO 

31 18 
85 32 
85 33 



08 E4 
89 3F 

03 D7 

04 IB 
B9 08 
B9 DC 
32 5E 
AD 0D 

02 2 5 
7C 2B 
4C 7C 

03 F0 
AD 81 
8D 5B 

02 41 
7B 52 
AD EA 
8F DA 

03 FD 
03 03 

7 8 DE 
79 72 
00 0B 
CO 20 
60 16 

08 E7 

76 9A 

77 69 
AD A0 
AD 40 
A0 CD 



ADD CHECK 

Starting address: 0861 

0861:34 03 AD 34 

0869:03 20 BD FF 

0371:A0 02 20 BA 

0879:A9 0D 20 D2 

0881:06 FF 20 CF 

0889:20 CF FF 20 

0891:00 8D 20 CF 

0899:09 0D F0 0B 

08A1:FF SD B2 02 

08A9:B2 02 09 FF 

08B1:20 06 FF 20 

03B9:85 FD 20 E4 

08C1:FE A9 00 8D 

98C9:02 A0 03 20 

08O1:BA 02 69 01 

08D9:BB 02 69 00 

08E1:A5 FD 69 01 

08E9:69 00 85 FE 

08F1:00 00 03 4C 

08F9:20 C6 FF A9 



03 


A2 


35 


A0 


P2 


A9 


02 


A2 


08 


5D 


FF 


20 


C0 


FF 


04 


FF 


A2 


0F 


20 


9B 


FF 


20 


D2 


FF 


10 


D2 


FF 


C9 


30 


F9 


FF 


20 


02 


FF 


74 


40 


93 


08 


A9 


06 


40 


93 


08 


AD 


F9 


F0 


48 


A2 


02 


BC 


E4 


FF 


85 


FB 


B3 


FF 


85 


FC 


85 


F3 


BA 


02 


80 


BB 


49 


E4 


FF 


13 


AD 


0A 


BD 


BA 


02 


AD 


06 


80 


BB 


02 


18 


EC 


85 


FD 


A5 


FE 


EF 


20 


B7 


FF 


C9 


FB 


CC 


08 


A2 


00 


27 


02 


20 


03 


FF 


7E 



G-AO COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



REVIEWS 



THE TERMINATOR 

Not many games leave play- 
ers with the desire to stalk 
the streets brandishing an AK- 
47 rifle. The cartoon violence 
in most action adventure 
games these days shows op- 
ponents disappearing in flash- 
es of light or simply falling in 
a neat heap on stone floors. 
You don't find such effects 
in The Terminator. 

Based on the relentless ac- 
tion film, The Terminator mir- 
rors its 1984 namesake, offer- 
ng a wealth of destructive 
potential. You can play either 
the killer cyborg from the fu- 
ture or the cunning tactical ex- 
pert Kyle Reese, who must pro- 
tect the Terminator's target, 
Sarah Conner, the mother of 
an unborn revolutionary. 

Gun stores and army de- 
pots await in central Los An- 
geles. Pick up bulletproof jack- 
ets, automatic weapons, and 
even a Stinger missile — but 
mounting this offense (and de- 
fense) takes time — time in 
which youropponent might de- 
cide to end the conflict. 

As the Terminator, strategy 
doesn't much concern you. 
Simply pick up your rifles and 
hunt down Sarah Conner. But 
even a twenty-first-century 
cyborg isn't indestructible. 
Reese will do everything he 
can to stop you — a lot rides 
on his success. And those LA 
police officers are no wimps. 

When you zero in on civil- 
ians or law enforcement offi- 
cers, a closeup of your hit ap- 
pears onscreen. The wound- 
ed don't just fall: bullets 
knocks them off their feet and 
force out blood. Bethesda 
claims these scenes were so 
popular early on that it now of- 
fers a separate disk with 
more of these closeups. 

If you prefer strategy over 
pure violence, make Reese 
your choice. He'll need more 
time to plan and gather sup- 
plies, but the blows dealt de- 



liver greater satisfaction than 
what you would get by play- 
ing a remorseless cyborg- 
Sarah Conner stands by your 
side when you begin. Protect 
her well. She can carry sup- 
plies if you become too weight- 



through their eyes (if they can 
still see). Step into a weapons 
store or shooting range and a 
256-color screen appears. 

Kill or destroy one of your 
opponents and you'll be treat- 
ed to full-screen action cine- 




Everyone's favorite liiiler cyborg is bacl< to wreak riavoc in The 
Terminator from Bethesda Softworl<s. 




On the leading edge costwise. the 
Leading Tecfinology 9800NB runs 
Logic VGA controller 

ed down with weaponry and 
ammunition, and remember 
that she'll teach her unborn 
son the ways of a rebel 

Unlike other recent 3-D 
games, this product puts you 
in direct control of the charac- 
ters. You see the world 



elegant and lightweight 
at 20 MHz and uses a Cirrus 

matography. These great 
shots make up for the less 
than superb point-of-view 
game graphics in which char- 
acters sometimes disappear 
seemingly at will or walk 
through walls, 
When you play the part of 



the Terminator, aheads-up dis- 
play overlays your optical vi- 
sion, providing accurate tar- 
get acquisition information. 
Just be aware that the faster 
the pace, the slower the ac- 
tion. This means greater frus- 
tration in attack mode, so 
choose less detail even on a 
faster than average machine. 

The Terminator sports im- 
pressive sound. In additon to 
providing sound card sup- 
port, this game lends the in- 
ternal speaker some respect- 
ability via Real Sound tech- 
nology. Be sure to remove 
any TSR programs and use ex- 
panded memory. Otherwise, 
The Terminator is sluggish 
and prone to nondescript 
buzzes and graphical errors. 

Even with the occasional 
annoying bugs, The Termina- 
tor offers magnificent detail 
in its graphics and move- 
ment options. There's noth- 
ing like taking a few shots at 
your target as you make a 
strategic withdrawal from the 
ever-present police force. 
Load that 9-mm Uzi and 
take aim. The fate of human- 
ity rests on your shoulders. 

JONATHAN BELL 

IBM PC and compatibles (60286 or 
faster recommended); 640K RAM; 
EGA or VGA; requires liard drive; sup- 
ports Ad Lib and Sound Blaster; joy- 
stick optional— $54.95 

Animated Combat Sequence Disk— 
S24.95 

BETHESDA SOFTWORKS 
P.O. Box 7877 
Gaithersburg, MO 20898 
(800) 677-0700 
Circle Reader Service Number 324 

LEADING 

TECHNOLOGY 

9800NB 

The steady stream of new 
386SX notebooks is starting 
to look like the circus act 
where one clown after anoth- 
er spills out of a car. After a 
while, you lose count and 

JANUARY 1992 COMPUTE 113 



REVIEWS 



they all begin to look alike. 

To grab our attention 
these days, savvy notebook 
manufacturers have to offer 
one or more unique features 
or a substantially lower 
price. While the 9800NB has 
a few interesting features, its 
primary claim to fame is 
cost. Leading Technology 
computers are sold at highly 
competitive prices in many 
of the mass-market discount 
chains. But even if the price 
is right, should you buy it? 

First, let's look at what's 
good about this machine, ft 
runs at 20 fvlHz (many 386SX 
notebooks still run at 16 
MHz), takes as much as 
8IVIB of RAM (more than 
most), uses the Cirrus Logic 
VGA controller (still the best 
one for converting color to 
32 shades of gray), gets a 
healthy 2-2yz hours on a bat- 
tery charge vi/ith the built-in 
power-saving features, 
weighs only 6.6 pounds, in- 
cludes an easy-to-use DOS 
shell, and can plug into an op- 
tional expansion chassis. 

With these features, the 
9800NB stands out from the 
crowd. In addition, if you care 
about looks, it has a stylish, al- 
most machine-like appear- 
ance that's quite attractive. 

Other features work well 
but are slightly flawed. The 
keyboard has a nice springy 
feel, although I didn't care 
for the reverse L placement 
of the arrow keys (other note- 
book computers use the 
more intuitive upside-down T 
shape.) And while the 40MB 
Seagate hard drive is reason- 
ably fast, I couldn't get it to 
work with Stacker 1.1. 

What doesn't work at all? 
Only one thing, although it 
could be a major problem for 
many notebook users. Be- 
cause there's no provision 
for an internal modem and 
the 98aONB has only one se- 
rial port, you can't use a 
mouse and a modem at the 

114 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



same time. That means you 
can't use Windows commu- 
nications programs unless 
you use them with keyboard 
commands (good luck!). 

On the other hand, if you 
don't think you'll be using 
your notebook to go online or 
you're happy with your cur- 
rent text-based communica- 



of cereal in single-serving 
boxes, probably only two or 
three were kinds you really 
liked. This al! brings us to Fast- 
Lynx LapPack. "the complete 
software system for the laptop 
computer." 

Packaged in a box large 
enough to hold a football, 
FastLynx LapPack offers ten 




FastLynx LapPack includes ten programs for your laptop computer 



tions program, this shouldn't 
be a problem. To sum up, if 
you can find the 9800NB for 
a great price, this could be 
the notebook for you. 

DAVID ENGLISH 

Leading Technology 980DNB. 2MB 
of RAM, VGA screen, 20MB hard 
drive— S2,249 

LEADING TECHNOLOGY 
^CA30 SW Fifth St. 
Beaverlon. OR 97005-3447 
(503) 646-3424 
Cifcle Headar Servlca Number 325 



FASTLYNX 
UPPACK 



If you saw double features as 
a kid, you probably wouldn't 
have minded skipping one of 
the movies some of the time. 
If you bought sampler packs 



software packages for a sug- 
gested price of $299.95. 
which the Rupp Corporation 
claims would cost $1 ,049.00 
if purchased separately. Is it 
a bargain in a big box, then, 
or an overabundant bundle? 

To begin with, it's hard to 
consider something with no 
word processor, spread- 
sheet, or full communications 
program "a complete soft- 
ware system," 

On the other hand, Fast- 
Lynx LapPack's ten pro- 
grams generally work well, 
providing a variety of func- 
tions — though some are 
more useful than others. 

The package includes 
Ttie Maximlzer. a contact 
management program for 
business professionals; Fast- 
Lynx, which allows easy trans- 



fer of information between 
desktop and laptop comput- 
ers; and l^ergett! Phonelist, 
a well-designed phone-num- 
ber-and-addresE database. 
You also get FastLock, 
which provides hard drive se- 
curity by requiring a pass- 
word to boot up, and EZC 
Smart Cursor, which (drum 
roll, please) allows you to 
change the shape of your 
cursor! 

Obviously, some of Fast- 
Lynx LapPack's programs 
are more valuable than oth- 
ers, and no bundle — even a 
package with this many pro- 
grams — can possibly 
please all users. 

For instance, Ttie Maximiz- 
er would probably interest a 
business user who must 
keep in close contact with cli- 
ents (besides an appoint- 
ment calendar and stripped- 
down ledger function, it in- 
cludes ready-made letters to 
be mailed for birthdays and 
anniversaries), but it would 
be of little use to just about 
anyone else. 

The enclosed Compu- 
Serve starter kit will prove 
valuable to a telecommunica- 
tions newcomer, but for some- 
one already using Compu- 
Serve or someone without a 
modem, this part of the pack- 
age isn't of much use. 

f^ost of the FastLynx Lap- 
Pack programs are easy to in- 
stall, easy to learn, and quite 
efficient, however. Both CO/ 
Session, which lets one PC 
control another via modem, 
and the previously men- 
tioned FastLynx program 
make it easy for your laptop 
to interact with your desktop 
computer, and Switcli-lt al- 
lows for quick entrances and 
exits between programs — 
much like going back and 
forth between windows in a 
word processing program. 

SitBack backs up your 
files automatically, and 
FastJuice provides the often 



f*.- 



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fc^iSum 



The King is dead. Long bve the new King - you. 

Endoivedwith the divine right to ritle, ijotir father becjucaths 
to \joH his Realm. Unfortunately, as your sphere of 
inpnence grows, so does the resentment from the riders of j 
neighbouring Realms, jealousy is such an ughj tiling. '-^:-- 

The fragile peace has been siiattered and u>ar rages 

bchveen the Realms. Now your brief reign has become a 

fight for survival Tlie neigliboring Realms are growing in 

strength at your expense. 

Do yon build lines of supplies to barter with them? Or do _^ 

you build armies to battle with them? Each Realm vies to | GAMES 

be the ultimate power. 

But there can only be one. fust make sure its yours. 



Enter the ivorld of REALMS andiiou could control: 

"OVER 125,000 SQUARE MILES OF FRACTALLY- 

GENERATED LANDSCAPE 
"128 ARMIES, EACH A THOUSAND STRONG WITH 

DEFJNABLE BATTLE FORMATIONS 
"SIX DISTINCT HUMANOID RACES 
"COUNTLESS FOLLOWERS AND THEIR MONEY 
® IN INNUMERABLE CITIES 

Created by the axvard-winuing Graftgold development 
team, REALMS combines the intuitive playability of 
an arcade game with the depth of strategy tisualiy 
found only in the most complex simulations. 



LOVE THY NEIGHBOR? 

OR PUT HIM TO THE SWORD? 

THE CHOICE IS YOURS. 



Realm$ Is 1 iridemark of Virgin Games, Inc, © 1991 Virgin Games, Int. All rights reservtd, © 1191 Graftgold Ltd, 
Virgin is a registered trademark of Virgin Enterprises, Ltd. Illustration bf Dermot Power. 



DEVELOPED BY 



AMIGA SCREEN SHOTS 
SHOWN. 



FOR PRICING AND ORDERS, PLEASE CALL 800-VRG-IN07. VISA. MASTERCARD. AMERICAN EXPRESS, AND CHECKS ACCEPTED. 

«->i^-i_ a.».^... CLA.4>E«k MiimKar lHI 



Circle Reader Servtce NumlMr 151 



'ac^rrMa.,^S:.T:>- ap^yy:^ ^■■ii^^S^^-f-^j^m) 



IMPORTANT NOTICE 

FOR 

COMPUTE DISK 

SUBSCRIBERS 

COMPUTE offers two differ- 
ent disk products for PC read- 
ers; tl^e SharePak disl< and 
PC Disk. SharePak is montt^ly 
and has a subscription price 
of $59.95 for 5V'i-inch disks 
and $64.95 for 3V2-incli 
disks, A subscription to Share- 
Pak does not include a sub- 
scription to the magazine, 
PC Disk appears in even- 
numbered months and has 
a subscription price of 
$49,95, which includes a sub- 
scription to the PC edition of 
COMPUTE. You can sub- 
scribe to either disk or to 
both, but a subscription to 
one does not include a sub- 
scription to the other. 



IF YOUR IQ 
IS 1/2 OF </4 OF 
VioOF 10,560, 

READON. 

If your IQ measures at or above 
132*, you're Mensa material. Take air 
at-home pre-test to see whether you 
may qualify to join, or let our bro- 
chure tell you if you've already quali- 
fied. In Mensa, intellectual stimu- 
lation is a mathematical certainty. 



Name. 



Address . 



Cily/State/Zip . 

□ Send me (he Mensa brochure. 

D I'll try the at-home pre-test. Enclosed is 
$12,00 {check or money order in U.S. 
funds only, please). 

(^ mensa 

Vyily The High IQ Society. 

Send to; MENSA, Dept, CP12, 2626 East 
14lh Street, Brooklyn, NY 11235-3992 

LOrcall:l-800-66MENSA 
•Slanford Binet Test. Form L-St 5« brochure torottwra ■ 

Circle Reader Service Number 182 



REVIEWS 



indispensable service of monitoring 
your laptop's battery charge. Just weigh 
your needs before letting FastLynx /.ap- 
F^c/c substitute for careful software shop- 
ping. 

So is FastLynx LapPack a ten-pack of 
your favorite Cfiocolate-Frosted Sugar 
Bombs or a disappointing medley of 
Bombs, Nutty Berries, and Nothing but 
Bran? Probably ttie medley, but maybe 
a boxful of favorites if you're lucky. 
Check the ingredients first. Then pur- 
chase with care. 

EDDIE HUFFMAN 

BM PC and compatible portabies, 640K RAM— 
S299.95 

RUPP 

72S5 Franklin Ave. 

Los Angeles, CA 90046 

(213) 850-5394 

Circle Reader Service Number 326 

PERSONAL COMPUTING 
FOR WOMEN 

What's the advantage women have in 
learning to use a PC? "Women can 
type." If that line doesn't convince you 
not to buy this superfluous course in per- 
sonal computing, keep reading, /'//con- 
vince you. 

My first question is why a beginners' 
guide to PCs should be gender-specif- 
ic. Author Maria Hoath's observations 
such as "When we start our cars we 
don't know how the gas gets to the en- 
gine" and questions like "Remember 
how befuddled you were when your 
VCR arrived?" tell all. 

Women are innately computerpho- 
bic. she claims. Why? We're afraid we 
"might press the wrong key and erase 
everything." 

When I finally got through the pages 
of endless male bashing, "case histo- 
ries" of women who have actually used 
personal computers (imagine that), and 
"facts" that ironically emphasize 
Hoath's lack of confidence in her own 
gender. I was halfway through the 
book. 

Nowhere does she list a single 
source of information to support her 
statements, and yet she offers strange 
assertions like "software is usually region- 
al in its popularity— what people use in 
one state may be unknown in another 
state." Tell that to the manufacturers. 



Unfortunately Hoath devotes only 26 
pages to what should have been the fo- 
cus of her effort — personal computers. 
While not in-depth, her information is at 
least useful to a novice, but mysteri- 
ously enough, she deems that part of 
the book optional. Go figure. 

In Maria Hoath's world, every boss is 
a condescending male, and every wom- 
an an aimless airhead, perplexed by 
the complex. "This is an awful lot of 
techy terms, isn't it?" I can almost see 
her wink. At $9,95 for 152 pages of noth- 
ing, this book is an expensive joke. 

JILL CHAMPION 

Author: Maria Hoath 152 pages — S9.95 

V/RITE BYTE PUBLISHING 

PO, Box 835 

Alpharetta, GA 30201-9998 

(404) 740-0659 

Circle Reader Service Number 327 

"TALKING" ONCE 
UPON A TIME... 
VOLUME III: JOURNEY 
THROUGH TIME 

My nine-year-old daughter used Once 
upon a Time to write a book. What she 
didn't know was how much spelling, 
grammar, and linear logic she was learn- 
ing in the process. Once upon a Time 
combines word-processing and draw- 
ing software in a unique educational 
experience that kids will think is noth- 
ing but fun. Volume III of Once upon 
a Time lets kids actually create books 
set in medieval times, in the Wild West, 
or in outer space— all on the PC. Vol- 
ume I offers Farm Life, Down Main 
Street, and On Safari scenarios. The va- 
riety of stories and pictures that kids 
can actually create within each scenar- 
io is almost entirely up to them. 

Referring to Once upon a Time as a 
drawing program is misleading. The 
child doesn't actually drawanythlng on 
the screen. Instead, he or she selects 
an appropriate background (four per 
scenario including a blank) and then 
places any number of picture elements, 
selected from an on screen list, any- 
where on that background. The upper 
two-thirds of the screen is the child's 
selected background. The bottom third 
offers a list of commands that can be 



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STRATEGIC SIMULATIONS, INC: 



REVIEWS 



selected by simply moving a 
highlight bar. Backgrounds 
can be switched, for exam- 
ple, by simply highlighting 
the Background command 
and hitting the Return key. 
The Draw option allows the 
child to place a picture ele- 
ment directly on the back- 
ground he or she has select- 
ed. The Fl key displays a list 
of ail available picture ele- 
ments for the selected sce- 
nario. In a flash of brilliance, 
the creators of Once upon a 
Time have set things up so 
that the child types in the 
name of each selected pic- 
ture element before it will ap- 
pear on the background. 
The child thus reads the list 
and learns the words. Each 
of the three scenarios allows 
selection from roughly two 
dozen different picture ele- 
ments. In the Medieval 
Times scenario, for example, 
the child can put wizards, 
horses, knights, tables, and 
much more on backgrounds 
illustrating a castle's interior, 
hills and a distant village, or 
a blank or black screen. Us- 
ing the computer's arrow 
keys, a child can place each 
selected element anywhere 
on a background. Highlight- 
ing the appropriate com- 
mand at the bottom of the 
screen and typing in the ele- 
ment's name allov/s your 
child to flip, delete, or move 
elements. 

Most amazing, however, 
is the program's ability to 
actually speak the name of 
each picture element, crisp- 
ly and clearly, through the 
computer's existing speaker. 
The child simply highlights a 
picture element on the on 
screen list and then hits F2, 
and its name is spoken. 
This, of course, makes Once 
upon a Time an even better 
reading and spelling aid 
than it might have otherwise 
been. It's certainly conven- 
ient, too, since you don't 

118 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



need any additional hard- 
ware or software to perform 
this nearly miraculous feat. 
When I said my daughter 
wrote a book, I wasn't kid- 
ding. Once upon a Time al- 
so has some attractive word- 
processing capabilities. 
They will at first seem limited, 
but this is a program for chil- 
dren ages 7-12. Kids that 
age don't want or need com- 
prehensive features such as 
block move or search-and- 



that I've seen in a long time. 

ALAN R, BECHTOLD 

IBM PC and compatibles; 384K 
RAM; CGA, EGA, MCGA, VGA. Tan- 
dy 16-color. or Hercules; joystick or 
mouse— S49.95 

Also available for Apple II series (non- 
talking)— 49.95. Apple llGS— S59.9S, 
and Macintosh— $49,95 

COMPU-TEACH 

78 Olive St, 

New Haven. 0106511 

(800) 44-TEACH 

Circle Reader Service Number 328 




The king and queen; told the knight that a dragon was 
loose in their kingdom. The dragon had attacked a 
village last night'. 



Volume III of Once Upon a Time 
Wild W3st, outer space, and the 

replace. They just want to 
write, and Once upon a 
Time lets them do just that. 
No, my daughter didn't 
sell her book to a major pub- 
lisher and make enough mon- 
ey to buy me a new car, but 
she was happy and busy for 
hours, writing her story and 
creating pictures to go with 
it, then coloring the final print- 
ed results. She learned a lot 
of new words and organiza- 
tional skills in the process. 
Now she's bugging me to 
get off the computer and let 
her start on her next crea- 
tion, and she hasn't caught 
on that she's learning while 
she creates. That's why I 
think Once upon a Time is 
one of the best examples of 
quality educationai software 



lets kids explore medieval time, the 
universe of their own immaginations. 

EPSON EQUITY 
386SX/20 PLUS 

When was the last time you 
were dazzled by a comput- 
er? In addition to power, 
speed, and acommitmient to 
the needs of the average us- 
er, Epson's EQUITY 386SX/ 
20 PLUS offers remarkable 
graphics based on Edsun's 
CEG anti-aliasing chip 

The power and speed 
come from the 20-MHz 
386SX microprocessor, 2MB 
of fast zero-wait-state DRAM 
{Dynamic Random Access 
Memory}, a 100MB hard 
drive (a 40MB drive is avail- 
able), and a 32K SRAM (Stat- 
ic Random Access Memory) 
cache. For computation-inten- 



sive applications, the cache 
optimizes system perform- 
ance by holding oft-used in- 
struction sequences, ailowing 
the microprocessor to use 
them without any wait states. 
While the DRAM offers fast 
performance with its 80-ns rat- 
ing, the SRAM wins the race 
with its blazing 25-ns rating. 

If you need more speed, 
and especially if you pian to 
run Windows, I recommend 
adding more memory. This 
Epson allows you to expand 
RAM to 16MB maximum, 
14MB on the system board 
alone with Single In-line 
Memory Modules (SIMMs). 

You have room for three 
drives altogether, two mount- 
ed horizontally and one (unex- 
posed, for a hard drive) 
mounted vertically. While Ep- 
son offers a choice of VGA 
monitors {monochrome, reg- 
ular, and extended) and op- 
erating systems (MS-DOS 
3,3, 4.01, and 5.0), I was sur- 
prised to find that you pay ex- 
tra for them. Epson will, how- 
ever, throw in Microsoft En- 
dows software free with eve- 
ry purchase of the operating 
system for this computer, 
and Epson also gives you 
Bitstream's Facelift, a font- 
generation program for Win- 
dows that allows you to cre- 
ate scalable fonts for your 
phnter and screen. 

Epson's commitment to the 
needs of the computer user is 
apparent in its documentation 
and in the design of the com- 
puter. I give Epson an A for its 
excellent User's Guide, 
which offers attractive design, 
a multitude of illustrations, thor- 
oughness, and readability In 
addition to the usual informa- 
tion on set up and use of the 
computer, this manual covers 
safety, installation of options, 
system diagnostics, trou- 
bleshooting, and more. 
Throughout, Epson includes 
boxes with notes, cautions, 
and other information desen/- 



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ABC Sports Wintei Games 34 

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F-15 II Scenario Disk 20 

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Lost Patrol-,., 33 

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Harpoon daiierger P3k.„„ 57 

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MegaTraveiler II 37 

Mickey St Minniff's Print Kit 17 

Mickey's Crossword Puzzle 22 

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MicroLe^ueBasheiball... 27 

M^c^oLe^ue Football Deluxe... .42 

Mike Ditka Foatball .....34 

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MilenrjTn ..„„27 

MoonBase «,.,27 

Murtler ,.....,.,.,30 

M^^tical , .......32 

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NoCrunaga's ^^/nbition It 37 

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Ototus 39 

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Ooeration COM'BAT 25 

Overlord 32 

P3perboy2 29 

P^tton Vs. ROTimel 37 

Perfect Generai 37 

Persorai Pro Golf 32 

PGA Commemoralive Edition 46 

POA Course Disk 19 

PGA Tour Goli 33 

Pick N' Pile..,,. 29 

iPlflnefs Edge III. 39 

Ptayroom , 29 

Police QtjestS.,.,. 37 

Poois of Darkness 40 

Populous - 24 

Powermon|er 40 

Prehistorik ,..,...32 

Prince o( Persia „27 

Pro FMibaii Analyst ,,1.37 

Pro Tennis Tour 2 33 



Rommel 25 

Rules of Engagement. 3S 

Savage Empire.,., „«.,*,..,..37 

Scrabble Oeiuice 32 



Space Quest 4 3'' 

Spe!!c3SSir>gl01 3? 

S pel leasing 201 43 

Spirit of Excalibur 32 

Stanford Wong's Video Poksr ..32 

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IF YOU DON'T SEE IT, CALLf 



Circle Reader Sefvi{» Number 174 



REVIEWS 



ing special attention. There's 
also a glossary of computer 
terms at the end of the guide. 

The first time you set the 
computer up, you'll need to 
run Epson's setup program, 
which defines your configu- 
ration. This is probably the on- 
fy part of the guide you'll 
need to consult if you have 
some computer experience 
under your belt. If you need 
more guidance, Epson cov- 
ers everything from finding 
an appropriate location for 
your computer to connecting 
system components and run- 
ning through your options in 
the setup program. Your op- 
tions include setting a pass- 
word, enabling or disabling 
the cache, turning your speak- 
er on or off, and setting the 
keyboard repeat rate. 

Access to the EQUITY sys- 
tem box couldn't be easier. 
Forget about screwdrivers — 
just turn a wheel lock, push 
in two releases on the back 
of the box. and tilt the top up 
and off. At six inches fiigh, 
this box offers plenty of 
room for installation and ad- 
equate ventilation. If you 
need access to the right por- 
tion of the system board, you 
can easily lift out the drive 
bay/power supply subassem- 
bly— once again, without 
using a screwdriver. 

This EQUITY gives you 
four full-size card slots — 
three 16-bit and one 8-bit. Be- 
cause the video output, 
mouse port, serial port, par- 
allel port, and video adapter 
port are integrated into the 
system board, you really 
don't need many slots. 

On the front of the box, 
you'll find a power button on 
the right, out of the way of 
the keyboard but recessed 
to help you avoid hitting it ac- 
cidentally. To the left you'll 
find a hard disk access 
light. Below it is a light to let 
you know when the comput- 
er is in turbo (20-fv1Hz) 

120 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



mode, and below that is a 
small, recessed reset button. 
Accidental reboots should 
be a thing of the past; you 
have to aim and deliberately 
try to hit this one. 

The 101-key keyboard 
served my purposes well, 
and I didn't find anything 
remar(<able to distinguish it 




from most other keyboards. 

The built-in VGA adapter 
with 512K of video memory 
supports up to 800 x 600 pix- 
els in 16 colors or up to 640 
X 480 pixels in 256 colors. 
With a CEG chip, however, 
you have an apparent reso- 
lution of at least 1563 x 
1280, and that's with a stan- 
dard VGA monitor, Here's 
how it works: The CEG chip 
uses a technique called anti- 
aliasing to blend colors be- 
tween adjacent pixels, get- 
ting rid of the jagged edges 
typical of most displays. You 
see rounder curves and, ac- 
cording to Epson, you have 
access to a color palette of 
more than 700,000 shades. 

There are now CEG dis- 
play drivers for Windows, 
PageMaker, Excel, Ami Pro, 
and several other programs. 



(For a current listing, contact 
Edsun Laboratories, Market- 
ing Department, 564 Ua'in 
Street, Waltham, fvlassachu- 
setts 02154; 617-647-9300.) 
I used the Windows CEG 
driver and was impressed 
with many of the features as 
well as the CEG screen blank- 
er. A CEG demo with photo- 
graphs and com- 
puter-generated 
images really daz- 
zled me. I'd never 
seen graphics so 
brilliantly and 
sharply represent- 
ed on a VGA 
monitor. 

Why go for 
this relatively 
pricey Epson 
rather than a 
less expensive 
brand? The ex- 
cellent design 



and documentation speak 
well for the computer, and Ep- 
son has a reputation for du- 
rability and dependability. Al- 
so, you can bet that Epson 
will be around for some time. 
If you depend heavily on your 
computer and need that kind 
of reliability and reputation, 
this is a computer to consid- 
er. And if you want the mar- 
vels of the CEG chip now, 
this Epson is the way to go. 

MIKE HUDNALL 



Epson EQUITY 386SX/20 PLUS wilh 
2MB RAM, 32K SRAM cache. 3'/=- 
rnch 1.44MB drive, and 100MB 
drive— S2,799 

Super VGA monitor — S635, DOS 
3.3— S95, DOS 4.01— S125. DOS 
5.0— S155 

EPSON AMERICA 

2770 Madrona Ave. 

Torrance, CA 90509-2842 

(800) 922-8911 

Circle Reader Service Number 329 



NEC GRAPHICS 
CDs 

Where can a desktop publish- 
er go in search of stock art? 
Where can you find useful 
black-and-white and color 
photographs, images, and 
clip art? NEC provides the an- 
swer to this question with its 
wide-ranging collection of 
graphics CDs that includes 
Photo Gallery (black-and- 
white photos). Image Foiio{co\- 
or photos). Clip Art 3-D, and 
Image Gallery (conventional 
clip art). Type Gallery PS, an- 
other product, provides attrac- 
tive, professional typefaces. 

Photo Gallery comes with 
a book iilustrating each of 
the hundreds of profession- 
ally photographed images 
available through this pro- 
gram, categorized by con- 
tent. The images are in TIF for- 
mat with gray scale informa- 
tion, so they're easy to use 
with most desktop publishing 
and word processing pro- 
grams that can import art. 

Because this collection 
was designed for broad use, 
the art looks generic. Howev- 
er, you're virtually guaran- 
teed that something here 
will meet your needs. 

If you're generating a pub- 
lication for personal use, for 
use within your company or 
for nonprofit use, you can 
reproduce any of the images 
as often as you please. How- 
ever, if you're publishing for 
profit, you'll have to pay 
UNIPHOTO Picture Agency, 
the photo service owning the 
copyright to the photographs, 
for use of the images above 
the cost of the CD product. 
(This also applies to the Im- 
age Folio, which contains col- 
or photos.) Color versions of 
many of the photos are avail- 
able from UNIPHOTO. 

One thing you should be 
aware of before purchasing 
this package is the graini- 



Uiiii 



Learn to Use Your 
Computer's Full Potential. - r^^^- 



New Career 

Course from 

CIEl 



If you've been hesitating about upgrading your 
computer sl^ills because you couldn't find the time or 
locate the right program to teach you everything you 
need to know to be successful in today's world of 
computers, you'll be happy to hear that CIE's new 
career course can provide you with the computer 
technology curhculum you seek in an independent 
study program you can afford to invest your time in. 

CIE's COMPUTER OPERATION and 
PROGRAMMING course was designed and devel- 
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standing of the unlimited potential today's computers 
offer, once you learn and discover their full capabili- 
ties, in today's high tech environment. CiE's new 
computer course quickly provides you with the 
electronics fundamentals essential to fully understand 
and master the computer's technological potentials for 
your personal and professional advancement. Upon 
mastering the fundamentals you will move into high 
level language programming such as BASIC and 
C-Language and then use that programming in order 
to relate the interfacing of electronic hardware circuitry 
to programming software. As a gradu- 
ate of the Computer Operation and 
Programming course, you will be able 
to successfully understand, analyze, 
install, troubleshoot, program and 
maintain the various types of electronic 
equipment used in business, manufac- 
turing, and service industries. 

Since 1934, CIE has been 
the world leader in home 
study electronics by 
providing our 150,000- 
plus graduates with the 
curriculum and hands-on 
training they've needed to 
become successful in 




today's fiighly competitive and computer oriented 
society. As a CIE student you'll receive a first rate 
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desire. Your future success! 

We encourage you to look, but you won't find a 
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And it's a course designed to fit 
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Please, do yourself a favor and 
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REVIEWS 



ness of gray scale images 
when they're reproduced on 
a laser printer. Photos are 
more appropriate for use in 
typeset documents, and la- 
ser printers are more appro- 
priate for proofing photos pri- 
or to typesetting (making 
sure you're using the right 
photo in the right place, that 
the picture is right side up, 
and so on). If your final out- 
put is on a laser printer, you 
might be better off either us- 
ing conventional vector clip 
art or using the photos for 
scanning purposes to create 
your own vector clip art. 

I often use photographs in 
desktop publishing as raw 
material for scanning and 
tracing. A product like Photo 
Gallery (educes the need for 
scanning. By and large, how- 
ever, the images aren't 
good candidates for trac- 
ing—they aren't usually high- 
contrast images with simple 
content. More often, black- 
and-white photography gets 
its power from complex shad- 
ings that defy all but the 
most gymnastic of scanning 
software. The images work 
with any graphics package 
that uses the TIF format. 

Type Gallery PS allows you 
instant access to any 3 type- 
face families out of 116 — a 
family is a collection of roman, 
bold, italic, and bold italic 
fonts — on the CD. Once 
you've accessed three, to ac- 
cess additional typeface fam- 
ilies you have to pay NEC a 
premium (on top of the $399 
price of the product) between 
$49 and $249, depending on 
the size of the family These 
typefaces must be used with 
a PostScript device. 

Image GaWe/y offers a sim- 
ilar arrangement. For the 
price of the CD, you're al- 
lowed access to any 6 of the 
20 categories of clip art pro- 
vided on the disc. Additional 
categories (like Fashion and 
Food, containing an average 

122 COIvlPUTE JANUARY 1992 



of 210 images each) will be un- 
locked for $99 each. 

Image Folio gives you ac- 
cess to over 4000 color imag- 
es in '"^GA resolution"— 320 
X 200 pixels. Clip Art 3-D 
comes with 2500 three-dimen- 
sional clip art images. 

ROBERT BIXBY 

IBM PC and compatibles; 640K 
RAM; EGA, VGA. or Hercules; hard 
disk; CD-ROM supporting ISO 9660 
formal; MS-DOS CD extensions 

Clip Art 3-D. Image Folio, Image 
Gallery. Pholo Gallery. Type 
Gallery PS— 5399 eacti 

NEC HOME ELECTRONICS 

1255 Michael Dr. 

Wood Dale. IL 60191 

(SCO) 366-3632 

Circle Reader Service Number 330 

PANASONIC 

KX-P1123 

PRINTER 

How do you choose the right 
printer? Price comes first on 
many lists and often deter- 
mines the quality and number 
of features you'll get. If you 
can afford a price tag of 
$400, you should take a look 
at Panasonic's nev/ KX- 
P1 123, a quality printer with a 
number of attractive features. 

Just right for home, office, 
or school, this 24-pin printer 
offers multiple fonts, an easy- 
to-use push-button front pan- 
el, and simple installation. 

Available fonts include 
Courier and Prestige in draft 
or LQ modes and proportion- 
al spacing and script 
modes. In addition, you can 
take advantage of the print- 
er's bold, italic, double- 
height, double-width, and 
double-strike capabilities. 
Control centering attributes, 
set the margins, create 
three macros, or return to fac- 
tory settings— all at the 
push of a button. 

The KX-P1123 doesn't 
stop with an array of fonts. 



This printer adapts well to fan- 
fold paper as well as to single 
sheets and envelopes in a va- 
riety of sizes and weights. 

Special features such as 
phnting in landscape mode, 
creating macros to store dif- 
ferent print formats, dump- 
ing the data in hex format, 
and designing and download- 
ing custom characters make 
this printer worthy of your at- 
tention. Less spectacular but 
no less important are the pa- 
per park and perforation cut 
functions that avoid paper 
waste and advance the pa- 
per to the tear position. 

The unit comes with a 10K 
buffer, but for an additional 
$60, you can add a 32K buff- 
er chip that comes with easy- 
to-follow instructions. 

Even with all the extras, it 
only took me around 20 min- 
utes to start printing in differ- 
ent fonts and producing qual- 
ity forms from the command 
line and with Express Publish- 
er. The easy-to-understand 
manual with all of its diagrams 
and explanations helped to 
speed things up. The KX- 
P1123 package also includes 
a maintenance and trouble- 
shooting guide. 

I spent most of the 20 min- 
utes of installation time trying 
to load the fanfold paper. Of 
the three methods of paper in- 
stallation, the rear-feeding 
method proved by far the hard- 
est to conquer. Since the trac- 
tors roll during paper loading, 
precision positioning of the fan- 
fold sheets took several at- 
tempts. The paper would 
catch on one tractor but not 
the other. Once it was in- 
stalled properly, I had no fur- 
ther trouble with the paper. 

Although not the fastest 
printer I've used, this Panason- 
ic printer is no sloth either. 
Printing at 240 cps in draft 
mode and 53 cps in LQ 
mode might cause a few de- 
lays, but a print spooler could 
remedy that bottleneck. 



The KX-P1123 prints bit- 
image graphics at 240 dpi. 
There were a few jaggies, 
but that's to be expected in 
any dot-matrix printout wheth- 
er it's text or graphics. 

Don't look for compatibility 
problems from this printer. 
The two emulation motdes, Ep- 
son LQ-850 and IBM ProPrin- 
ter X24, should work with al- 
most any software package. 

With a two-year limited war- 
ranty and technical support 
and customer service depart- 
ments a toll-free call away, 
the KX-P1123 belongs on eve- 
ry cost-conscious shopper's 
list of printers to evaluate. 

JOYCE SIDES 

Panasonic KX-P1123— S369.95 

PANASONIC COMMUNICATIONS & 

SYSTEMS 

Computer Products Division 

Two Panasonic Way 

Secaucus. NJ 07094 

(800) 742-8086 

Circle Reader Service NumlKr 331 

TEENAGE MUTANT 
NINJA TURTLES 
WORLD TOUR- 
ELECTRIC CRAYON 
DELUXE 

Circling the globe with the 
Ninja Turtles may not be 
everyone's idea of a great 
time, but most youngsters ag- 
es 3 and up will enjoy the 
trip. Each of the 30 pictures 
in this computer coloring 
book features the Turtles vis- 
iting a major tourist attraction 
and includes a description of 
the site. 

Choose from 16 colors in 
EGA mode, and mix these 
for a total of 256 different 
shades. A mouse works 
best for clicking on a color 
and filling an area. Drawings 
may be erased and tried 
again. Completed master- 
pieces can be saved and 
printed in different formats. 




44 



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Circle Header Service Hgmbef 201 



REVIEWS 



Cowabunga, dudes! For 
kids, this one's a hit! 

LEN POGGIALI 



IBM PC and compatibles, 256K 
RAM— $17.95 

Also available for Amiga— 319.95 

MERIT SOFTWARE 

13635 Gamma Rd. 

Dallas, TX 75244 

(BOO) 238-4277 

Circle Reader Service Number 332 



FLOW 
CHARTING 3 

Having drawn hundreds of 
system flow charts with a pen- 
cil and template in my audit- 
ing work, I found the pros- 
pect of computerizing this 
tedious task especially attrac- 
tive. Happily, Patton and Pat- 
ton's Flow Charting 3 whips 
up a high-quality flow chart 
with only a little effort on 
your part. 

The designers exercised 
commendable restraint in re- 
fraining from trying to be all 
things to all users with Flow 
Charting 3. Instead, they con- 
centrated on the essentials, 
added only a few frills, and 
produced a workmanlike 
product that will do the basic 
job for almost anyone. 

A keyboard-based pro- 
gram, Flow Charting 3 uses 
function keys, Ctrl- and Alt- 
key combinations, and 
some clever, effective short- 
cut keys to handle its special- 
ized tasks. You won't do any 
freehand work in this pro- 
gram, since it's optimized for 
standard flow charting. The 
mouse functions seem to be 
an afterthought, but for a few 
chores such as basic cursor 
repositioning, your hand au- 
tomatically moves to the 
mouse. 

Flow charts use a stan- 
dard symbol set; rectangles 
for processes, diamonds for 
decisions, and so on. Flow 
Charting 3 gives you 35 ba- 

124 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



sic symbols, each coming in 
up to 12 sizes and shapes 
(tall or squat rectangles, for 
instance). Looking through 
the illustrations of each sym- 
bol In Appendix C, I couldn't 
imagine a flow charting func- 
tion that Patton and Patton 
failed to include, 



and direct approach. Upon 
finishing the tutorial, I felt 
ready to create virtually any 
flow chart. 

With Flow Charting 3, you 
can quickly create a flow 
chart you'll be proud to pre- 
sent to any board of direc- 
tors. And years from now. 









t'KOSiM t liVI 1 LADS 


Nail 


- — 


« 1 \ No „ 
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H«»»- 








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CAS! Ul IVI'l LEAD 
l',*nl Produot PvrtonAl 
flduiTtt^'t Announc* t l.<>tt4^r 
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^^*1e Options M 31 «n 

Print rh-\ri f.il: m^ 



Flow Charting 3 from Patton and Patton Software allows for simple 
or complex onscreen logic tracking. 



Once you choose your 
symbols, you need to con- 
nect them with lines. Simple 
and direct, line drawing has 
provisions for arrowheads, 
multiline connectors, and by- 
passes. Lines— thin, thick, 
hollow, and dashed— re- 
quire but a moment to add. 

Ten text styles — normal, 
bold, wide, fat, tall, Greek, 
subscript, superscript, mi- 
cro, and title — complete 
your chart. You don't have a 
wealth of possibilities to in- 
dulge your creative urges, 
but you can include every- 
thing needed in a good flow 
chart. 

Flow Charting 3 supports 
about 75 printers, from 9-pin 
dot-matrix to laser. You can 
print flow charts in portrait or 
landscape orientation, and 
larger charts can be spread 
over up to six pages. 

The manual's tutorial sec- 
tion impressed me particular- 
ly with its detailed advice 



when you wonder how that 
program or process you de- 
signed works, you'll have a 
neatly printed flow chart to re- 
mind you at a glance. 

RICHARD 0- MANN 

IBM PC and compatibles, 512K 
RAM, CGA, EGA, VGA, or Hercules: 
mouse optional— $250 

PATTON At^iD PATTON SOFTWARE 
485 Coctirane Cir 
Morgan Hill, CA 95037 
(408) 778-6557 

Circle Reader Service Numl»r 333 

MACE EXPRESS 
RECOVERY 

In spite of the many advanc- 
es PCs have made over the 
years in the areas of power 
and reliability, they still have 
an Achilles heel: the disk 
drive. 

Because of head crashes, 
mechanical wear and tear, 
or just plain rough handling, 
disks fail, leaving you unable 



to boot from your hard 
drive or staring at the 
dreaded File Not Found 
message. 

Nowthere's help. Fifth Gen- 
eration Systems' Mace Ex- 
press Recovery package, 
with its powerful utility Emer- 
gency Room, can detect 
and correct many drive-relat- 
ed problems. 

This powerful program 
can correct such problems 
as damaged boot sectors, 
partitions, file allocation 
tables, and directories. 
It doesn't require any 
technical knowledge to use, 
and calling Mace Recovery 
easy-to-use is something of 
an understatement. 

To check or repair a disk, 
simply type ER, indicate the 
drive you wish to repair, and 
the recovery proceeds auto- 
matically. In the unlikely 
event that the recovery fails, 
you can completely undo 
any changes that were 
made to the disk. 

In such cases. Fifth Gen- 
eration Systems' technical 
support line can probably of- 
fer advice on further steps 
you can take to successfully 
recover the disk. 

Mace Recovery doesn't 
succumb to "feature-itis"; it 
performs one function, and it 
performs it well. Installing 
and using it couldn't be sim- 
pler; the manual tells you eve- 
rything you need to know in 
just 21 pages. Owning 
Mace Recovery is like hav- 
ing an insurance policy for 
your PC; it's something you 
hope you never need, but if 
you do, it can be a lifesaver, 

RICHARD RAPP 



IBM PC and compatibles, 512K 
RAM; mouse optional— $69 

FIRM GENERATION SYSTEMS 

10049 N. Reiger Rd. 

Baton Rouge, LA 70809-4559 

(800) 873-4384 

(504) 291-7221 

Circle Reader Service Number 334 




Enigma Software, Inc. 

presents 

Hidden Treasure Contest 
— a challenging computer game — 

Over $60,000 
in Cash prizes! 






Win 
$5,000 



Jf, 



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Win SIOJOOO grand prize 

Each month a new series in the game "HIDDEN TREASURE" will be released. Each month the 
game will become more and more difficult!!! 

On February 3, 1992 the marketing department of Enigma Software, Inc. will mail a game disk^ 
to everyone who is a Registered User for the first series of the new game "HIDDEN TREASURE. 
All disks will be mailed First Class Mail. Every month a new series disk of "HIDDEN 
TREASURE" will be mailed, to everyone who is a Registered User for that monthly series. All 
subsequent disk mailings after February 3, 1992 will be mailed out on the first Friday of each 

month. , c 1, . 

To enter the Contests and become eligible for the Cash Prizes, fill out the following user 
registration form and mail it with a check or money order for $10.00 (Ten Dollars) to Enigma 
Software, Inc. 5130 E. Charleston Blvd., Suite 5, Las Vegas, NV 89122. ^^^,_^^^, ^ _„ 
REGISTER NOW! THE FIRST GAME IN THE SERIES WILL BE MAILED FEBRUARY 3, 1992 
AND THE MONTHLY CASH PRIZES START THEN! , ^.« r^nr, 

Return your entry PROMPTLY to secure your chance to enter the year end Contest tor 54U,UUU 

GOOD°LUCK! EACH GAME WILL BECOME MORE DIFFICULT AS THE MONTHS PROGRESS!! 

Register Now! 



OFFICIJU. RUtEB 
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Ho*i -f^^ ol itw lobawna monthty qhiih in th* 
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pornSifm imrth. Sotuliws miW t* pottiniftod no W» 
tfitn vx l«i 4«y oi ttw nwKh in nKkh N H^h wu 
raiuMd. Tm i>e«Sl**'C3e»ing dito ta ■«* mo«!My 
cwnn IS th» l£tl tty ol IM monn un which Iht mtM 
■** mriiiil Any ■oiLftnm t60«h4d «A*r Eha OMdkti 
^JM^yi (UU *l] ccnTrTD «ii)>b(MY br irty^ ih« Cam 
PcxBi In ih* lt« »ertw BUT NOT THE CURREMT 
WOMTHS CONTEST flwpond IwJiy ir* flftM 
kmk an iJI H3<! It» Conl»it«V!i 

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Sa M». (2) S»»nn PnzM S1.KB Mch. (0) TMrd PfU** 
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PillM i2Q0 each; (30) SmD Prja* 4100 »ch: (50] 
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(«ei Nlr«h PriJM SIO each. The WaJ CASH PRIZES 
tof ib» llnil rrwmhe cooteM is S4D ff». Th» fret 620 i[S« 
HjudfiKl "^rtnty) K^inbfu racwved U fin' ort« l^oo 
nnfflatm! Progrtn^ U»*rt w* « aJkOBln •» lh« lif* 
mMUl » C*|h Pr.»« ioUing J*D tfiC. Th» fsJ^i conwi- 
ura 10 Hnd In IP» eonwt toiuslori *il «t*miX ifi* 
V^n«ra. "'POSTWARK DETEFIMINES THE QATE— 
In HM Of !)*«. «^nn»n wil W ICiKlW ^ * nrtOom 



OiKnno lor I Ml •IqttiM' pdio cri*eo<7 *nd f«mtlnlrtg 
contMUrCi bfCfttttKti^i go U th» n«il aviilaUM p^iu 
l«v»l I*. iJ 1*0 i»«*tunn I* tof tfrt pUn, IN« 'ifv 
dOfli *»*»nq wl. Oetwmioa l^o •if.ftif *fld V» rarrujv 
■ng ctf««siw^ «>^l ba • iKond fi^aU [yi» mnnmi. 
UHCLAfWED PRICES WILL NOT BE WCAflOEDv 
3 -merBaiB t.l00fFioni?i.'/CMrPrJM»«AB«9toE* 
W51 ax SrdOMfi; Fw ^acA rf p* ^J4l eil«N««fl mwr-.ty con- 
tOS4 !T»re wLt be lOO {Ono KjruJiMJ Casn Prizes 
nnrdoU &« Icitawi: (t) Fi'ti Pfi;e WOO, (2! Sewod 
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lfi tpio (*no« aBtuiant w.li (WMmifi* IM Wiirwn. 
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wl b« * Meant pUca *\nr<mr. LTMCLAIMEO PR^S 
WtLL HOT BE tfMRDED 

<H AlprtiMwl&afiMliMIOWWlnrwrtnoiaterthan 
ir» fnerwh day oTUw Mtowmfl nwwh. AJI rartJom 
drbwv^* wil^ tM hald by Laylon & LayiO'i. an iruapan- 
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axcapl eiTp)oya«i and mm^law lamina* Ot EnnjiTLft 
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prlia inniwa It^liilVta aTlK tha 1 SCi 0^ 04cn mcni^ 
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System Requirements: 
IBM PCAT/386 Or 100% Compatible 
384K RAM EGA/VGA Color Graphics 



Hidden Treasure Registration Order Form CMJ-1 
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Address: . 



City: . 



. State: . 



• Zip:. 



Disi< Size: 



.5.25' 



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YEAR2010: 

Will You Be The First Human To Reach Mars? 



DARNING. . .DARNING. - - 
RADIATION ALERT! 
JNCOniNG GALACTIC 
COSMIC RAYS. 

EARTH I SOLAR MONITOR 

PETECTS RADIOACTIVE 

ACTIVITY. YOUR MISSION 

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WHAT liJILL YOU DOf 



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While honing your cHticaf thinking 
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DVORAK ON 
TYPING 

Remember your high school 
typing class? These days, 
learning to type doesn't 
have to mean noisy typewrit- 
ers and scowling teachers. In- 
terplay's Dvorak on Typing 
fills in with an assortment of 
drills and a game. When Dvor- 
ai< instructs, you can worl< 
against the clock or just type 
witti no set limits on time. 

Dvorak on Typing also of- 
fers the old tried and trues of 
traditional typing manuals- 
only better. For instance, dur- 
ing the Letters segment, the 
screen shows you which fin- 
ger to use and where to find 
the l<ey on the keyboard. 

For a break from drills, 
you can play a game where 
you're a knight facing differ- 
ent foes. You'll have diffi- 
culty watching the game, 
though, since you must read 
and type in text from the bot- 
tom of the screen. This puts 
a bit of a damper on the fun, 
but you still log typing time. 

126 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 




■ r'.;-*f Ic do fioi uadei" stand 

that the nam aoal for business is 
to earn noney for the orjcecE. It 



Here's a twisi on chivalry— control a knigiit by typing. 

your typing skills at home, 
Dvorak lends rote drills 
some computer clout. 

CHANTELLE QLIGSCHLAEGER 



Features include a Reports 
option that displays your ac- 
curacy rating and words per 
minute for each session. You 
can also see your most re- 
cent "problem" keys. Another 
option activates a voice to of- 
fer encouragement. 

Absolute beginners might 
still find a teacher's guid- 
ance helpful— as a matter of 
fact, this program would be 
great for the classroom. How- 
ever, if you want to sharpen 



IBM PC and compatibles; 512K RAM 
lor CGA. EGA, Tandy 16-color, or Her- 
cules; 640K for MCGA or VGA; sup- 
ports Ad Lib and Sound Blaster— 
S49.95 

INTERPLAY 

3710 S. Susan. Ste. 100 
Sania Ana, CA 92704 
(7 14) 549-2411 

Circle Reader Service Number 335 



THUNDERSTRIKE 

Defense industries and tele- 
vision networks control the 
world. The more exciting the 
military action on the tube, 
the better the ratings, Sound 
familiar? No, it's not a replay 
of the Persian Gulf War. It's 
ThunderStrike, an addictive 
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ThunderStrike straps you 
into your choice of five futur- 
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trol a desolate landscape in 
an airborne arrov/head, on 
the lookout for enemy craft 
and drones capable of de- 
stroying your pyramid- 
shaped installations. As with 
most arcade games, it's 
much easier to kill than be 
killed, but the threat that 
your craft might be de- 
stroyed is real enough to 
give the game an edge. 

Meaningful changes oc- 
cur in each round, with your 
craft upgraded or downgrad- 
ed based on your defense 
rate, hit rate, and television 
ratings. The last depends on 




■•t:^'.A 




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Hey Hotshot! It's 1995 and the Pentagon 
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Here's what the Thunderhawk combat 
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Campaign scenarios with a multitude 
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A true world to interact with - not just 
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A helicopter armed with the latest in 
weaponry, electronic counfermeasures, 
functioning displays and computer-aided 
targeting systems 

1 

Realistic missions reflecting actual 
military conflicts and contingency plans 



sunglasses ancf conrrpi yow nerves, 
Ihis one makes }ium look like a day a 
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Circle Header Service Number 149 



Ayaihbk sosn tor IBM end Amiga, 
Thgntlerhowk Is a trodemofk ai Virgin Gcmei, Int. 
Virgin is a registered Irodemark el Virgin Interprisej, Ud. 
;1991 Virgin Games and Core Design. 
All rigiits reserved. 
Virgin Games. Int. 




18061 FiKh Ave., Irvine, CA 92714 

For pricing orders, please (all 800-VRG-IN07.Visa, Mastercard, Americon Express ond checks accepted 



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As part of your training, you will receive an IBM 
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Name 

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233 Academy Dr. • P.O. Box 421768 
Kissimmee, FL 34742-1768 

Member, D L. Peoples GroLip C0 192 



5 



REVIEWS 



whether your maneuvers and dogfights 
are exciting enough to draw in the 
viewers, 

ThunderStrike is a compelling, high- 
ly playable game that suffers from only 
a few annoying aspects. Even if you in- 
stall ThunderStrike on a hard drive, you 
still need its boot disk to start it up eve- 
ry tine you play. Furthermore, the 
game provides no save feature, so 
each time you play you must start from 
scratch. Still, once the action begins, it's 
hard to quit. This compelling action 
earns ThunderStrike high marks, 

EDDIE HUFFf/AtJ 

IBM PC and compatibles, 512K RAM, EGA or VGA; 
supports Ad Lib and Roland sound cards; mouse 
or joystick optional— $39.95 

Also available for Amiga— $39,95 

LIVE STUDIOS 

30151 Branding Iron Rd, 

San Juan Capistrano, CA 92675 

(714) 6B1-8337 

Circle Reader Service Number 336 

HEBREW PUY HOUSE/ 
MILK AND HONEY 
CHALLENGE/ 
MY ISRAELI ATLAS 

A traditional Hebrew form of study in 
which two students learn by asking 
each other questions, haver has 
worked for centuries. Tekoa, publisher 
of Havruta: A Jewish Encyclopedia, con- 
tinues this tradition of study by substi- 
tuting your computer for a study 
partner. 

The Havruta software series consists 
of several interactive lessons on Jewish 
ife and culture, Israel, Hebrew lan- 
guage, Jewish history, and holidays. 
Each package offers lessons, games, 
and quizzes. Applications typically 
have file editors to enable parents and 
teachers to customize exercises for in- 
dividual students. The Hebrew lan- 
guage programs require no special 
hardware, 

Hebrew P/ay House teaches basic He- 
brew vocabulary for items found in and 
around a typical home. Youngsters 
play several games, and in the process 
they learn to recognize and spell He- 
brew words for furniture, pets, and kitch- 
en utensils. Activities include construct- 



ing images with clip art objects, enter- 
ing Hebrew names for pictures (the pro- 
gram comes with a Hebrew keyboard 
chart), reconstructing an illustration by 
positioning its missing parts, and match- 
ing an object with its Hebrew name. 
Youngsters must be able to read He- 
brew without vowels in order to play. 

In another package— Mft and Hon- 
ey Challenge— chWdren (ages 10 and 
up) meet Israel and its people with 
help from 15 prepared study units. Top- 
ics include geography, history culture, 
current events, famous personalities, He- 
brew vocabulary (using transliterated 
English), and the Diaspora. A built-in ed- 
itor lets teachers and parents prepare 
customized study materials. 

The fast-paced activities encourage 
youngsters to memorize a series of 
facts. For example, Order It requires 
players to arrange events in correct 
chronological order, while Match It 
challenges contestants to link a specif- 
ic item with its counterpart on a list. If 
players do not complete an activity be- 
fore time runs out, the game starts over, 
and drill continues at a slower pace. In 
Milk and Honey's hangmanlike game 
called The Menorah (an eight-branch 
candelabrum), players must answer a 
question correctly before all eight can- 
dles burn out. The contestant with the 
most candles left at the end of the 
game wins. 

Lots of fun, Milk and Honey Chal- 
lenge helps kids learn by playing sev- 
en entertaining games. These activities 
motivate youngsters to work through 
lessons. 

My Israeli Atlas, the final program re- 
viewed, encourages people to visit Is- 
rael by computer. This enjoyable elec- 
tronic geography package includes 
four colorful maps, several clip art im- 
ages, and eight interactive games. It fea- 
tures 28 prepared study units organ- 
ized into six major subject areas: Israel 
(general), Northern Part, Samaria 
(North Judea), Judea and Negev, 
Jerusalem Sites, and Places to Visit. In- 
dividual lessons focus on important cit- 
ies and resort towns, historical sites, the 
old city of Jerusalem, biblical origins, 
and Israel's neighbors. Parents and 
teachers can create new lessons using 
the program's built-in lesson editor, 

Youngsters select a unit for study 
and then choose an activity from the 



Advertisers Index 



Reader Service Number/Advertiser Page 

162 8-Bil G-IB 

159 900 Soltware 136 

107 Abracadala 139 

227 Access 101 

201 Accolade 123 

ZOO Accolade 92 

2D2 Accolade 131 

144 Accolade 25 

203 Accolade IBC 

147 AfiKflcan Instilule ol Computef Science m 

182 Amencan Mensa Lid 116 

123 AuloDesk 1* 

199 Bartjie/Softvrarc Crafthouse 112 

211 Blue Ribbon Software A-11 

160 Blue Valley SoNwaie , 138 

173 Book ol the Mofllh Club 67 

Brantlcrd A-19 

171 BrBderbund B2,B3 

205 Caloke Induslries G-18 

207 CH Products ^3 

166 Citizen American Corporation 5 

Cleveland Institute ot Electronics 121 

150 Compsult 140 

103 CompuServe 17 

135 Computer Book Club 33 

118 Compulef Business Service 142 

114 Computer Direct 50,5t 

141 Computer Productions 142 

137 Covox 13S 

1Z5 Creative Labs 3 

Damarti 65 

148 Davidson 85 

206 Davidson 27 

120 DCS Irrdustries 59 

131 Demo Source 139 

204 Disk OPIenty G-18 

208 Disk-Count Software 141 

129 Enigma 125 

210 Event Hori;ons 138 

190 Financial Services Marketing Corp G-9 



Reader Service Number/Advertiser 



Page Reader Service Humher/Advertiser 



Page 



192 
115 
155 
156 
157 

ize 

163 
219 
117 
215 
216 
105 
106 
136 
226 
127 

175 
119 
194 
214 

13S 
22S 
113 
154 
152 
174 
176 
133 
153 

104 
177 

110 
185 
133 
163 
196 



Financial Services Marketing Corp 55 

Gardentecli. . . - 138 

GeoWorlis ? 

GeoWorks 9 

GeoWorks H 

Grapevine G-15 

Graphically Speaking A-20 

HelpDisli. Inc A-27 

ttolosoft Technology A-29 

Hyacinth 142 

ICD A-3 

Interplay. - - =1 

Jacotjs Electronics Inc 142 

Konami ^ 

Konarai 10? 

LWS Sottware 140 

Magalog Mafkcling Group 134.135 

Malroneysolt Soltware Products A-20 

Mallard Soltware 95 

Maxis 111 

MediaVision 15 

Micrologic 54 

MicroMiga A-27 

Microprose 9? 

Microprose 35 

Microsphere "-5 

Micro Tech USA 69 

Mission Control 119 

My Story Book 139 

NEC Technology IFG 

New World Computing ?5 

NRI/McGraw Hill .... - 57 

Origin 23 

PC Componet, - , . - 138 

PC Habit 137 

Peoples College ot Independent Studies 128 

Poor Person Soltware A-30 

Professional Cassette Center 45 

Psygnosis 31 

Quantum Quality Productions 109 



134 
166 
143 
116 
189 
154 
220 
1D9 
209 
142 
126 
121 
180 
207 

229 
108 

130 
221 
170 
132 
140 

195 

145 



Radio Shack 

Ramco 

SatcSoU Systems 

SeXXy Software 

Shark Byte Software 

Sierra Online 

Signs Etc. By D. KnoK . . . . 
Smart lucl< Software .... 

SoltOisk Publishing 

SoftDisk Ptiblistiing 

Softshoppe 

Sottware ol Ihe Month Club 

Soil-Byte 

SOGWAP SoNware 

SOGWAP Soltware 

Spectrum Holotiyte 

Spectrum Holobyte 

SSI 

Starware Publishing 

Superior Micro Systems . . . 

Tenex 

The Other Guys 

The Sothvare Labs 

The Sterling Connection . . 

Universal Memory 

Virgin Games 



. 13 
. 140 
. 138 
. 140 

A-31 
. BC 

A-20 
. 138 
, . 1 
. G-3 
. 137 
. 138 
. 140 

A-29 

G-17 
. 103 
. . 29 
. 117 
. 13? 

G-18 
, A-5 

A-25 
. 137 

A-13 
. . 41 
. . 79 



Amiga Resource Disk 

COMPUTtyAmerican Online 

COfvlPUTE Demo Disk 

COMPUTE/GEnie Online Systems 

COMPUTE/Quanlum O-link 

COMPUTE'S Produclivlty Manager 

COMPUTES Sharepak Disk Subscription . 

COMPUTES Tutor Toys 

COMPUTE'S Single Disk Ordef 

Gazette Disk Subscription 

GEette Produr^tivity Manager ...... 

Gazette Specially Disks 



A-23 
. . 73 



. . 71 
G-11 
. . 54 
. . 19 
. 133 
. A-t7 
. G-15 
. G-21 
. G-13 



CREDITS 

Page 6: Steven Hunt/Image Barrk; page 16: Ken Call/ 
linage Bank; pages 20-21; Philippe Sion/lmage Bank; 
page 38: Mark Wagoner; page 46: Mark Wagoner; 
page 48 top: copyright 1991 Liz Benford; pages 76-77: 
Mark Wagoner; page 78; Peter A. Simon/The Stock Mar- 
ket; pages 80-81 : Eric Joyner/lmage Bank; page 84: 
Jean-Francois Podevin/lmage Bank; pages 86-87: 
Mark Wagoner; page 88: from The Beauty of Fractals, re- 
printed with permission of Springer-Verlag; page 100: 
Lightscapes/The Stock Market; page A-32: Hans 
Wendler/lmage Bank; pages G-6-7: Ryszard Horowitz, 
RGA Print/Image Bank. 



We need you. 



American Heart | 
Association 



drill menu. Lively games let 
students become more famil- 
iar with the country's geogra- 
phy, important places, and 
English names for Hebrew 
locations. Challengers need 
not know Hebrew to play. My 
Israeli Atlas even includes a 
road map of modern Israel. 
Don't let the early copy- 
right dates of this series mis- 
lead you; Tekoa's Judaic com- 
puter encyclopedia still pro- 
vides an imaginative supple- 
ment to conventional Jewish 
studies textbooks. While 
some users might find the 
CGA graphics a bit disap- 
pointing, Havm/a 's entertain- 
ing activities make it fun to 
learn difficult concepts, 

CAROL HOLZBERG 

IBM PC and compatibles: 128K 
RAM; CGA, EGA. MCGA, VGA, or Tan- 
dy 16-color— S39.95 eacfi 

My Israeli Alias also avai lable for Ap- 
ple II series and Apple ties— $39.95 

TEKOA 

Distributed by Meged International 

415 W. tkflaple 

Kalamazoo, Ml 49001 

(800) 845-2636 

Circle Reader Service Number 337 



PULSTAR SXP 

One-stop shopping^that's 
what I like best about this com- 
plete package, and that 
would be even more impor- 
tant if I were new to comput- 
ing. The Pulstar hardware in- 
cludes all the important piec- 
es: a fair-sized hard drive, a 
modem, Super VGA, high-den- 
sity floppy drives, a mouse, a 
joystick port, and more. 

My Pulstar odyssey began 
with a long installation of all 
the software. I prefer to have 
bundled software copied to 
the hard drive at the factory, 
a service that many manufac- 
turers provide. With so many 
programs in the package — 
Ouattro Pro, Ctiessmaster 
2100, DeluxePaint II, Publlsh- 
It!, Wbrd for Word Ffofession- 
al, and Maws Beacon Teacti- 
es Typing, to name a few — 
installation takes time. 

If you want to install the pro- 
grams selectively, though, 
this is a more efficient ap- 
proach. You get only what 
you want on the hard drive, 
saving room for data files. 

JANUARY 1992 COMPUTE 129 



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cleanser known as "Naturally Yours. " It is a 
completely safe and natural treatment for thinning 
hair that is applied in the privacy of your own 
home and requires no medical supervision. The 
study is being conducted in order to measure the 
degree of effectiveness of "Naturally Yours" in 
stopping hair loss and regrowing hair. Daniel 
Rogers will select individuals to participate in this 
hair grov\rth study - without any cost or obligation 
- in an effort to obtain independent verification of 
effectiveness through testimonial letters and 
pictures. 

If you are beginning to lose hair or already have 
a bald spot, you are a good candidate. Simply 
complete and return the accompanying coupon to 
be eligible for selection. Or, in order to insure your 
eligibility, call us toll free. There is no cost or 
obligation. Please, act now! 



Or simpiy complete and mail in the Coupon below. 



ER 



Name: 
Address:, 
City: 



Mail to: 

DANiEL ROGERS INTERNATIONAL 
65 High Ridge Road, Suite #426 
Stamford. Conn. 06905 



-State:. 



- Apt: 
-Zip:. 



Phone:- 



CONFIDENTIAL SELECT CRITERIA 



Age: 

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Years of hair loss: 

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loss: 



Have you ever tried any of 
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D Hairpieces 

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□ Other 



The installation program was 
easy to use, so there wasn't 
much to do but swap disks. 

Without reasonable per- 
formance, all the attachments 
in the world wouldn't matter. 
But the Pulstar performed 
well above acceptable stan- 
dards and even excelled in 
several respects. The 40MB 
hard drive seemed to outper- 
form its 28-millisecond rating, 

The video card and moni- 
tor combination outshone the 
video combo on my personal 
system. Video output was one 
of the best I've seen for a sys- 
tem in this price range. 

I loved the crisp feel of the 
keyboard. The 2400-baud 
Hayes-compatible modem 
worked like a charm, too. 

The issue of footprint size 
sometimes divides users into 
two camps. I like a big box 
that dissipates heat and lets 
you easily install cards. Some 
users with limited desk space 
think the smaller, the better. 
Consider the small and sleek 
Pulstar for your office if you 

130 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



pitch your tent with the pro- 
downsizing crowd. 

With a 386SX microproces- 
sor running at 16 MHz, the 
Pulstar ran noticeably slower 
than the 386DX running at 
25 MHz that I'm used to, but 
I didn't find the SX's perform- 
ance a handicap. The sys- 
tem performed so well as an 
integrated unit that I never re- 
ally noticed the lower clock 
speed. On almost every 
count, it kept up with me. 

Should you consider this 
system for yourself? That de- 
pends. Those new to comput- 
ing will get everything they 
need, and this system won't 
be obsolete next year. Fur- 
thermore, it will be some 
time before you're out buy- 
ing software or hardware 
add-ons. Ifyouwantareason- 
ably priced system and don't 
need a speed demon, then 
the answer, once again, is 
yes. This computer performs 
admirably and will probably 
meet all of your needs. The 
only person who might look 



elsewhere is someone who 
needs top performance. Not 
too many of us do, so this 
great package gets my vote 
for serious consideration, 

RICK LEINECKER 



Pulstar SXP— $1,995 

HYOSUNG CON/IPUTERS & 
INFORfi/IATJON SYSTEMS 
671 E. Arques Ave. 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 
(408) 733-0810 
Circle Reader Service Number 338 



HOW TO CHOOSE 
THE RIGHT 
COLLEGE 

For many high-school stu- 
dents and their parents, the 
process of choosing a col- 
lege frustrates instead of ex- 
hilarates. The College Knowl- 
edge Series from Education 
Information Systems offers wel- 
come advice to help you 
make this important decision. 
Of the three programs I've 



used, How to Choose the 
Riglit College is the most use- 
ful in helping you pinpoint a 
college that meets specific 
needs. The program lists 
4450 colleges with detailed 
information about each, 
such as majors offered, stu- 
dent body size, work oppor- 
tunities, financial aid availa- 
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programs, and lots more. 

To narrow your choices, 
you enter information such 
as degree type, field of 
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college, and other student- 
specific data. You also enter 
your SAT or ACT scores. 

Once you've entered your 
criteria, you search the data- 
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Fuil Search lets you print or 
view a general report contain- 
ing location, size, tuition, and 
application deadline. You can 
also get an ACT or SAT com- 
parison list, a detaiied report 
on each college that matches 
your criteria, or a report of col- 
leges listed in descending or- 



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REVIEWS 



der by tuition, student body 
size, or application due date. 

Main menu clioices in- 
clude Overview of Col leges To- 
day, Match Criteria to Data- 
base, State Search (colleges 
in a specified state), Personal 
Letter Writer, How to Finance 
College Education, and How 
to Evaluate Colleges. 

One feature not fully devel- 
oped is Major Fields of Study, 
The fields aren't broken down 
into specifics. For instance, 
the sciences major is broken 
down into 10 or 15 options 
such as Life Sciences and Bi- 
ology, but not into a specific 
field like marine biology even 
though over 1200 schools of- 
fer degree programs in biolo- 
gy or life sciences. 

You shouldn't depend com- 
pletely on a computer pro- 
gram to pick your college, but 
they often yield valuable aid. 
At $79,95, the price tag is a 
little steep, but if you have the 
money to spare and you don't 




Graph-in-the-Box Executive makes creating down-and-dirly 
business graphics as easy as pie charts. 

have the resources to find 
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be money well spent. 

JOYCE SIDES 



IBM PC and compatibles, 390K 
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EDUCATION INFORMATION 
SYSTEMS 



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GRAPH-IN-THE- 
BOX EXECUTIVE 

Creating simple charts and 
graphs with a personal com- 
puter doesn't necessarily 
prove to be as easy as it 
sounds. Hard-to-learn pack- 
ages designed for creating 
presentation graphics— like 
Microsoft PowerPoint and 
Aldus Persuasion— are 
geared more toward the pres- 
entation professional and 
often cone equipped with 
more power — and work — 
than most of us really need. 

Those with more modest 
graphing needs will find 
Grapli-in-the-Box Executive 
a good choice. A TSR (Ter- 
minate and Stay Resident) 
program that sits in HAM un- 
til you need it, Grapli-in-the- 
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information from virtually any 
application and use that da- 
ta in a chart or graph, 

Say, for instance, while 
working in WordPerfect, that 
you want to convert a table 
of numbers into a bar chart 
You summon Grapti-in-tlie- 



Box Executive by typing Alt- 
G, and then highlight the 
WordPerfect table using ei- 
ther the cursor keys or your 
mouse. A copy of the infor- 
mation then moves into 
Grapli-in-the-Box Execu- 
tive's data table, and from 
there you can convert the da- 
ta into 15 types of charts, in- 
cluding bar, pie, scatter, and 
line charts and various com- 
binations of those. 

Graph-in-the-Box Execu- 
tive's clear documentation 
simplifies virtually every 
task. Advanced users will re- 
ally appreciate the pro- 
gram's technical reference 
documentation, which antic- 
ipates quite a number of prob- 
lems you might expect to 
encounter with any type of 
graphics program, including 
this one — incompatibilities 
with other terminate-and- 
stay-resident programs and 
applications, for example. 

Unfortunately, what you 
stand to gain in convenience 
with this program, you tend 
to lose in output quality. 
Graphs created with Graph- 
in-the-Box Executive lack the 
polished appeal of those cre- 
ated using more sophisticat- 
ed software, even when you 
choose to print them on a 
laser printer. In addition, 
your output choices — printer 
and plotter— don't include 
creating slides. 

If what you're after is mere 
down-and-dirty graph and 
chart creation, Grapti-in-the- 
Box Executive should serve 
well as a useful — though some- 
what limited — ^tool. 

KEVIN REICHARO 



IBM PC and compatibles, CGA, EGA, 
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10K RAM when memory resident — 
$299,95 

NEW ENGLAND SORWARE 
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Circle Reader Service Number 340 d 



132 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



"t • 



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PLAY IT SKIART! 



WITH 



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the second release in COMPUTE' s DiscoveryDisks series 




You're a goner if you miss the 
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Time will tell if you've learned 
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Watch your step! WordHunt's 
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More Fun from 

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MathVjyager 



Improve your math 
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Requirements: IBM PC or compatible, 384K RAIVI, DOS 2.1 or higher, and CGA, EGA, MCGA, VGA, or Tandy 16-color graphics card 

(MasterCard and VISA accepted on orders with subtotal over $20.) 



I I YES! Please send me 

TutorToys 



Math\foyager 



. Subtotal 



5y*-inch disk(s) @ $14.95 each 
ava-inch disl<(s) @ $15.95 each 
5V<i-inch dlsk(s) @ $14.95 each 
3y2-inch disk{s) @ $15.95 each 



Check or money order 

Credit Card No 

Signature 



. MasterCard VISA 

Exp. Date 



Sales Tax (Residents of NC and NY, please add sales tax 

for your area. Canadian orders add 7% goods and services 
tax.) 

Shipping & Handling ($2 U.S. & Canada, $3 surface nnaii, $5 

airmail per disk.) 

Total Enclosed 

Send your order to COMPUTE'S Disk Products, 324 West Wendover 
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Daytime Telephone No. 
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All orders must be paid in U.S. funds by ctieck drawn on a U.S. banit or by money order. 
MasterCard or VISA accepted for orders over S20, "Riis offer vvill be filled onfy at the address 
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▼ BACK RELIEF BY POLLENEX 



A 



re vou one of the millions of 
Americans who suffers from low back 
pain? Do hours of prolonged sitting leave 
vou aching or numb' if so, then the RDllenex 
Back Relief Is just what the doctor ordered. 
Back Reliefs unique design cradles your 
back in comfort and features multiple com- 
binations of massage and heat. The in- 
flatable lumbar cushion conforms to the 
shape of vour back. Dual massaging 
elements can be used separately or 
together for full back massage Handy 
remote control lets you select upper/lower 
massage, low and high intensity as well as 
heat control, And the 
soothing massager 
„, , works 2 ways -adapter 

#1 plugs into any indoor electrical outlet while adapter §2 plugs 
into car, van, or truck cigarette lighter So Back Relief is perfect for ^^ *j 
car, home, or office. Plush, durable fabric cover adds extra com- ™^ " 
fort, $119.98 (S6.75) #A2001 



T THE BEST RECEPTION EVER!! 

Eliminate radio sig- 
nal fade and ag- 
gravating cross over 
signals that garble the 
sound. The new LS4 
omni-directtonal anten- 
na IS the only indoor 
antenna that thinks for 
itself The micro chip 
brain receives signals 
and isolates them Into 
individual clear fre- 
quencies Features the 
Gallium Arsenide Field 
Effect Transistor. No 
need to redirect this 
antenna. Leave it where 
it IS and its 360 degree 
radius allows it to 
receive from any direc- 
tion. This antenna wil 
boost your radio sig- 
nals up to 24 decibels 
for the clearest recep- 
tion you have ever ex- 
perienced. Easy to in- 
stall, light weight. Plugs 
into any stereo model. 
Unique modern design. 
Made in the U.S.A, U,L, 
listed- 1 year warranty^ 
Dimensions; 3" 
X4.125" X 17.25". 
$58.98 (55,25) #A1891,' 




T EVERYTHING BAG 




People on the go always have so much 
to carry around. The Everything Bag 
makes it a snap This oversized shoulder bag 
is constructed of tough, water-resistant 
canvas material and features nine roomy 
pockets Plus an unusual zipper design 
enables the bag to expand to double its 
normal width— to a full eight inches Ad- 
justable 2" wide straps provides a real com- 
fort feature In 3 great colors, $24.98 
(S4.00t#A1955-Blue; i^A1956-Khaki; fA1957- 
Cray 



T FOOD FOR WOOD 

Most of the convenience waxes you buy actually dn/ out wood 
instead of nourishing it. What's the alternative? Our choice 
is Williamsville Wax, It is made of beeswax and lemon oil, heat- 
blended with other natural oils It can be used on any type of wood, 
any type of finish, on paneling or kitchen cabinets as well as fine 
furniture Williamsville Wax is super for restoring neglected or mis- 
treated wood. Two 8-oz, bottles cost $13.98 (S3.25) #A14312. 




T INNOVATIVE IONIZER 

A sophisticated electronic device that 
uses nature's way of cleaning air — 
emitting trillions of negatively charged ions 
that act like magnets attracting microscop- 
ic particles of dust, smoke and pollen. One 
belongs in every room, but sometimes a 
table-top ionizer just isn't practical or desira- 
ble for reasons of space or your decor. This 
tiny unit (lV2"x5") provides an ingenious so- 
lution, plugging right into any wall outlet 
where it will 



remain incon- 
spicuous while 
performing its 
mighty task. 
With "on" indica- 
tor light and col- 
lector pad that 
can be rinsed 
and, eventually, 
replaced. By 
Pollenex, for 
fresher air in 
home or office 
$39.98 (S4.00) 
#A1867. 




T NIGHT tracker™ 

I ight up your night! Night Tracker" 
Lthe cordless, rechargeable hand-held 
spotlight packs a 500,000 candlepower 
beam to give you a light whenever, wher- 
ever you need it. The beam is 10 times 
brighter than your automobile headlights 
and will carry over 1 mite Operates on re- 
chargeable batteries or recharge it from 
110 volt AC outlet or from any 12 volt car 
or boat outlet. Perfect for home, travel, 
boating and camping. Made in the USA and 
comes with a 90 day warranty Now fea- 
tured with amber and red lens attach- 
ments $79.98 IS6.25) #A1975. 




CALL TOLL FREE 24 HRS. 7 DAYS 1-800-722-9999 

TO ORDER: Send check with item number for total amounts, plus shipping & handling shown in ( ) payable to MAIL ORDER HALL, 
DEFTCP-101 FG. Box 3005 Lakewood. N.J, 08701, or call TOLL FREE 1-800-722-9999. NJ residents add 7% sales tax. We honor MasterCard. 
Visa and American Express Sorry, no Canadian, foreign, or COD orders 30 day moneY back guarantee for exchange or refund. 



Magalog Marketing Croup Int © 1991 



1905 Swarchmore Ave, Lakeivood. N j Q8701 




T CAR-THEFT PROTECTION — WITH NO INSTALLATION 

With Sonic Sentrv Che value of a car alarm brings you peace of mind -without the 
expense and bother of installation You can switch it from one vehicle to another 
Just plug Sonic Sentry into the cigarette lighten cord reaches 5 feet, so the unit can 
occupy dash or seat when vehicle is parked, where the flashing lights can make a 
browsing tnief think twice The petite AV7"xAVi"x2" Oox is capable of emitting a truly 
ear-piercing alarm, concentrated inside the car, where it can most effectively repel an 
intruder Activated by the light 
that accompanies the opening of 
car door, hood or trunk, it also 
senses impact or "unnecessary 
roughness' ; the shriek lasts for one 
minute and only the key stops it — 

unplugging the lighter activates a ^_,£ ^^x< , -ffil^'^i 

back-up battery. Stuck on the road? ^Bt , -lia»73!R!^BAJ-^K'«'' 

Switch Sonic Sentry to its mode 
showing HELP in flashing red lights 
and put in the window to attract -__^, . 

aid. It's protection you can't afford ''^^''^^ll 

not to have at $7a.98 (S7.00! _ "^ 
#A1989 ~"" 





^^^ 



1 



T STEP UP TO A HEALTHIER YOU 

Doctors, physical trainers, and athletes 
agree that stair climbing is one of the 
best forms of aerobic exercise You can 
achieve your fitness goals without the se- 
vere jarring or pounding associated with 
running or jogging. That's why the foldaway 
ExerClimb''-' is the perfect piece of exer- 
cise equipment. The ExerClimb'" improves 
cardiovascular function, increases endur- 
ance, burns body fat, and conditions major 
muscle groups to tighten and tone upper 
body, thighs, hips, buttocks, and calves. And 
results can be seen with a twenty minute 
workout three times a week. It is quiet 
enough to let you exercise while watching 
TV. or listening to your favorite music. The 
hydraulic powered ExerClimb'" features 
sturdy steel construction, magnum series 
shocks and individual tension adjustment 
to insure a high intensity, low impact vi/ork- 
out. Compact and lightweight (28 lbs.) this 
incredible machine fits m virtually any size 
room. When opened for use, it measures 
28"H X 27" L X 16" W. Plus, its unique fold- 
away feat ij re makes carrying and storage 
a snap Perfect to take along to your office, 
trips, or almost anywhere Some assembly 
required, using only 
screwdriver and pliers 
For all these great fea- 
tures, one would ex- 
- pect to pay much 
. more, but the Exer- 
; Climb" has a very 
* trim price tag. So now 
there is no reason not 
to "step' into better 
shape Ninety day 
warranty $119.98 
(S15,00)#A1998. 





^^::, 




A^ 



T SHARPEST OF THE 
SHARPENERS 




The classic knife sharpening tool is the 
butcher's steel, but most people find 
it intimidating The Chantry Knife Shar- 
pener duplicates butcher steel action but 
makes it so simple anyone can sharpen and 
realign a blade edge perfectly in moments. 
As the knife edge is drawn between a pair 
of hard (Rockwell 64-65) Sheffield Steel rods, 
spring-loaded at just the proper angle, both 
sides of the blade are aligned. Works on 
stainless or carbon steel knives, straight or 
serrated edges. The Chantry is made of 
heavily enameled steel, can be countertop 
mounted. It is included in the permanent 
design collection of the Museum of Modern 
Art $5fl.98 (S5.00) #A1878. 



• • • • • 

• • * * 



T THE DAZER" 




Even the most dedicated canine affi- 
cionado can sometimes encounter un- 
friendly dogs. Dazer"' provides a humane 
way to repel their advance, emitting ultra- 
sonic sound waves inaudible to humans and 
totally safe for dogs (unlike mace and other 
common deterrents). Pocket size IAVa" long) 
plastic case can also clip on belt; takes 1-9V 
batten/, included. For joggers, hikers, bikers, 
seniors and kids— plus the proverbial post- 
man, $29.98, (S5.00) #A1829X, 



CALL TOLL FREE 24 HRS, 7 DAYS 1-800-722-9999 

TO ORDER: Send check with item number for total amounts, plus shipping & handling shown in ( ) payable to MAIL ORDER MALL, 
DEPT CP-012; RQ Box 3006. Lakewood. N J, 08701. or call TOLL FREE 1-800-722-9999 NJ residents add 7% sales tax We honor MasterCard, 
Visa, and American Express. Sorry, no Canadian, foreign, or CQD orders 30 day money back guarantee for exchange or refund. 



Magalog Marketing Croup Inc £■ 1991 



1905 Swarthmore Ave.. Lakewood, NJ OS701 




EASY ACCESS TO OVER 50,000 HTIfS 

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Call now to reserve your space! 



136 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



The World's Largest 

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Fl Res. Add 
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Circle Reader Service Number 126 




Aerial photo of Devil's island The Space Shuttle cargobay 
from #901 Mother Earth from #902 Space Things 



A sidewinder in the sand 
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limaj^ 

Simply the highest quality 
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- Over 5IVIB in every volume, comes on higir density diskettes 



#901 iVIolher Earth - vol I One volume S29.88, two volumes M^.BB, three volumes S59.88 

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#904 Lovely Ladies Calendar First calendar 329.88, each additional calendar only S24.88 

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#905 Hot Hunks Calendar 
This year add some spice to your computer. Sure to Inspire you to new heights. 

#900 Graphix Starter Kit sold separately for only S10 

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Lake Oswego, OR 97034 
Voice 503-697-7700, 
BBS 800-466-6336, 
or BBS 503-697-5100 



Circle Reader Service Number 210 



BEATiheLOTTERY 

Gail Howord's ALL /VEW Smart Luck 

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Circle Reader Service Number 115 



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1 



^ MasterCerd/Vlsa 
A 1-8l)0-545-6172 



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Circle Reader Service Numlwr 109 



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ADULT 
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Circle Reader Service Number 1 77 



138 COMPUTE JANUARY 1992 



Affordable 
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4bracadata 

le source of plan-making software 



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DESIGN YOUR 
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Orders placed with Abracadata 
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CIrcIa Reader Service Number 10T 




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Apple ll/Laser 

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circle Reader Service Number 17E 



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Circle Reader Service Number 131 



139 



Vou con bet on 3^^^^^,^ 

Video pokeR 




the cQsinostyle video poker 
simulator and tutor 



V€RSION 3.0 is here! 

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circle Reader Service Number 127 



tSMi 



LOTTO 

WITH YOUR HOME CX>MPUTER! 



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Circle Reader Service Number 172 



COLOR RIBBONS & PAPER 



Cobrs: BJocIt, Red, Blue, Green, Brown, Purple, V dlow 

Ribbons: 



price each 



Brolher 1109 
Cilizen 200/GSX 140 
Citizen QSX 140, 4-Color 
Epson MX/FX/RX 80/85 
Oliidata 182/192 
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Commodore MPS 
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For 
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T-Shirt 
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Price 
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T-Shirt (Heat Transfer) Ribbons 
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COLOR PAPER 

Color Fbper 200 sheets assorted 

Bright Fbckr 9-1/2x11 SI0.90/pk 

ftjslel ftick: 9-l/2i<ll S 7.90/pk 

Color Certifieale Fbper: 100 sheali S 9.9S/pk 

CoJor Sonnef Ffaper: 45 (t./roll S 8.95/pt 



Min. orders J25.00. Mnimuni S&H $4.50. Cnll far other ribtiors and 
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Circle Render Service Number 1S6 



CLOSEOUTS 

For IBM/MS-DOS: 



SSISPEClitLS t19.SDeach 

Rojdwai Eiiiopa PnantasieS Slai 

Command First Over ■Geimifty 
Heroes ot tfie Lance. Red Ligfiinifig. 
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PO BOX 5160 
SAN LUIS OBISPO, CA 93403 



WE AtSO CARRY APPLE, MAC. C&4;t2t. AMIGA. ATARI A MOR£ 

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lot U S A,. S8 lor Canada. 0; $1 2 lor Ifilernational Fof our complete c3ta;iog 
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Circle Reader Service Number 160 



Circle Reader Service Number t16 



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m 



DISK-COUNT SOFTWARE 



Orders Only: 

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4-D Boxing 
Action Stations 
ADID: Collectors Edit. 
Adv. ol Willy Beamisti 
Alge Blaster Plus 
Algebra Made Easy 
Are We Thefe Yet 
Armada 2525 
Bart Simpson 
Battlechess 
Battle Isle 



32 
27 
37 
31 
25 
32 
32 
31 
31 
32 



SHIPPING IS JUST W.OO PER ORDERI MOT PER ITSM. 
TT 



Meqatraveller 2 
Mickey's ABC or 123 25 
Mickey's ABC Combo 37 
Micro Cookbook 31 

Microleague F.B. Delux42 



BUSINESS & UTILITY 



Midnight Rescuo 
Migl^t & Magic 3 
Mike Dibia Football 
Milliken Storyteller 
Mixed up Fairy Tale 
Nigel's world 



Berenslain Bear Letters25 Hmja Turtle 

Bill Elliott NASCAR 31 Number Munctier 

Bo Jackson Baseball 31 

Castle ol Dr. Brain 31 

Castles 37 

Challenge Ancient EmpSl 

Ctiessmaster 3000 32 

Children Writ. & Publ. 42 

Chuck Yeager Air Cmb. 38 

Civilization 37 

Compl. Lottery Tracker 31 

Conan: The Cimmerian 31 

Conflict: Middle East 37 

Conquest ol Long Bow 37 

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Crossword Magic 4.0 32 

Crusaders Darls Savant 4 2 

Deluxe Painl II Enhanc.88 



Oregon Trail 

Once Upon a Time ea. 

Outnumbered 

Overlord 

P C Globe or USA 

P C Study Bible 

Personal Pro Golf 

PGA Golf 

Playroom w/ Sound 

Polics Quest 3 

Pools of Darkness 

Print Shop 

Print Shop Companion 31 

Print Shop Graphic {ea.)22 

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Reader Rabbit 2 37 

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Rise of the Dragon 37 

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Romance of 3 Kings 2 42 

Rules of Engagement 38 

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Secret Weapon Luttwaff38 

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Calendar Creator 

Carbon Copy 

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350 



47 
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35 
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4.0 49 
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Ad Lib Software avail.CAl.L 



Certificate Maker 

Check-itl 

Clarion Personal Devel. 

Colorix 

Copy II PC 

Corel Draw 2.0 



Sound Blaster 119 

Sound Blaster MCA 219 

Sound Blaster Prof. 195 

Sound Master II 149 

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Pro Audio Mutimedia 

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tfiundefboard 99 

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Roland MCB 105 
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Correct Grammar/Wind. 6 2 MQX-IS 
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124 Voyetra Sr-22/Pak 
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145 
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Joe Montana Football 3 1 
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Kings Quest V (VGA) 
Kings Quest V (EGA) 
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L'Empereur 
Legend of Faerghail 
Leisure Suit Larry I VGA37 
Leisure Suit Lar Bundle 5 4 
Leisure Suit Larry 5 37 
Lemmings 31 



32 
36 
37 
30 
41 
41 
36 
37 
37 
42 
31 
30 
37 
30 
30 



Harvard Graphics 3.0 375 

Hijaak 

Home Lawyer 

Info Select 

Label Pfo Laser or Dot 

Labels tJnlimiled 3.0 

Laplink IV Pro 

Lotus 1-2-3 v2.3 

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Math Type 

Microsoit Game Shop 



Spellcasling 201 

Spell- it Plus 
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37 Slickybear Math Tutor 
22 Slickybear Pre-School 
31 Slickybear Read. Tutor 30 

38 Street Rod 2 27 
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Team Yankee 37 
Terminator 35 

3 7 Tony LaRussa Baseball 32 

31 Treasure Mountain 31 

42 Treehouse 37 

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Ultima VII 48 

Ultrabols 37 

U.M.S. II 37 

U.S. Atlas 38 

Vengeance of Excalibur 30 

Warlords 32 



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Band in a Box 
Cadenza 
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Copyist App. 2.0 
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Music Printer Plus 
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129 
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129 
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169 
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419 
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65 
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CH Flightstlck 44 

CH Mach III 32 

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Money Counts 6.5 
Money Matters 
MS DOS 5.0 
MS DOS 5.0 Upgrade 
Norton Utilities 6.01 
Pagemaker 4.0 
PC An_ywheie IV 
PC DOS 5.0 Upgrade 
P C Kwik Powerpak 
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27 
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Links 37 Where is Carmen 

Links - Course disk 1 B in America's I 
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Magic Candle 2 38 in World (OeL 

Managers Challenge 26 Wing ComraanOe 

Gen, Mgr./Owners Disk 19 Windows Entert, Pak 

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Math Blaster Mystery 31 Word-Tris 

Math Blasler Plus 3 1 Wodd Atlas 

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in America's Past 36 

in Europe 

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Kraft KC3 1 e 

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Maxx Flight Pedal 39 

Quickshot Warrior 1 8 

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2 Player Game Card 1 5 

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CH Roller Mouse (serial)85 
CH 290 E Mouse 24 

Expert Mouse Serial 95 
Microsoft Bus Mouse f 15 
Microsoft Seriat Mouse 9 5 
Mouseman Cordless 135 
Mouseman Serial 69 

Trackman Serial 79 



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Frecom 96 One-Llner 
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Turbo Cad 2.0 82 

Winfax Pro 74 

Winiix 235 

Word Perfect 5.1 259 
X-Trea 89 



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Keyboard 1 2 

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Keyboard Skin 
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Sialic Pan ■ Keyboard 1 2 

Static Pad ■ System 1 5 



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PM 2400 Internal 129 
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Sportsler 2400 Exter. 1 49 
Zoom External 2400 89 
Zoom Internal 2400 7 9 

Complete 1/2 Pg Scan.l 85 
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Microtek 600G 829 

Mouse Sys.Pagebrush 165 
Niscan Scanner W/XR28S 
Scanman 32 160 

Scanman 256 265 

Scanman 256 MCA 349 



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Enplratlon date J-2-92 



in 



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control your general, cavalry, infanlry and artillery. Over 
900 troop locations. Use our 16 prc-sct battles or design 
your own. Deleat your opponent's general forlotal victory. 
VGA REQUIRED. Only S39.9S1 Frae shlpplngl Ortler nuwl 

1-B0G-265-55S5 

ViSa/MC or stnd ctiKk/MO to "Civtl War" 
#330, 736 - 8Dr Ave, S,W., Calgaty, Alberta. CansiJa T2P 1 H4 



MISCELLANEOUS 



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SOFTWARE 



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IBM-C64/128-APFLE PD 7 SHAREWARE - Free 
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SOFTWARE 



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COMPUTE Classified is a low-cost way to tell 
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Additional Information. Pl«8se read carefully. 
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U 



v 



For 30 years, cartoon ^ 
characters messed with 




...Plus music that'll bruise your 
eardrums. Which is why we aren't 
embarrassed to say... 

Suggciicd price; $59.95 • Visit your favorite software store or ordtt by calling 1-800-326-6654 



...W'lien it comes to Willy, 
"Nothing is weirder than he but 
thee". Or something. 



A q^nical Saturday morning 
cartoon for slightly twisted adults 



EDynairnix. - 






circle Reader Service Number 154